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Bootstrapping the Kubernetes Worker Nodes

In this lab you will bootstrap three Kubernetes worker nodes. The following components will be installed on each node: runc, container networking plugins, cri-containerd, kubelet, and kube-proxy.

Prerequisites

The commands in this lab must be run on each worker instance: worker-0, worker-1, and worker-2. Azure Metadata Instace service cannot be used to set custom property. We have used tags on each worker VM to defined POD-CIDR used later.

Retrieve the POD CIDR range for the current compute instance and keep it for later.

az vm show -g kubernetes --name worker-0 --query "tags" -o tsv

output

10.200.0.0/24

Login to each worker instance using the az command to find its public IP and ssh to it. Example:

WORKER="worker-0"
PUBLIC_IP_ADDRESS=$(az network public-ip show -g kubernetes \
  -n ${WORKER}-pip --query "ipAddress" -otsv)

ssh $(whoami)@${PUBLIC_IP_ADDRESS}

Running commands in parallel with tmux

tmux can be used to run commands on multiple compute instances at the same time. See the Running commands in parallel with tmux section in the Prerequisites lab.

Provisioning a Kubernetes Worker Node

Install the OS dependencies:

{
  sudo apt-get update
  sudo apt-get -y install socat conntrack ipset
}

The socat binary enables support for the kubectl port-forward command.

Download and Install Worker Binaries

wget -q --show-progress --https-only --timestamping \
  https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/cri-tools/releases/download/v1.12.0/crictl-v1.12.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-the-hard-way/runsc-50c283b9f56bb7200938d9e207355f05f79f0d17 \
  https://github.com/opencontainers/runc/releases/download/v1.0.0-rc5/runc.amd64 \
  https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v0.6.0/cni-plugins-amd64-v0.6.0.tgz \
  https://github.com/containerd/containerd/releases/download/v1.2.0-rc.0/containerd-1.2.0-rc.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.12.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.12.0/bin/linux/amd64/kube-proxy \
  https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/v1.12.0/bin/linux/amd64/kubelet

Create the installation directories:

sudo mkdir -p \
  /etc/cni/net.d \
  /opt/cni/bin \
  /var/lib/kubelet \
  /var/lib/kube-proxy \
  /var/lib/kubernetes \
  /var/run/kubernetes

Install the worker binaries:

{
  sudo mv runsc-50c283b9f56bb7200938d9e207355f05f79f0d17 runsc
  sudo mv runc.amd64 runc
  chmod +x kubectl kube-proxy kubelet runc runsc
  sudo mv kubectl kube-proxy kubelet runc runsc /usr/local/bin/
  sudo tar -xvf crictl-v1.12.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/bin/
  sudo tar -xvf cni-plugins-amd64-v0.6.0.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin/
  sudo tar -xvf containerd-1.2.0-rc.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /
}

Configure CNI Networking

Create the bridge network configuration file replacing POD_CIDR with address retrieved initially from Azure VM tags: (Note: The Azure Metadata Instance Service is used to retrieve the POD_CIDR tag for each worker. https://github.com/MicrosoftDocs/azure-docs/blob/master/articles/virtual-machines/windows/instance-metadata-service.md)

POD_CIDR="$(echo $(curl --silent -H Metadata:true "http://169.254.169.254/metadata/instance/compute/tags?api-version=2017-08-01&format=text") | cut -d : -f2)"
cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/cni/net.d/10-bridge.conf
{
    "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
    "name": "bridge",
    "type": "bridge",
    "bridge": "cnio0",
    "isGateway": true,
    "ipMasq": true,
    "ipam": {
        "type": "host-local",
        "ranges": [
          [{"subnet": "${POD_CIDR}"}]
        ],
        "routes": [{"dst": "0.0.0.0/0"}]
    }
}
EOF

Create the loopback network configuration file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/cni/net.d/99-loopback.conf
{
    "cniVersion": "0.3.1",
    "type": "loopback"
}
EOF

Configure containerd

Create the containerd configuration file:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/containerd/
cat << EOF | sudo tee /etc/containerd/config.toml
[plugins]
  [plugins.cri.containerd]
    snapshotter = "overlayfs"
    [plugins.cri.containerd.default_runtime]
      runtime_type = "io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux"
      runtime_engine = "/usr/local/bin/runc"
      runtime_root = ""
    [plugins.cri.containerd.untrusted_workload_runtime]
      runtime_type = "io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux"
      runtime_engine = "/usr/local/bin/runsc"
      runtime_root = "/run/containerd/runsc"
    [plugins.cri.containerd.gvisor]
      runtime_type = "io.containerd.runtime.v1.linux"
      runtime_engine = "/usr/local/bin/runsc"
      runtime_root = "/run/containerd/runsc"
EOF

Untrusted workloads will be run using the gVisor (runsc) runtime.

Create the containerd.service systemd unit file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/containerd.service
[Unit]
Description=containerd container runtime
Documentation=https://containerd.io
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStartPre=/sbin/modprobe overlay
ExecStart=/bin/containerd
Restart=always
RestartSec=5
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
OOMScoreAdjust=-999
LimitNOFILE=1048576
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Configure the Kubelet

{
  sudo mv ${HOSTNAME}-key.pem ${HOSTNAME}.pem /var/lib/kubelet/
  sudo mv ${HOSTNAME}.kubeconfig /var/lib/kubelet/kubeconfig
  sudo mv ca.pem /var/lib/kubernetes/
}

Create the kubelet-config.yaml configuration file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /var/lib/kubelet/kubelet-config.yaml
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: "/var/lib/kubernetes/ca.pem"
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
clusterDomain: "cluster.local"
clusterDNS:
  - "10.32.0.10"
podCIDR: "${POD_CIDR}"
resolvConf: "/run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf"
runtimeRequestTimeout: "15m"
tlsCertFile: "/var/lib/kubelet/${HOSTNAME}.pem"
tlsPrivateKeyFile: "/var/lib/kubelet/${HOSTNAME}-key.pem"
EOF

The resolvConf configuration is used to avoid loops when using CoreDNS for service discovery on systems running systemd-resolved.

Create the kubelet.service systemd unit file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
After=containerd.service
Requires=containerd.service

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kubelet \\
  --config=/var/lib/kubelet/kubelet-config.yaml \\
  --container-runtime=remote \\
  --container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///var/run/containerd/containerd.sock \\
  --image-pull-progress-deadline=2m \\
  --kubeconfig=/var/lib/kubelet/kubeconfig \\
  --network-plugin=cni \\
  --register-node=true \\
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Configure the Kubernetes Proxy

sudo mv kube-proxy.kubeconfig /var/lib/kube-proxy/kubeconfig

Create the kube-proxy-config.yaml configuration file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /var/lib/kube-proxy/kube-proxy-config.yaml
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: "/var/lib/kube-proxy/kubeconfig"
mode: "iptables"
clusterCIDR: "10.200.0.0/16"
EOF

Create the kube-proxy.service systemd unit file:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube Proxy
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/kube-proxy \\
  --config=/var/lib/kube-proxy/kube-proxy-config.yaml
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

Start the Worker Services

{
  sudo systemctl daemon-reload
  sudo systemctl enable containerd kubelet kube-proxy
  sudo systemctl start containerd kubelet kube-proxy
}

Remember to run the above commands on each worker node: worker-0, worker-1, and worker-2.

Verification

Login to one of the controller nodes:

CONTROLLER="controller-0"
PUBLIC_IP_ADDRESS=$(az network public-ip show -g kubernetes \
  -n ${CONTROLLER}-pip --query "ipAddress" -otsv)

ssh $(whoami)@${PUBLIC_IP_ADDRESS}

List the registered Kubernetes nodes:

kubectl get nodes

output

NAME       STATUS    AGE       VERSION
worker-0   Ready     5m        v1.10.2
worker-1   Ready     3m        v1.10.2
worker-2   Ready     7s        v1.10.2

Next: Configuring kubectl for Remote Access