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/*
* Copyright (c) 2003-2011 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
*
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
* of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
* in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
* to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
*
* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
* all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
*
* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
* IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
* FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
* AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
* LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
* OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
* SOFTWARE.
*/
#ifndef AO_ATOMIC_OPS_H
#define AO_ATOMIC_OPS_H
#include "atomic_ops/ao_version.h"
/* Define version numbers here to allow */
/* test on build machines for cross-builds. */
#include <assert.h>
#include <stddef.h>
/* We define various atomic operations on memory in a */
/* machine-specific way. Unfortunately, this is complicated */
/* by the fact that these may or may not be combined with */
/* various memory barriers. Thus the actual operations we */
/* define have the form AO_<atomic-op>_<barrier>, for all */
/* plausible combinations of <atomic-op> and <barrier>. */
/* This of course results in a mild combinatorial explosion. */
/* To deal with it, we try to generate derived */
/* definitions for as many of the combinations as we can, as */
/* automatically as possible. */
/* */
/* Our assumption throughout is that the programmer will */
/* specify the least demanding operation and memory barrier */
/* that will guarantee correctness for the implementation. */
/* Our job is to find the least expensive way to implement it */
/* on the applicable hardware. In many cases that will */
/* involve, for example, a stronger memory barrier, or a */
/* combination of hardware primitives. */
/* */
/* Conventions: */
/* "plain" atomic operations are not guaranteed to include */
/* a barrier. The suffix in the name specifies the barrier */
/* type. Suffixes are: */
/* _release: Earlier operations may not be delayed past it. */
/* _acquire: Later operations may not move ahead of it. */
/* _read: Subsequent reads must follow this operation and */
/* preceding reads. */
/* _write: Earlier writes precede both this operation and */
/* later writes. */
/* _full: Ordered with respect to both earlier and later memory */
/* operations. */
/* _release_write: Ordered with respect to earlier writes. */
/* _acquire_read: Ordered with respect to later reads. */
/* */
/* Currently we try to define the following atomic memory */
/* operations, in combination with the above barriers: */
/* AO_nop */
/* AO_load */
/* AO_store */
/* AO_test_and_set (binary) */
/* AO_fetch_and_add */
/* AO_fetch_and_add1 */
/* AO_fetch_and_sub1 */
/* AO_and */
/* AO_or */
/* AO_xor */
/* AO_compare_and_swap */
/* AO_fetch_compare_and_swap */
/* */
/* Note that atomicity guarantees are valid only if both */
/* readers and writers use AO_ operations to access the */
/* shared value, while ordering constraints are intended to */
/* apply all memory operations. If a location can potentially */
/* be accessed simultaneously from multiple threads, and one of */
/* those accesses may be a write access, then all such */
/* accesses to that location should be through AO_ primitives. */
/* However if AO_ operations enforce sufficient ordering to */
/* ensure that a location x cannot be accessed concurrently, */
/* or can only be read concurrently, then x can be accessed */
/* via ordinary references and assignments. */
/* */
/* AO_compare_and_swap takes an address and an expected old */
/* value and a new value, and returns an int. Non-zero result */
/* indicates that it succeeded. */
/* AO_fetch_compare_and_swap takes an address and an expected */
/* old value and a new value, and returns the real old value. */
/* The operation succeeded if and only if the expected old */
/* value matches the old value returned. */
/* */
/* Test_and_set takes an address, atomically replaces it by */
/* AO_TS_SET, and returns the prior value. */
/* An AO_TS_t location can be reset with the */
/* AO_CLEAR macro, which normally uses AO_store_release. */
/* AO_fetch_and_add takes an address and an AO_t increment */
/* value. The AO_fetch_and_add1 and AO_fetch_and_sub1 variants */
/* are provided, since they allow faster implementations on */
/* some hardware. AO_and, AO_or, AO_xor do atomically and, or, */
/* xor (respectively) an AO_t value into a memory location, */
/* but do not provide access to the original. */
/* */
/* We expect this list to grow slowly over time. */
/* */
/* Note that AO_nop_full is a full memory barrier. */
/* */
/* Note that if some data is initialized with */
/* data.x = ...; data.y = ...; ... */
/* AO_store_release_write(&data_is_initialized, 1) */
/* then data is guaranteed to be initialized after the test */
/* if (AO_load_release_read(&data_is_initialized)) ... */
/* succeeds. Furthermore, this should generate near-optimal */
/* code on all common platforms. */
/* */
/* All operations operate on unsigned AO_t, which */
/* is the natural word size, and usually unsigned long. */
/* It is possible to check whether a particular operation op */
/* is available on a particular platform by checking whether */
/* AO_HAVE_op is defined. We make heavy use of these macros */
/* internally. */
/* The rest of this file basically has three sections: */
/* */
/* Some utility and default definitions. */
/* */
/* The architecture dependent section: */
/* This defines atomic operations that have direct hardware */
/* support on a particular platform, mostly by including the */
/* appropriate compiler- and hardware-dependent file. */
/* */
/* The synthesis section: */
/* This tries to define other atomic operations in terms of */
/* those that are explicitly available on the platform. */
/* This section is hardware independent. */
/* We make no attempt to synthesize operations in ways that */
/* effectively introduce locks, except for the debugging/demo */
/* pthread-based implementation at the beginning. A more */
/* realistic implementation that falls back to locks could be */
/* added as a higher layer. But that would sacrifice */
/* usability from signal handlers. */
/* The synthesis section is implemented almost entirely in */
/* atomic_ops_generalize.h. */
/* Some common defaults. Overridden for some architectures. */
#define AO_t size_t
/* The test_and_set primitive returns an AO_TS_VAL_t value. */
/* AO_TS_t is the type of an in-memory test-and-set location. */
#define AO_TS_INITIALIZER (AO_t)AO_TS_CLEAR
/* Platform-dependent stuff: */
#if (defined(__GNUC__) || defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) \
|| defined(__DMC__) || defined(__WATCOMC__)) && !defined(AO_NO_INLINE)
# define AO_INLINE static __inline
#elif defined(__sun) && !defined(AO_NO_INLINE)
# define AO_INLINE static inline
#else
# define AO_INLINE static
#endif
#if __GNUC__ >= 3 && !defined(LINT2)
# define AO_EXPECT_FALSE(expr) __builtin_expect(expr, 0)
/* Equivalent to (expr) but predict that usually (expr) == 0. */
#else
# define AO_EXPECT_FALSE(expr) (expr)
#endif /* !__GNUC__ */
#if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(__INTEL_COMPILER)
# define AO_compiler_barrier() __asm__ __volatile__("" : : : "memory")
#elif defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__DMC__) || defined(__BORLANDC__) \
|| defined(__WATCOMC__)
# if defined(_AMD64_) || defined(_M_X64) || _MSC_VER >= 1400
# if defined(_WIN32_WCE)
/* # include <cmnintrin.h> */
# elif defined(_MSC_VER)
# include <intrin.h>
# endif
# pragma intrinsic(_ReadWriteBarrier)
# define AO_compiler_barrier() _ReadWriteBarrier()
/* We assume this does not generate a fence instruction. */
/* The documentation is a bit unclear. */
# else
# define AO_compiler_barrier() __asm { }
/* The preceding implementation may be preferable here too. */
/* But the documentation warns about VC++ 2003 and earlier. */
# endif
#elif defined(__INTEL_COMPILER)
# define AO_compiler_barrier() __memory_barrier()
/* FIXME: Too strong? IA64-only? */
#elif defined(_HPUX_SOURCE)
# if defined(__ia64)
# include <machine/sys/inline.h>
# define AO_compiler_barrier() _Asm_sched_fence()
# else
/* FIXME - We dont know how to do this. This is a guess. */
/* And probably a bad one. */
static volatile int AO_barrier_dummy;
# define AO_compiler_barrier() (void)(AO_barrier_dummy = AO_barrier_dummy)
# endif
#else
/* We conjecture that the following usually gives us the right */
/* semantics or an error. */
# define AO_compiler_barrier() asm("")
#endif
#if defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/generic_pthread.h"
#endif /* AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS */
#if (defined(__CC_ARM) || defined(__ARMCC__)) && !defined(__GNUC__) \
&& !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/armcc/arm_v6.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
#endif
#if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS) \
&& !defined(__INTEL_COMPILER)
# if defined(__i386__)
/* We don't define AO_USE_SYNC_CAS_BUILTIN for x86 here because */
/* it might require specifying additional options (like -march) */
/* or additional link libraries (if -march is not specified). */
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/x86.h"
# endif /* __i386__ */
# if defined(__x86_64__)
# if (__GNUC__ > 4 || (__GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 2)) \
&& !defined(AO_USE_SYNC_CAS_BUILTIN)
/* It is safe to use __sync CAS built-in on this architecture. */
# define AO_USE_SYNC_CAS_BUILTIN
# endif
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/x86_64.h"
# endif /* __x86_64__ */
# if defined(__ia64__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/ia64.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif /* __ia64__ */
# if defined(__hppa__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/hppa.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
# endif /* __hppa__ */
# if defined(__alpha__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/alpha.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif /* __alpha__ */
# if defined(__s390__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/s390.h"
# endif /* __s390__ */
# if defined(__sparc__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/sparc.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
# endif /* __sparc__ */
# if defined(__m68k__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/m68k.h"
# endif /* __m68k__ */
# if defined(__powerpc__) || defined(__ppc__) || defined(__PPC__) \
|| defined(__powerpc64__) || defined(__ppc64__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/powerpc.h"
# endif /* __powerpc__ */
# if defined(__arm__) && !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/arm.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
# endif /* __arm__ */
# if defined(__cris__) || defined(CRIS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/cris.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif
# if defined(__mips__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/mips.h"
# endif /* __mips__ */
# if defined(__sh__) || defined(SH4)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/sh.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
# endif /* __sh__ */
# if defined(__avr32__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/avr32.h"
# endif
# if defined(__hexagon__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/hexagon.h"
# endif
#endif /* __GNUC__ && !AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS */
#if (defined(__IBMC__) || defined(__IBMCPP__)) && !defined(__GNUC__) \
&& !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# if defined(__powerpc__) || defined(__powerpc) || defined(__ppc__) \
|| defined(__PPC__) || defined(_M_PPC) || defined(_ARCH_PPC) \
|| defined(_ARCH_PWR)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/ibmc/powerpc.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif
#endif
#if defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) && !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# if defined(__ia64__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/icc/ia64.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif
# if defined(__GNUC__)
/* Intel Compiler in GCC compatible mode */
# if defined(__i386__)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/x86.h"
# endif /* __i386__ */
# if defined(__x86_64__)
# if (__INTEL_COMPILER > 1110) && !defined(AO_USE_SYNC_CAS_BUILTIN)
# define AO_USE_SYNC_CAS_BUILTIN
# endif
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/gcc/x86_64.h"
# endif /* __x86_64__ */
# endif
#endif
#if defined(_HPUX_SOURCE) && !defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# if defined(__ia64)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/hpc/ia64.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# else
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/hpc/hppa.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
# endif
#endif
#if defined(_MSC_VER) || defined(__DMC__) || defined(__BORLANDC__) \
|| (defined(__WATCOMC__) && defined(__NT__))
# if defined(_AMD64_) || defined(_M_X64)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/msftc/x86_64.h"
# elif defined(_M_IX86) || defined(x86)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/msftc/x86.h"
# elif defined(_M_ARM) || defined(ARM) || defined(_ARM_)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/msftc/arm.h"
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif
#endif
#if defined(__sun) && !defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
/* Note: use -DAO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS if Sun CC does not handle inline asm. */
# if defined(__i386)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/sunc/x86.h"
# endif /* __i386 */
# if defined(__x86_64) || defined(__amd64)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/sunc/x86_64.h"
# endif /* __x86_64 */
#endif
#if !defined(__GNUC__) && (defined(sparc) || defined(__sparc)) \
&& !defined(AO_USE_PTHREAD_DEFS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/sunc/sparc.h"
# define AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS
#endif
#if defined(AO_REQUIRE_CAS) && !defined(AO_HAVE_compare_and_swap) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_fetch_compare_and_swap) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_compare_and_swap_full) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_fetch_compare_and_swap_full) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_compare_and_swap_acquire) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_fetch_compare_and_swap_acquire)
# if defined(AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS)
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/emul_cas.h"
# else
# error Cannot implement AO_compare_and_swap_full on this architecture.
# endif
#endif /* AO_REQUIRE_CAS && !AO_HAVE_compare_and_swap ... */
/* The most common way to clear a test-and-set location */
/* at the end of a critical section. */
#if AO_AO_TS_T && !defined(AO_CLEAR)
# define AO_CLEAR(addr) AO_store_release((AO_TS_t *)(addr), AO_TS_CLEAR)
#endif
#if AO_CHAR_TS_T && !defined(AO_CLEAR)
# define AO_CLEAR(addr) AO_char_store_release((AO_TS_t *)(addr), AO_TS_CLEAR)
#endif
/* The generalization section. */
#if !defined(AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE) && defined(AO_CAN_EMUL_CAS) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_compare_and_swap_full) \
&& !defined(AO_HAVE_fetch_compare_and_swap_full)
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
#endif
/* Theoretically we should repeatedly include atomic_ops_generalize.h. */
/* In fact, we observe that this converges after a small fixed number */
/* of iterations, usually one. */
#include "atomic_ops/generalize.h"
#ifdef AO_T_IS_INT
/* Included after the first generalization pass. */
# include "atomic_ops/sysdeps/ao_t_is_int.h"
# ifndef AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
/* Always generalize again. */
# define AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# endif
#endif /* AO_T_IS_INT */
#ifdef AO_GENERALIZE_TWICE
# include "atomic_ops/generalize.h"
#endif
/* For compatibility with version 0.4 and earlier */
#define AO_TS_T AO_TS_t
#define AO_T AO_t
#define AO_TS_VAL AO_TS_VAL_t
#endif /* !AO_ATOMIC_OPS_H */
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