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A collection of HP-41 software that I deem most essential into one ROM
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README.md

README.md

hp-41_GEIR.ROM

This ROM (module) for the HP-41 calculator is a collection of the most essential programs, utilities and tools. It is what I need, and as my needs change, so will the content of this ROM. Some programs are FOCAL, others are MCODE. Some written by me and many copied from brilliant programmers since the inception of the HP-41 some 40 years ago.

This Readme file is the manual for thee ROM. It will change with the content of the ROM. The ROM version visible in the CAT 2 header will be incremented as content changes, whereas the ROM identifier ("GE1R") will not change, for obvious reasons.

When I have copied functions from often used ROMs (such as the CCD family of modules), I have changed the function names so as to not invoke any conflicts.

This ROM is a nice companion to the ISENE.ROM (https://github.com/isene/hp-41_isene-rom).

FOCAL programs

These programs come under the CAT 2 heading "-GEIR 1R"

"VIEWA"

From: PPC.ROM
Credits: Unknown

Description: A better AVIEW. It also prints to printer if it is present.

"VIEWF"

From: PPC.ROM
Credits: Keith Jarret, Roger Hill

Description: Prints to screen and printer the flags that aree set. See PPC.ROM manual p. 444 for more information.

"B-D"

From: PPC.ROM (called "BD")
Credits: George Eldridge, John Kennedy

Description: Converts a number from base 2-25 to decimal. This program was modified from the original (original description in the PPC.ROM manual p. 52). Enterthe number to be converted in Alpha and base in X. XEQ"B-D" leaves the decimal number in X. Converting further numbers of the same base to decimal only requires that you enter the number in Alpha and press "A". The base is already stored in Register 06.

"D-B"

From: PPC.ROM (called "TB")
Credits: George Eldridge, John Kennedy

Description: Converts a number from base 2-19 to decimal. This program was modified from the original (original description in the PPC.ROM manual p. 430). Enter the number to be converted in X, ENTER and the base. XEQ"D-B" leaves the converted number in Alpha. Converting further numbers to the same base only requires that you enter the number and press "B". The base is already stored in Register 06.

"H-D"

From: Add-on to the TB & BD routines from the PPC.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Converts a number from base 16 to decimal. Enter the number to be converted in Alpha. XEQ"H-D" leaves the decimal equivalent in X. Converting further numbers requires that you enter the number and press "A".

"T%"

Credits: Geir Isene

Description: A simple Total Percent routine using this formula: 100X/Y

"D%"

Credits: Geir Isene

Description: A simple Difference Percent routine using this formula: 100(X-Y)/X

"COMB"

Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Calculates the number of possible combinations of "n" objects taken "r" at a time. It is determined by the following formula:

C(n,r)=n!/((n−r)!r!)

"PERM"

Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Calculates the number of permutations of "n" objects taken "r" at a time (where the order of the items matters). It is determined by the following formula:

P(n,r)=n!/(n−r)!

"FACTOR"

From: http://hp41programs.yolasite.com/primes.php
Credits: Jean-Marc Baillard

Description: This program displays the factorization of any integer n (1 < n < E10) and returns sk(n) = the sum of the k-th powers of the divisors of n is in X-register and in R06, and phi(n) = the Euler function in Y-register and in R04. phi(n) is the number of integers not exceeding and relatively prime to n.

Example1:

  1 ENTER^ 
  3238704 XEQ "FACTOR" displays successively:
  3238704=2^4* 
  3238704=2^4*3^5* 
  3238704=2^4*3^5*7*2* 
  3238704=2^4*3*5*7^2*17^1 

If there are more than 24 characters, the left part of the alpha string will be gradually truncated

  s1(3238704) = 11577384 in X-register and in R06 
  phi(3238704) = 870912 in Y-register and in R04

Example2:

  7 ENTER^ 
  24 R/S produces: 24^1=2^3*3*1

  s7(24) = 4624699020 in registers X and R06 
  phi(24) = 8 in registers Y and R04

Example3:

  0 ENTER^ 
  999983 R/S yields  999983=999983^1 (in 42 seconds) thus, 999983 is prime

  s0(999983) = 2 in registers X and R04 
  phi(999983) = 999982 in registers Y and R06 

Notes:

If N is a prime, execution time is approximately N1/2 / 25 seconds. The greatest prime < E10 is 9999999967 (1h06m with an HP-41CX) If you set flag F21, the program will stop at each AVIEW. s0(n) is the number of divisors of n. s1(n) is the sum of the divisors of n.

"LUHN"

Credits: Geir Isene, Dieter

Description: This program validates credit cards numbers, IMEI numbers, National Provider Identifier numbers in the United States, Canadian Social Insurance Numbers, Israel ID Numbers and Greek Social Security Numbers (ΑΜΚΑ). See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luhn_algorithm

Enter the number to be validated into ALPHA and do XEQ "LUHN" to have "VALID" or "INVALID" displayed.

Thanks to Dieter for simplifying the code.

"RNR"

From: https://edspi31415.blogspot.no/2018/04/hp-prime-hp-41c-ti-58c-round-to-nearest.html
Credits: Edward Shore, Dieter (simplified the original program)

Description: The program rounds a number x to the nearest 1/n (RNR = "Round to NeaRest). For example, to round x to the nearest 10th, n = 10. To round to the nearest 16th, n = 16.

Enter the number to be rounded, press ENTER and enter "n". Press XEQ "RNR" and the rounded number is returned in x.

"RAND"

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: This program returns a random number between 0 and 1. This Random Number Generator uses TIME as input, rendering the numbers generated “more random” than the usual HP-41 solutions that keeps a seed stored for the next value generated. If there is no Time module, RAND instead takes the value in X and Y as seeds.

"BEEPY"

From: PPC.ROM
Credits: Cary Reinstein

Description: An alternative to the HP-41 BEEP.

MCODE functions

These are machine language (assembly) programs and thus much faster than equivalent RPN FOCAL programs.

--GEN UTILS

This is the CAT 2 header for the general utilities section.

APROMPT

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: Use the String in Alpha to create the prompt - after user input, leaving only what the user enters in Alpha. In the CCD OS/X module this function is called PMTA.

MENU

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: Uses what is in Alpha as a prompt and menu. Example: "INPT A3F8YN" in Alpha, MENU will then stop and display this in Alpha waiting for the user to press a key. Only the keys "A", "3", "F", "8", "Y" and "N" are valid (other keys are unresponsive). When the user enters one of those keys, the program resumes and the menu index is left in X (i.e. 1 in X if the useer pressed "A", 2 in X if the user pressed "3" and so on). This makes for easy branching if you do GTO IND X. Add something to X if you want to use several MENUs throughout your program.

HEXPRMT

From: ICEBOX.ROM, MCODE for Beginners
Credits: Ken Emry

Description: Direct entry of Non-normalized numbers using its byte’s HEX codes. Similar to CODE or HEX>NNN but interactive. HXENTRY stores the input code into Alpha as well as returning the NNN into X. Enables only the keys of the HEX keyboard (0-9 and A-F).

HEXINPT

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: HÅkan Thörngren, PPCJ,V13N4 p13

Description: Direct entry of Non-normalized numbers using its byte’s HEX codes. Similar to CODE or HEX>NNN but interactive. HEXIN allows for a prompt message, if the alpha register contains any string before the function is executed. Enables only the keys of the HEX keyboard (0-9 and A-F).

WORDSZ

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: The current word size is defined with the function WORDSZ. Its value is stored in a dedicated Buffer (with id#-5), from where it’s read in every required instance. The default setup (and the one after a MEMORY LOST condition) is word size = 8

ARCLHEX

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: Appends the hex equivalent of the number in the X register to the contents of the ALPHA register.

VIEWHEX

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: The function VIEWHEX shows (views) the hexadecimal equivalent of the number in X – in accordance to the current sign mode and word size. The value must lie within the allowed range or otherwise a “DATA ERROR” message will be put up. Alpha data in X generates the “ALPHA DATA” error condition. For numbers with a hex representation with fewer digits than the current word size is set for, leading zeros are placed in the most significant digits.

A<>R

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: This function swaps the content of the Alpha register with four register in RAM memory (the normal register). You can tell the function which registers you want as target register by setting flags 0-3. Please refer to the function X<>F to learn what the combinations of flags means. Example: Setting flags 0 and 1 will make register 03 the starting register for swapping. The four register that is swapped with Alpha are always consecutive (so in the example above, register 03-06 will be used).

ST<>R

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: This function swaps the content of the Stack registers with five registers in RAM memory (the normal register). You can tell the function which registers you want as target register by setting flags 0-3. Please refer to the function X<>F to learn what the combinations of flags means. Example: Setting flags 2 and 3 will make register 12 the starting register for swapping. The five register that is swapped with Stack are always consecutive (so in the example above, register 12-16 will be used).

YN?

From: Paname module

Description: Stops program execution, waits for the user to press either "Y" or "N". Skips next line if "N" is pressed. This routine displays the content of Alpha before waiting for an "Y" or "N" pressed by the user (the Paname version does not display the content of Alpha).

INVF

From: MCODE for Beginners
Credits: Ken Emry

Description: Inverts/toggles any HP-41 flag.

PCOPY

From: NEXT.ROM
Credits: Sebastian Toelg

Description: Programmable version of mainframe function COPY. Program name must be given in ALPHA. If ALPHA is empty, then current ROM program is copied. This function is useful to automatically copy (several) programs from ROM page (e.g. from ROM modules, Flash-ROM or HEPAX memory) to main memory RAM.

VMANT

From: NEXT.ROM
Credits: Sebastian Toelg (Ken Emry; extended from MCODE for Beginners p.93)

Description: View (display and print in NORM & TRACE mode) mantissa with all 10 digits.

--ALPHA

This is the CAT 2 header for the Alpha utilities section.

ANUMDEL

From: ALPHA.ROM
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: It gets the number in Alpha and deletes everything in lpha up to and including that number.

ADELR

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: It deletes the rightmost character in Alpha.

CLASPC

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: Deletes everything in Alpha after the first Space character (" "). From the CCD OS/X ("CLA-").

ARCLXI

From: CCD OS/X
Credits: W&W GmbH

Description: Appends to Alpha the integer value of the number in X.

--MATH

This is the CAT 2 header for the math section.

D>F

From: SANDMATH module
Credits: Frans de Vries (DataFile, DF V9N7 p.8)

Description: D>F is the key function within this group. Shows in the display the smallest possible fraction that results in the decimal number in X, for the current display precision set. Change the display precision as appropriate to adjust the accuracy of the results. This means the fraction obtained may be different depending on the settings, returning different results. For example, the following approximations are found for π:

  pi ~ 104348/33215 FIX 9, FIX 8 and FIX 7
  pi ~ 355/113 FIX 6, FIX 5 and FIX 4

This function uses the same algorithm as the PPC ROM “DF” routine.

As per the fraction arithmetic functions, there’s not much to say about them – apart from the fact that they use the four stack levels to enter both fractions components (the inputted values are expected to be all integers), and return the numerator and denominator of the result fraction in registers Y and X respectively. In RUN mode the execution continues to show the fraction result in ALPHA, according to the currently set number of decimals.

The fraction arithmetic functions can be used in chained calculations, there’s no need to re-enter the intermediate results, and the Stack enabled makes unnecessary to press ENTER^. Notice that fractions are entered using the Numerator first.

To re-calculate the fraction after changing the decimal settings just press the divide key, followed by D>F to re-generate the fraction values.

For example calculate 2/7 over 4/13, then add 9/17 to the result:

2, ENTER^, 7, ENTER^, 4, ENTER^, 13, F/ , 9 ENTER^, 17, F+ => 347/238

F-

From: SANDMATH module
Credits: Ángel Martin

Description: Subtracts the fraction T/Z from the fraction Y/X.

F+

From: SANDMATH module
Credits: Ángel Martin

Description: Adds the fraction T/Z from the fraction Y/X.

F/

From: SANDMATH module
Credits: Ángel Martin

Description: Divides the fraction T/Z by the fraction Y/X.

F*

From: SANDMATH module
Credits: Ángel Martin

Description: Multiplies the fraction T/Z by the fraction Y/X.

--MCODE

This is the CAT 2 header for the MCODE utilities section.

GROM

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Jumps directly to the ROM address given in X (in NNN). DO NOT USE THIS unless you know what you are doing. This is a dangerously powerful function.

RROM

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Takes an address in X (in NNN format - use HEX>NNN to take an address in ALPHA and convert it to NNN format in X) and returns the NNN value from that address in Y (use NNN>HEX to get the hex value in ALPHA). The address in the X register is incremented by one (makes it easy to view the ROM instruction-by-instruction).

SROM

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Executing SROM will start the search immediately after the address you entered into X. It will return the address into X where it finds the first occurrence of the search word. You can then execute SROM again to find the next occurrence etc. SROM will stop when it reaches the end of the block and return the start address of the next block (by again executing SROM, it will continue into the next block).

WROM

From: ICEBOX.ROM
Credits: Geir Isene

Description: Takes an address in X and the value to write to that address in Y (both in NNN). This can only be used to write to EPROM RAM.

HEX>VSM

From: MCODE for Beginners
Credits: Ken Emery

Description: Routine to convert ROM address from HEX to the VASM Octal format used by HP. Input fields are automatically separated by the function, and the keyboard only admits numbers appropriate of the origin base (Hex or Octal).

VSM>HEX

From: MCODE for Beginners
Credits: Ken Emery

Description: Routine to convert ROM address from the VASM Octal format used by HP to HEX. Input fields are automatically separated by the function, and the keyboard only admits numbers appropriate of the origin base (Hex or Octal).

Notes

GEIR.ROM was easily created with Håkan Thörngren's NutStudio.

A massive credit goes to Ángel Martin for is immense insight, inspiration and production of MCODE works.

License

This software is released into the Public Domain.

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