What is Augmented Reality?
Augmented Reality (AR) is the integration of digital content over a live view of the world. This is usually implemented as a live video feed featuring overimposed computer generated objects so as to appear to actually be in the real world.
There are two types of AR applications:
- Based on image recognition: Computer objects are integrated according to cues that result from image recognition. This can be aided by "fiduciary images", which are physical images added to the scene that the application has been previously taught to recognize. The input to the application is a video feed.
- Based on location: The application adds metadata about the object you are pointing your camera to. The input to the application is the geographical location of the device and the POIs (points of interest, eg: a monument), and the physical orientation of the device.
In both cases the challenge is to track the orientation of the device, which depends on where the user looks to (eg: north), and how the user holds it in his hand.
The minimum device capabilities required to implement AR are:
- A-GPS to report the geographical location.
- Compass to report the bearing.
- Accelerometers to report the 3D orientation of the device (eg: laying flat on the table).
- A camera able to overlay computer generated objects.
AR enabled Apple devices are iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, or iPad 2.
- Geolocate the user position (from AGPS).
- Geolocate the POI (point of interest) position (use Google's geocoding API).
- Calculate the distance between the user and the POI.
You can calculate the distance along the surface of a sphere (aka "great circle distance") using the haversine formula. However, the curvature of the earth has little impact on the distance we are able to walk while looking at our phone, so a simpler alternative is to pretend that we are using cartesian coordinates and just apply the pythagorean theorem.
- Calculate the angle from the user to the POI as atan2(dy/dx) where y=latitude, x=longitude.
- Calculate the offset between the compass bearing and the angle to the POI.
- Let's say we want to overimpose a marker on the video feed pointing to the POI.
- If the offset is 0º (the user is heading directly at the POI) then paint the marker in the middle of the screen. Otherwise use the offset to move it an amount of pixels equal to "offset * (screen_width / horizontal_field_vision)".
- Scale the marker according to the distance, with a minimum and maximum distance.
Updating the heading with the gyroscope
The heading comes from the Compass, which is implemented using the Hall effect (a magnetic field perpendicular to an electrical conductor causes a voltage difference). This sensor updates slowly, so the marker may take a second to start dragging in the direction we are moving.
To improve the responsiveness to changes in heading we can use the gyroscope. The gyroscope measures angular velocity (rotation rate). So if we are at 90º and we move west at 10º/s during 9 seconds, we end up at 180º. The gyroscope updates faster than the compass, but it's not completely accurate, so we need to reset the resulting heading periodically using the compass.
The orientation of the device in the axis X,Y,Z is given by the accelerometer. This sensor is often represented as a ball with two springs attachd per each of the three axis. The rotation in one of the axis is the arc tan of the other two, eg: rotation Z = atan2(x,y).
Unfortunately the accelerometer signal has a lot of noise, so it needs to be digitally filtered. A popular filter is the low-pass adaptive filter, which you can get from the AccelerometerGraph sample project from Apple. This filter makes the signal more resilient to sudden changes, but this has also the effect of making it less responsive.
As with the compass, we can use the gyroscopes to update the signal, and the accelerometer to reset to a good orientation.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_principal_axes if you don't know what pitch is.
When we rotate the device in any direction we are also changing the frame of reference for the compass. If we just pitch the device, we just have to add the pitch in degrees to the offset to the target to keep the marker correctly oriented.
....to be continued
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