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Neo4j is a graph database, a NOSQL datastore that uses nodes and relationships between nodes to effectively and accurately model a domain. A good introduction to graph databases and their uses can be found at http://blog.everymansoftware.com/2011/06/neo4j-for-php.html. More in-depth information and examples can be found on the Neo4j website, though the examples are all in Java.
The goal of neo4jphp is to provide you with access to all the functionality of the Neo4j REST API via PHP. It does not provide a one-to-one correspondence with the REST API calls; instead, the REST interface is abstracted away so that you can concentrate on modelling your application's domain in nodes and relationships. neo4jphp provides an API that is both intuitive and flexible, and it takes advantage of "under-the-hood" performance enhancements, such as caching and lazy-loading.