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What are the pieces involved in running these demos?

Normally when you have a switch in a production setting, you would have a physical switch device, often consisting of a switch ASIC plus a nearby general purpose CPU (e.g. Intel, PowerPC, etc.) running control plane software that manages the contents of the tables in the switch ASIC. The switch ASIC would be connected to physical Ethernet ports, and those in turn would be connected to ports on other switches, or to Ethernet ports on hosts. The control plane software in commercial switches can easily contain up to tens of millions of lines of source code, and be developed and maintained by teams of hundreds of developers.

However, the purpose of these demos is not to teach you how to set that up. The focus here is on learning how P4 programs behave, by using a P4 program for processing data packets, and running it on an open source switch emulator software called simple_switch (or the similar program simple_switch_grpc, but we will often simply say simple_switch here to refer to either program).

Instead of loading the compiled P4 program into a switch ASIC, you will start up the simple_switch process as a normal process running on a Linux machine (or virtual machine).

Instead of physically connecting multiple devices to each other via Ethernet cables, we will create 'virtual' Ethernet ports on your Linux machine, and tell simple_switch to treat every packet sent to one of those virtual Ethernet ports as one that arrived at the software emulated switch, and it will process the packet via the P4 program. Any packets sent out by the emulated switch will be transmitted to one of those virtual Ethernet ports. A virtual Ethernet port simply means it is not a physical Ethernet port, but instead one created purely via a configuration command. We use them here because they are cheap.

There are existing open source tools for monitoring all packets that go across an Ethernet port of a system (regardless of whether that Ethernet port is physical or virtual), and print out some or all of the contents of those packets in various formats. Search for tcpdump or tshark below for example commands to run those programs.

There are also multiple open source tools for constructing packets in memory, or reading them from files, and transmitting them on Ethernet ports. The instructions here show a few examples of how to use a Python library called Scapy for that purpose. tcpreplay is another open source program that can read packets from a file in pcap format and send them to a port.

Instead of running a complex collection of control plane software, you will be running simple programs that give you complete control over exactly which table entries are added to the tables of your P4 program.

  • If you use the newer P4Runtime API with simple_switch_grpc, there are instructions (currently only for the demo1 program) for running an interactive Python session using a small library that creates the necessary P4Runtime request messages and sends them to the simple_switch_grpc process.
  • If you are using the older Thrift API with simple_switch (simple_switch_grpc can also accept such connections), there are instructions for running a tiny program called simple_switch_CLI that has its own custom syntax for commands to add, delete, and modify table entries, and other controller operations.

Using a simple command line interface for adding all table entries is not good for a production switch, as such a device might require adding hundreds or thousands of table entries before it is in a sufficiently usable state. It is good for the demo P4 programs here, which typically only need 3 to 5 table entries to be added in order to forward packets. By requiring you to add any necessary table entries via a relatively simple command line interface, you can be fully aware of exactly which table entries have been installed, because if you did not enter the command to add it, it will not be there.

The instructions here, unlike the ones in the p4lang/tutorials repository, have you run only a single emulated switch at a time. Running multiple emulated switches is certainly possible, and often useful, but when you are first learning P4 a single emulated switch is easier to debug when things are not behaving as you expect.

What to install for compiling P4 programs and running them on bmv2

Recommendations for a machine (or virtual machine) that you use solely for the purpose of building P4 open source tools:

  • RAM - At least 2 GB, 4 GB recommended (1 GB is definitely too small)
  • disk - 13 GB is barely enough for Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop Linux OS plus a full build of p4lang/behavioral-model and p4lang/p4c, leaving intermediate build files on disk for quicker rebuilding. Add more as you wish for other programs, data files, and room to grow. Before running the install-p4dev.sh script linked below, you must have at least 4 GB of disk space free on the Ubuntu machine's disk (7 GB free is required for install-p4dev-p4runtime.sh)
  • number of CPU cores / virtual CPUs - 1 is enough, but the p4c build can take advantage of 4 CPU cores in parallel, so 2 or 4 will speed up some things.

Clone the p4lang git repositories named below and follow their README build/install instructions, or run one of these shell scripts to do it for you on an Ubuntu 16.04 or 18.04 Linux system:

  • bin/install-p4dev.sh - Builds simple_switch that requires a Thrift API connection from a controller, like the simple_switch_CLI process.
  • bin/install-p4dev-p4runtime.sh - Builds the above, but also a simple_switch_grpc program that can accept connections from controller programs that use the newer P4Runtime API.

From following install instructions for p4lang/behavioral-model repository (including the sudo make install step), all of these should exist in /usr/local/bin:

simple_switch
simple_switch_CLI
simple_switch_grpc (if you follow instructions or use the script
    that installs this program)

From following install instructions for p4lang/p4c repository, these should exist in $P4C/build, where P4C is a shell variable containing the path to your copy of the p4lang/p4c repository.

p4c

[Historical note: There is also a p4lang/p4c-bm repository whose install instructions will result in the following file in /usr/local/bin:

p4c-bmv2

However, note that p4c-bmv2 only compiles P4_14 programs, whereas p4c can compile both P4_14 and P4_16 programs. As of October 2018, p4c should have implemented most or all of the features that p4c-bmv2 has.]

Recommended path changes for your shell

It can be convenient to have all of these commands in your shell's command path, e.g. for bash:

P4C=/path/to/your/copy/of/p4c
BMV2=/path/to/your/copy/of/behavioral-model
export PATH=$P4C/build:$BMV2/tools:/usr/local/bin:$PATH

If you use one of the shell scripts linked above to do the install steps for you, they create p4setup.bash and p4setup.csh files you can source or copy into your shell's init scripts, that do the above and a bit more.

Other useful commands

See the file README-troubleshooting.md in case you run into troubles. It describes symptoms of some problems, and things you can do to resolve them.

Useful for quickly creating multiple terminal windows and tabs:

create-terminal-windows.sh

To create veth interfaces:

sudo $BMV2/tools/veth_setup.sh
# Verify that it created many veth<number> interfaces
ip link show | grep veth

tcpdump and tshark are two similar programs that can show the contents of packets "live" as they cross Ethernet interfaces of your Linux system, including virtual Ethernet interfaces like veth2 and veth6. You only need one of them. Use tcpdump if you are not sure which one to use. tcpdump is simpler and does not parse as many different kinds of packet headers. tshark is a text version of Wireshark, and can parse more packet header types than I have ever heard of.

# tcpdump options used:
# -e Print the link-level header (i.e. Ethernet) on each dump line.
# -n Do not convert addresses to names
# --number Print an optional packet number at the beginning of the line.
# -v slightly more verbose output, e.g. TTL values

# Note: Some versions of tcpdump do not accept the --number
# option.  If so, just remove that one.
sudo tcpdump -e -n --number -v -i veth2
sudo tcpdump -e -n --number -v -i veth6

# Add -xx option to get raw hex dump of packet data:
sudo tcpdump -xx -e -n --number -v -i veth2
sudo tcpdump -xx -e -n --number -v -i veth6

# If you want to use tshark for even more details about decoded
# packets, but the output for each packet can often spread over 30
# to 40 lines:
sudo tshark -V -i veth2
sudo tshark -V -i veth6

# Add -x option to get raw hex dump of packet data:
sudo tshark -x -V -i veth2
sudo tshark -x -V -i veth6

Automated running of compiler and bmv2 with checking of results

This is not needed for straightforward running of P4 programs. This semi-advanced info, only useful if you want some gory details on how to run some of the bmv2-based automated tests that come with the open source p4c compiler.

If you have followed the instructions above to install both the p4c and behavioral-model repositories, you should have these two files of Python code as part of the p4lang/p4c repository:

$P4C/backends/bmv2/run-bmv2-test.py
$P4C/backends/bmv2/bmv2stf.py

The first file imports the code of the second and uses it.

After you have built your own copy of the p4c compiler, you should have a directory $P4C/build on disk. If you run these commands:

cd $P4C/build
make check

then as part of running the hundreds of test cases included with p4c, it runs the run-bmv2-test.py program many times. To run only one of those test cases, but with extra log message printing enabled, try these commands:

cd $P4C/build
../backends/bmv2/run-bmv2-test.py .. -b -v ../testdata/p4_16_samples/issue447-5-bmv2.p4

The -v is optional, and enables the extra log message printing. Similarly -b is optional, and causes a temporary directory that is created by run-bmv2-test.py to be left on disk after it completes, instead of being deleted.

There are many sample P4_16 programs in the $P4C/testdata/p4_16_samples/ directory, and a command like the one above should work for all of them. Some of the <basename>.p4 files have a corresponding <basename>.stf file in the same directory. The .stf files are a simple text file format parsed by run-bmv2-test.py with packets to be sent in, packets to expect out (which run-bmv2-test.py checks the actual output packets against the expected ones, and reports any differences), and P4 table entries to be added.

run-bmv2-test.py uses p4c-bm2-ss to compile P4_16 source files to a bmv2 JSON configuration file, then runs simple_switch with the --use-files 0 command line option (among other options). --use-files 0 causes simple_switch to read packets from .pcap files instead of sniffing them on virtual Ethernet interfaces, and to write output packets to .pcap files. This has 2 benefits:

  • There are separate pcap files for input vs. output packets, so it is easy for the test environment to distinguish input vs. output packets. It is not obvious to me if it is possible to do this for packets sniffed on veth interfaces.

  • By default, Linux sends occasional IPv6 Neighbor Discovery packets to veth interfaces, which can throw off your simple_switch test results. While there is some way to disable this behavior, Linux will not send such packets to pcap files.

To successfully take advantage of the --use-files 0 option, you still must specify interfaces on the simple_switch command line using one or more -i options. For example, if you use the option -i 0@pcap0, then the P4 program port 0 will get input packets from file pcap0_in.pcap, and write output packets to file pcap0_out.pcap.

The packet out pcap files created by simple_switch are not Ethernet type pcap files, the way that a pcap file captured from an Ethernet interface using tcpdump or Wireshark is. They are type 0, which is shown as 'No link-layer encapsulation' from the output of the Linux file command, and causes a warning like the one below when using Scapy's rdpcap function to read the file:

>>> pkts2=rdpcap('pcap0_out.pcap')
WARNING: PcapReader: unknown LL type [0]/[0x0]. Using Raw packets

If you want to change such a file (named pcap0_out.pcap in the sample command below) to one with a link type of Ethernet, which makes it more useful when reading into Wireshark, use a command like this:

editcap -F pcap -T ether pcap0_out.pcap pcap0_out_ether.pcap

From the output of the commands below, it appears that this also changes the capture length from 0 to 262144. A capture length of 0 seems to cause trouble for some programs that read pcap files, too.

% file pcap0_out.pcap
pcap0_out.pcap: tcpdump capture file (little-endian) - version 2.4 (No link-layer encapsulation, capture length 0)

% file pcap0_out_ether.pcap
pcap0_out_ether.pcap: tcpdump capture file (little-endian) - version 2.4 (Ethernet, capture length 262144)

The sample scapy interactive session below shows that the original pcap0_out.pcap file contents are read in using Scapy's rdpcap function as Raw packets, whereas the Scapy packet objects created from reading file pcap0_out_ether.pcap are decoded as Ethernet frames. They also demonstrate that the packet contents after converting them to strings with str() are the same byte sequences as each other.

[02:22:05] $ scapy
INFO: Can't import matplotlib. Won't be able to plot.
INFO: Can't import PyX. Won't be able to use psdump() or pdfdump().
WARNING: No route found for IPv6 destination :: (no default route?)
INFO: Can't import python Crypto lib. Won't be able to decrypt WEP.
INFO: Can't import python Crypto lib. Disabled certificate manipulation tools
INFO: Can't import python ecdsa lib. Disabled certificate manipulation tools
Welcome to Scapy (2.3.3)
>>> p1=rdpcap('pcap0_out.pcap')
WARNING: PcapReader: unknown LL type [0]/[0x0]. Using Raw packets
>>> type(p1[0])
<class 'scapy.packet.Raw'>
>>> p2=rdpcap('pcap0_out_ether.pcap')
>>> type(p2[0])
<class 'scapy.layers.l2.Ether'>
>>> p1[0]
<Raw  load="RT\x00\x125\x02\x08\x00'\x01\x8b\xbc\x08\x00E\x00\x00(\x00\x01\x00\x00?\x06e\xbb\n\x00\x02\x0f\n\x01\x00\x05\x16\xa2\x00P\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00P\x02 \x00b\xe1\x00\x00" |>
>>> p2[0]
<Ether  dst=52:54:00:12:35:02 src=08:00:27:01:8b:bc type=0x800 |<IP  version=4L ihl=5L tos=0x0 len=40 id=1 flags= frag=0L ttl=63 proto=tcp chksum=0x65bb src=10.0.2.15 dst=10.1.0.5 options=[] |<TCP  sport=5794 dport=http seq=0 ack=0 dataofs=5L reserved=0L flags=S window=8192 chksum=0x62e1 urgptr=0 |>>>
>>> p1[0]==p2[0]
False
>>> str(p1[0])==str(p2[0])
True
>>> p1[1]==p2[1]
False
>>> str(p1[1])==str(p2[1])
True

There are many .stf files in the $P4C/testdata/p4_16_samples/ directory, but there are also many more .p4 files that do not have a corresponding .stf file in that directory. For all of those, I believe that the behavior of run-bmv2-test.py is to use the file empty.stf in that directory instead. In this case, I believe no simple_switch process is started by run-bmv2-test.py - it just compiles the source files and checks whether the compiler crashed, gave errors or warnings, etc. (I believe - I have not gone through that carefully yet).

After running run-bmv2-test.py with the options above, you should be able to find a directory with a name like tmpXXXXXX where XXXXXX is replaced with random-looking letters and digits, and that directory should contain files created near the time you ran the command. I saw files with names like this:

  • issue447-5-bmv2.p4-stderr - From the name, probably the stderr output from running simple_switch.

  • pcap0_in.pcap - I know that run-bmv2-test.py creates the input pcap files read by simple_switch as named pipes with a mkfifo Python method, and I believe this file is a named pipe. It has size 0, even though packets were sent to simple_switch, I believe because it is a named pipe rather than a regular file.

  • pcap0_out.pcap - A sequence of packets sent out on port 0 by simple_switch process. In general there can be more than one of these files, with the '0' replaced by the port number for each simulated Ethernet port.

  • switch.log.txt - The log file produced when you give the --log-file switch.log --flush-log options to the simple_switch command. This is the same kinds of details you see on the console when you use the --log-console command line option to simple_switch, except written to a file instead. It contains details about all packets received, processed, and sent, including every P4 table searched, the search key, whether the search result was a hit or miss, and if the search found a matching table entry, the action and action parameters for that matching entry, etc.

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