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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xmlns:tei="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xml:lang="en"
xmlns:rng="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0">
<teiHeader>
<fileDesc>
<titleStmt>
<title>The Livingstone Online TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines</title>
<editor xml:id="JC">James Cummings</editor>
<principal xml:id="AW">Adrian S. Wisnicki</principal>
<editor xml:id="HFB">Heather F. Ball</editor>
<editor xml:id="JL">Justin Livingstone</editor>
</titleStmt>
<editionStmt>
<edition>2016-03-11 -- Version: 2.0.1 </edition>
</editionStmt>
<publicationStmt>
<authority>Adrian S. Wisnicki</authority>
<availability status="free">
<licence target="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported</licence>
</availability>
</publicationStmt>
<sourceDesc>
<p>Born digital</p>
</sourceDesc>
</fileDesc>
<revisionDesc status="draft">
<change when="2015-03-25" who="#HB">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2015-03-14" who="#JL">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2015-03-12" who="#AW">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2016-03-10" who="#JL">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2015-06-02" who="#AW">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2015-05-19" who="#AW">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2015-05-13" who="#AW">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2015-05-05" who="#AW">Additional corrections</change>
<change when="2015-04-07" who="#AW">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2015-03-25" who="#HB">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2014-08-01" who="#AW">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2014-05-21" who="#AW">Additional corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2014-04-29" who="#JC">Additional corrections and regeneration of schemas</change>
<change when="2014-04-10" who="#AW">Corrections and expansion</change>
<change when="2014-04-09" who="#JC">Updating header section and making corrections</change>
<change when="2014-03-22" who="#JC">Adding documentation</change>
<change when="2014-02-12" who="#JC">Initial creation</change>
</revisionDesc>
</teiHeader>
<text>
<body>
<divGen type="toc" xml:id="toc"/>
<div xml:id="about">
<head>About the Livingstone Online TEI P5 Encoding Guidelines</head>
<p>These guidelines (TEI P5 ODD Customization) summarize Livingstone Online project practices for encoding in TEI P5 the manuscripts of David Livingstone (1813-1873), the Victorian explorer, abolitionist, and missionary. The guidelines also offer a fairly comprehensive overview of Livingstone's practices and idiosyncrasies as a writer.</p>
<p>The guidelines are a product of the Livingstone Online Enrichment and Access Project (LEAP), a three-year initiative (2013-2016) funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (USA). James Cummings with assistance from Adrian S. Wisnicki, Heather F. Ball, and Justin Livingstone created the guidelines, with the initial prose based on Livingstone Online's TEI P5 Tagging Guidelines written by Adrian S. Wisnicki and Heather F. Ball.</p>
<p>Significant contributions to the development of the guidelines have also come from the LEAP critical encoding team: Angela Aliff, Mary Borgo, Erin Cheatham, Samantha Fitch, Ashanka Kumari, Chris Lawrence, Anne Martin, Jared McDonald, Alexander Munson, Kate Simpson, and Megan Ward (critical encoding director).</p>
<p>The guidelines are released under a <ref type="newWindow" target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license</ref>, and we encourage broad, non-commercial use of the guidelines per the open educational remit of <ref type="newWindow" target="http://livingstoneonline.org">Livingstone Online</ref>.</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="overview">
<head>Overview</head>
<p/>
<div xml:id="documentation-markup">
<head>Documentation Markup</head>
<p>In the prose of this documentation XML Elements, Attributes and Values appear
as follows:</p>
<list>
<item><label>Elements appear marked as:</label>
<gi>persName</gi> (which is a link to its reference information) or
<tag>/tagName</tag> (a tag fragment which is not a link to its
reference information)</item>
<item><label>Attributes appear marked as:</label>
<att>attributeName</att></item>
<item><label>Attribute values appear marked as:</label>
<val>attributeValue</val></item>
<item><label>Blocks of original text appear as:</label>
<eg>the man turned out to be Livingstone</eg>
</item>
<item><label>Blocks of marked up text appear as:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"> the man turned out to be <persName>Livingstone</persName>
</egXML>
</item>
</list>
<p>(<hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> the colors/formats are provided only to assist
you in distinguishing between tags, attributes, and values. You do not need
to change font colors in your transcriptions as you are transcribing. In
general these colours mimic those found in the oxygen XML editor.)</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="basic-rules">
<head>Marking Up Text - Basic Rules</head>
<list type="ordered">
<item>
<p>When text is marked up, a tag is placed at the beginning of the text
as well as at the end, per the following format: <label
rend="italics">Original text:</label>
<eg>the man turned out to be Livingstone</eg>
<label rend="italics">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">the man turned out to be <persName>Livingstone</persName>
</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> that the first tag denotes the beginning
of the marked up text, while the second tag begins with "/" and
denotes the end of the marked up text. </p>
</item>
<item><p>If the opening tag includes an attribute, the attribute is NOT
repeated in the closing tag: <label rend="italics">Original
text:</label>
<eg>we were greeted by the Nyamwezi</eg>
<label rend="italics">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">we were greeted by the <term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term>
</egXML>
</p>
</item>
<item><p>If there are two or more tags nested over one bit of text, the
closing tags are placed in reverse order:</p>
<label rend="italics">Original text:</label>
<eg>we saw the Lualaba</eg>
<label rend="italics">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">we saw the <placeName><geogName>Lualaba</geogName></placeName></egXML>
</item>
<item><p>An attribute is always accompanied by a value, for instance:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term>
</egXML></p>
</item>
<item><p>If an opening tag ends with a "/", then it is an "empty element"
combining the opening and closing tag and need not be used again at
the end of whatever is being marked up. <label>Original
text:</label>
<eg>we saw the Lualaba</eg>
<label rend="italics">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>we saw the Lualaba </egXML></p>
</item>
<item><p> Any problems related to the transcription should be addressed
directly in the transcription at the points where they occur using
the "comment out" feature. <label>Original text:</label>
<eg>He called me over.</eg>
<label rend="italics">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">He called me over.<!-- The text is very illegible here and I've done the best I could.
However, this might also be transcribed as "He willed in on me."
What should I do? DH --></egXML>
In other words the commented out bit begins with <code
rend="comment">&lt;!--</code> followed by a space and ends with
<code rend="comment">--&gt;</code>. Always add your initials inside but at the end of the comment.
</p>
</item>
</list>
</div>
<div xml:id="file-naming">
<head>File Naming</head>
<p> When transcribing, please use the LEAP designated file name for the given
item. This can be found on <hi rend="italic">Livingstone Online</hi> along
with the rest of the bibliographical data for the given item. So, for
instance, Livingstone's letter to Rev. D.G. Watt (18 August 1850) would be:
<eg>liv_000699.xml</eg>
</p>
<p> If you are transcribing the given item with other individuals in sequence
(and so the transcription is not yet final) please add your initials
directly after the LEAP designated name: <eg>liv_000699_aw_hb_ks_hb.xml</eg>
</p>
<p> In the above example, the four sets of intials indicate that the
transcription has been worked on in four stages. The first three stages were
done by three different individuals (aw, hb, ks) and the last stage was done
by the second individual (hb). </p>
<p>The <att>xml:id</att> value on the <gi>TEI</gi> element of any LEAP file
should be the initial parts of the LEAP designated file name without the
'.xml' suffix.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">&lt;?xml-model href="leap.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"?>
&lt;?xml-model href="leap.rng" type="application/xml" schematypens="http://purl.oclc.org/dsdl/schematron"?>
<TEI xml:id="liv_000699">
<!-- Change the xml:id above to be the LEAP file name without suffix -->
</TEI>
</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please Note: </hi> All TEI P5 XML files are in the TEI
Namespace which means their root element has a psuedo-attribute
<att>xmlns</att> with a value of
"<val>http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0</val>". This is the TEI Namespace and is
inherited by any elements underneath keeps TEI elements safe from confusion
with similarly-named elements from other schemes.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="TEI" atts="xml:id"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="header">
<head>The TEI Header</head>
<p>Each TEI file has a <gi>teiHeader</gi> element at the start which stores all the
metadata for the electronic text. A sample full <gi>teiHeader</gi> element looks
like:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<teiHeader>
<fileDesc>
<titleStmt>
<!-- Change title below -->
<title>Letter to Rev. D.G. Watt, 18 August 1850</title>
<author>David Livingstone</author>
<principal>Adrian S. Wisnicki</principal>
<principal>Christopher Lawrence</principal>
<!-- Add or remove <respStmt> as appropriate below -->
<!-- Change xml:id below -->
<respStmt xml:id="JM">
<!-- Change name below -->
<name>Jared McDonald</name>
<!-- Change, remove, or add more <resp> as appropriate below -->
<resp>Transcription</resp>
<resp>Encoding</resp>
</respStmt>
<respStmt xml:id="AA">
<name>Angela Aliff</name>
<resp>Transcription</resp>
<resp>Encoding</resp>
</respStmt>
<respStmt xml:id="AW">
<name>Adrian S. Wisnicki</name>
<resp>Coding review</resp>
</respStmt>
</titleStmt>
<publicationStmt>
<authority>Livingstone Online</authority>
<publisher>UCLA Digital Library</publisher>
<pubPlace>Los Angeles, CA, USA</pubPlace>
<!-- Change date below if necessary -->
<date>2015</date>
<!-- Change base file name below -->
<idno type="LEAP-ID">liv_000688</idno>
<!-- Change the license below if necessary -->
<availability>
<licence target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
All materials are licensed for use under the
<ref target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License
</ref>. (c) Dr. Neil Imray Livingstone Wilson, 2011
</licence>
</availability>
</publicationStmt>
<sourceDesc>
<msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<!-- Change country below as needed -->
<country>South Africa</country>
<!-- Change settlement below as needed -->
<settlement>Johannesburg</settlement>
<!-- Change repository below as needed -->
<repository>Brenthurst Library</repository>
<!-- Change shelfmark below as needed -->
<idno type="shelfmark">778</idno>
<altIdentifier>
<!-- Change CC number below as needed -->
<idno type="ccnumber">Letters, 0229</idno>
</altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
<physDesc>
<handDesc>
<!-- Add additional <handNote> elements below as needed. -->
<handNote xml:id="U"><label>Unknown Hand</label> This hand is unknown
but thought not David Livingstone's.</handNote>
</handDesc>
</physDesc>
</msDesc>
<bibl type="sourceMetadata">
<!-- Change title below -->
<title>Letter to Rev. D.G. Watt, 18 August 1850</title>
<author xml:id="DL">David Livingstone</author>
<!-- Change @when and date below -->
<date type="composition" when="1850-08-18">18 August 1850</date>
<!-- Change place below -->
<placeName type="compositionPlace">Kolobeng</placeName>
<!-- Change addressee below -->
<persName type="addressee">Rev. D.F. Watt</persName>
</bibl>
</sourceDesc>
</fileDesc>
<profileDesc>
<langUsage>
<!-- See LEAP encoding manual sect. 20 for language abbreviations.
English should be first, then add all other languages, as appropriate,
in alphabetical order. -->
<language ident="en">English</language>
</langUsage>
</profileDesc>
<revisionDesc>
<!-- Change @when, @who, and work description below. -->
<!-- Note that @who initials are taken from <respStmt> above -->
<!-- Add new <change> elements below as needed. -->
<!-- Note that the most recent <change> should always be placed first, at the top -->
<change when="2012-12-04" who="#KS">Initial transcription and XML encoding</change>
</revisionDesc>
</teiHeader>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>That might look overwhelming, so let's break that down. Notice that there are
really only a few elements directly inside <gi>teiHeader</gi>:
<gi>fileDesc</gi>, <gi>profileDesc</gi>, and <gi>revisionDesc</gi>. Take a look
at the header text above. You'll need to change some parts of this text
(indicated in the comments) each time you start a new file in XML. Please copy
the data exactly as found on <hi rend="italic">Livingstone Online</hi>. </p>
<div xml:id="header-titleStmt">
<head>The TEI Header: Adding Title and Responsibilities</head>
<p>Once you have found the corresponding entry for the item you're transcribing
on <hi rend="italic">Livingstone Online</hi>, you will need to modify the
template to match this information.</p>
<p>The item <gi>title</gi> should match the title found on <hi rend="italic"
>Livingstone Online</hi>.</p>
<p> For each new person who works on the file, they should add a
<gi>respStmt</gi> with an <att>xml:id</att> with their initials as the
value. If a person has more than one responsibility the <gi>respStmt</gi>
should have more than one <gi>resp</gi> element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<!-- Change title below -->
<titleStmt>
<!-- Change title below -->
<title>Letter to Rev. D.G. Watt, 18 August 1850</title>
<author>David Livingstone</author>
<principal>Adrian S. Wisnicki</principal>
<principal>Christopher Lawrence</principal>
<!-- Add or remove <respStmt> as appropriate below -->
<!-- Change xml:id below -->
<respStmt xml:id="JM">
<!-- Change name below -->
<name>Jared McDonald</name>
<!-- Change, remove, or add more <resp> as appropriate below -->
<resp>Transcription</resp>
<resp>Encoding</resp>
</respStmt>
<respStmt xml:id="AA">
<name>Angela Aliff</name>
<resp>Transcription</resp>
<resp>Encoding</resp>
</respStmt>
<respStmt xml:id="AW">
<name>Adrian S. Wisnicki</name>
<resp>Coding review</resp>
</respStmt>
</titleStmt>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="titleStmt"/>
<specDesc key="title"/>
<specDesc key="author"/>
<specDesc key="principal"/>
<specDesc key="respStmt"/>
<specDesc key="name"/>
<specDesc key="resp"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="header-publicationStmt">
<head>The TEI Header: Publication Statement</head>
<p>Change the parts of the <gi>publicationStmt</gi> as needed:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<!-- Publication Statement -->
<publicationStmt>
<authority>Livingstone Online</authority>
<publisher>UCLA Digital Library</publisher>
<pubPlace>Los Angeles, CA, USA</pubPlace>
<!-- Change date below if necessary -->
<date>2015</date>
<!-- Change base file name below -->
<idno type="LEAP-ID">liv_000688</idno>
<!-- Change the license below if necessary -->
<availability>
<licence target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
All materials are licensed for use under the
<ref target="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License
</ref>. (c) Dr. Neil Imray Livingstone Wilson, 2011
</licence>
</availability>
</publicationStmt>
</egXML></p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="publicationStmt"/>
<specDesc key="authority"/>
<specDesc key="publisher"/>
<specDesc key="pubPlace"/>
<specDesc key="date"/>
<specDesc key="idno"/>
<specDesc key="availability"/>
<specDesc key="licence"/>
<specDesc key="ref"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="header-msDesc">
<head>The TEI Header: The Source Description</head>
<p>The <gi>msDesc</gi> element must contain an <gi>msIdentifier</gi> where
elements are given in a specific order from most general to most specific.
First location elements like <gi>country</gi> and <gi>settlement</gi>,
followed by institutional data like <gi>institution</gi> and/or
<gi>repository</gi>, followed by an <gi>idno</gi> and any alternative
identifiers <gi>altIdentifier</gi>, and finally a <gi>physDesc</gi>.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<msDesc>
<msIdentifier>
<!-- Change country below as needed -->
<country>South Africa</country>
<!-- Change settlement below as needed -->
<settlement>Johannesburg</settlement>
<!-- Change repository below as needed -->
<repository>Brenthurst Library</repository>
<!-- Change shelfmark below as needed -->
<idno type="shelfmark">778</idno>
<altIdentifier>
<!-- Change CC number below as needed -->
<idno type="ccnumber">Letters, 0229</idno>
</altIdentifier>
</msIdentifier>
<physDesc>
<handDesc>
<!-- Add additional <handNote> elments below as needed. -->
<handNote xml:id="U"><label>Unknown Hand</label> This hand is unknown
but thought not David Livingstone's.</handNote>
</handDesc>
</physDesc>
</msDesc>
</egXML>
In this case a note of the hands in the manuscript is given in a <gi>handNote</gi> with an <att>xml:id</att> attribute
that can be pointed to from additions or deletions in the text. See <ptr target="#add-del"/>. More than one <gi>handNote</gi> can be recorded in
the <gi>handDesc</gi> inside the <gi>physDesc</gi> element. The default assumption is that all writing is by
David Livingstone so his hand need not be recorded.
</p>
<p>After the closing <tag>/msDesc</tag> there is a <gi>bibl</gi> element
containing a variety of source metadata. You must update the: <list
type="ordered">
<item>title (usually the same as in <gi>titleStmt</gi>) </item>
<item>date of composition (both the human readable content and the
<att>when</att> attribute)</item>
<item>place of composition (if known, otherwise 'Unknown')</item>
<item>name of the addressee (if known, otherwise 'Unknown')</item>
</list>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<bibl type="sourceMetadata">
<!-- Change title below -->
<title>Letter to Rev. D.G. Watt, 18 August 1850</title>
<author xml:id="DL">David Livingstone</author>
<!-- Change @when and date below -->
<date type="composition" when="1850-08-18">18 August 1850</date>
<!-- Change place below -->
<placeName type="compositionPlace">Kolobeng</placeName>
<!-- Change addressee below -->
<persName type="addressee">Rev. D.F. Watt</persName>
</bibl>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="msDesc"/>
<specDesc key="msIdentifier"/>
<specDesc key="country"/>
<specDesc key="settlement"/>
<specDesc key="institution"/>
<specDesc key="repository"/>
<specDesc key="idno"/>
<specDesc key="altIdentifier"/>
<specDesc key="bibl"/>
<specDesc key="title"/>
<specDesc key="author"/>
<specDesc key="date"/>
<specDesc key="placeName"/>
<specDesc key="persName"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="header-profileDesc">
<head>The TEI Header: The Profile Description</head>
<p>The profile description contains additional metadata about the file. In the
case of LEAP files this is used to store the language(s) in the document.
Usually this will just be English and so should not be changed.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<profileDesc>
<langUsage>
<!-- See LEAP encoding manual sect. 20 for language abbreviations.
English should be first, then add all other languages, as appropriate,
in alphabetical order. -->
<language ident="en">English</language>
</langUsage>
</profileDesc>
</egXML>
However, multiple <gi>language</gi> elements can be provided if necessary
and should have the proper ISO 639 language code for the language. See <ptr
target="#foreign-words"/>. </p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="profileDesc"/>
<specDesc key="langUsage"/>
<specDesc key="language" atts="ident"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="header-revisionDesc">
<head>The TEI Header: The Revision Description</head>
<p>A later part of the header, the <gi>revisionDesc</gi>, contains entries that
record the major milestones of work completed on, or updates to, the file:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<revisionDesc>
<!-- Change @when, @who, and work description below. -->
<!-- Note that @who initials are taken from <respStmt> above -->
<!-- Add new <change> elements below as needed. -->
<!-- Note that the most recent <change> should always be placed first, at the top -->
<change when="2012-12-04" who="#KS">Initial transcription and XML encoding</change>
</revisionDesc>
</egXML>
When working from the encoding template, either change the information in this
entry as relevant (if you are the first one working on the given item) or
add a new iteration of this element above the previous one to record a new
stage of devleopment. For each iteration, you need to change the the
<att>when</att> attribute to the correct YYYY-MM-DD format. You need to
change <att>who</att> attribute to have a value of your initials prefixed
with a '#': <val>#AW</val> to match your initials. This URI fragment points
to the <gi>respStmt</gi> you added above and records your responsibility in
making this change. Finally, you need to provide the appropriate description
of your work. A <gi>change</gi> element should only be provided at each
major stage of file development.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="revisionDesc"/>
<specDesc key="change" atts="when who"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="divisions">
<head>Divisions of the Text</head>
<p>We use the <gi>div</gi> to contain the main body of text of any given Livingstone object,
so in most cases a transcription will only have
one <gi>div</gi> elment that opens and closes the text.
However, there are some cases where a second <gi>div</gi> element should be used.
See <ptr target="#front-back"/>, <ptr target="#colors"/>, and <ptr target="#text-direction"/>. In
other cases, it may be necessary to mark the beginning of a new gathering with <tag>gb/</tag>
(see <ptr target="#gatherings"/>).</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="div"/>
<specDesc key="gb"/>
</specList>
</p>
<div xml:id="gatherings">
<head>New Gatherings</head>
<p>We record the beginning of a new gathering, if a document consists of <hi rend="italics">more than one</hi>, using the <tag>gb/</tag> tag. The specification of an <att>type</att> is optional, while the value of <att>type</att> will often be improvised based on the source material.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><gb type="square-sheets"/><!-- Livingstone here begins writing on square sheets rather than rectangular ones. AW --></egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> If <tag>gb/</tag> is used, every gathering in the document should be marked, including the opening one.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Using the <tag>gb/</tag> tag with the <gi>div</gi> is allowed, but not required. One would normally use both in combination only when a new gathering begins a new divison or section of text.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> The <tag>gb/</tag> tag should not normally be used without consulting the project directors</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="gb" atts="type"/>
<specDesc key="div"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="front-back">
<head>Front and Back Matter</head>
<p>Use <gi>front</gi> and <gi>back</gi> elements (siblings of the <gi>body</gi> element) to contain to any material that, respectively, precedes (e.g., a table of contents)
or succeeds (e.g. an appendix) the main text being encoded.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<front><!-- Table of contents goes here --></front>
<body>
<div>
<p><!-- Main text being encoded goes here --></p>
</div>
</body>
<back><!-- Appendix goes here --></back>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="front"/>
<specDesc key="back"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="pagebreak">
<head>The Beginning of a New Page</head>
<p>After the initial <gi>text</gi><gi>body</gi><gi>div</gi> tags (already in the
diary template document), make sure there is a <gi>pb</gi> element at the
beginning of each new page/image that you transcribe. Note that the manner in
which this is based on the LEAP designated file name
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<pb facs="liv_000699_0001.jpg" n="0001"/>
<!-- a page worth of text -->
<pb facs="liv_000699_0002.jpg" n="0002"/>
</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note</hi> that this combined or empty element ends with a "/" and
has no separate closing tag. The <att>facs</att> attribute points to the image
facsimile for this page, the <att>n</att> attribute records the project page
number separately.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="pb" atts="facs n"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="linebreak">
<head>The Beginning of a Manuscript Line</head>
<p>Whenever you come to the beginning of a manuscript line, use
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><lb/></egXML>
No corresponding tag is needed at the end of the line. <label rend="italic"
>Original text:</label>
<eg> As we traveled <lb/>I came <lb/>across two men.</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>As we traveled
<lb/>I came
<lb/>across two men.
</egXML>
</p>
<p>If line breaks occur in the middle of an addition, do not place <tag>lb/</tag> before the first line of the addition, but do use it to mark the beginning of each subsequent line of the addition:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="marginleft">First line of addition <lb/>second line, <lb/>and third line.</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="lb"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="paragraph">
<head>The Beginning of a New Paragraph</head>
<p>When you start a new paragraph, use the following tag: <gi>p</gi></p>
<p>The <att>rend</att> attribute is used to indicate information about the rendering
of the paragraph as a whole in the original source. For
example, if the paragraph as a whole was centered on the page, you might give it
a value of "<val>center</val>" or if aligned right a value of
"<val>right</val>". The use of <att>rend</att> to say whether something is
centered or right (left is considered the default so there is no need to record
that) is a bit of a judgment call regarding the placement of the paragraph on
the page.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<p rend="right">This paragraph is aligned to the right on the page.</p>
</egXML></p>
<p>For more information about the <att>rend</att> attribute see <ptr
target="#formatting"/>. </p>
<p>The default assumption is that a paragraph is indented, so there is no need
to mark that. For marking the exceptionally indented first lines of paragraphs
see <ptr target="#extra-space"/>.</p>
<p>However, if a paragraph is not indented,
please mark it as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><p rend="no-indent">This paragraph is not indented</p></egXML></p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> It is especially important to use <tag>p rend="no-indent"</tag> when marking new, dated diary entries that Livingstone begins on a new line but does not indent.</p>
<p>Also, remember at the end of the paragraph to use the closing paragraph tag
<tag>/p</tag>.</p>
<p>Finally, note that we capitalize the first word of a new paragraph by default. If it is not capitalized, use the <gi>choice</gi>, <gi>sic</gi>, and <gi>corr</gi> tags to correct this.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><p><choice><sic>arrived</sic><corr>Arrived</corr></choice> at the lake.</p></egXML></p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="p" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="dates">
<head>Dates</head>
<p>For marking up dates use the <gi>date</gi> element with the <att>when</att>
attribute. The value of the <att>when</att> attribute should always be given in this YYYY-MM-DD format
(four-digit year, two-digit month, two-digit day). This is an important
international standard for representing dates and stops people and computers
getting confused as to whether '05/02/71' means the second of May or the fifth
of February:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<date when="1871-02-05">5th February 1871</date>
</egXML>
If only the month and year (and not the day) are given, code as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">We visited in <date when="1871-02">February 1871</date></egXML>
However, if the day (and month) are given, but not the year, yet you know the
year provide it. For instance, if Livingstone begins a diary entry with "5th"
but you know from previous entries that this actually means 5th February 1871,
then code it as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">We visited last year on the <date when="1871-02-05">5th</date></egXML>
If you don't know the year, bring it to the attention of the project and code it as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">We visited on <date when="--02-05">5th February</date></egXML></p>
<p>Finally, use the <att>from</att> and <att>to</att> attributes to
provide a start and end date of a range. Use these as needed:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<date from="1871-02-05" to="1871-02-07">5th to 7th February 1871</date>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>For B.C. dates code as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><date when="-600-03-28">28 March 600 B.C.</date></egXML>
or
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><date when="-600">600 B.C.</date></egXML>
</p>
<p>For coding dates that Livingstone adds to the margin of the <hi rend="italic">Unyanyembe Journal</hi>, see <ptr target="#notes"/>.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="date" atts="when from to"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="letters">
<head>Letters</head>
<div xml:id="openers-closers">
<head>The Opening and Closing of Letters</head>
<p>Note that the opening and closing of letters often have items which
aren't strictly paragraphs. The TEI has special elements just for these. The entire beginning of a letter
should be contained within an <gi>opener</gi> tag. Within this <gi>opener</gi> tag, any address or date will also
be contained within a single <gi>dateline</gi>. Finally, any personalized greeting, should go inside of
a <gi>salute</gi> tag:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><opener><dateline rend="right"><placeName>Hadley Green</placeName>
<lb/><date when="1857-08-22">22 August
<lb/>1857</date></dateline>
<lb/>
<lb/><salute>My Dear Sir,</salute></opener>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Likewise, the end of a letter should be contained within a <gi>closer</gi> tag, with any personalized address
contained within a <gi>salute</gi> tag and any signature within a <gi>signed</gi> tag.:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><closer><salute>Sincerely,</salute>
<lb/><signed><persName>David Livingstone</persName></signed></closer>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>For both the <gi>opener</gi> and <gi>closer</gi>, linebreaks (see <ptr target="#linebreak"/>) should be marked in
the regular fashion, as in the examples above.</p>
<p>The <gi>date</gi> and <gi>persName</gi> elements are discussed in
more detail below.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="opener"/>
<specDesc key="dateline"/>
<specDesc key="salute"/>
<specDesc key="closer"/>
<specDesc key="signed"/>
</specList></p>
</div>
<div xml:id="postal-addresses">
<head>Postal Address of Letter Recipient</head>
<p>The portion of each letter that contains that postal address of the letter recipient should be placed inside both the <gi>closer</gi> and <gi>address</gi> elements. If the placement of the address within the letter does not allow for the address to be added to the <gi>closer</gi>, then place the address in a separate set of <gi>div</gi> and <gi>ab</gi> elements. The beginning of each line of the address should be marked with <gi>addrLine</gi> and the end of each line of address should be marked with <tag>/addrLine</tag>. Note too that when you use the <gi>addrLine</gi> tag, you should not use the <tag>lb/</tag> tag (see <ptr target="#linebreak"/>). In other words, use <gi>addrLine</gi> or <tag>lb/</tag>, but not both.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<address>
<addrLine><persName>Bevan Braithwaite</persName></addrLine>
<addrLine><placeName>3 New Court</placeName></addrLine>
<addrLine><placeName>Lincoln's Inn</placeName></addrLine>
</address></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="addrLine"/>
<specDesc key="address"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="postscripts">
<head>Postscripts</head>
<p>Use the <gi>postscript</gi> element to contain
the entirety of any postscript added to a letter. Each separate postscript should be contained by its own element.
The <att>n</att> may be used to number successive postscripts.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><postscript n="1"><label>P.S.</label> Give my regards
<lb/>to your children.</postscript>
<lb/><postscript n="2"><label>P.P.S.</label> And greet your parents</postscript></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In order for your use of the <gi>postscript</gi> to validate, it may be necessary to place empty <tag>opener/</tag> and <tag>closer/</tag> tags before it, if you haven't already otherwise used such tags.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="postscript" atts="n"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="composition">
<head>Marking Authorial Composition Practices</head>
<p/>
<div xml:id="headings">
<head>Any Type of Heading</head>
<p>Use the <gi>head</gi> element for any type of heading, such as the title of a chapter or section or the heading of a list
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><head>Chapter I</head></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="head"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="running-header">
<head>Running Header (including Authorial Page Numbers)</head>
<p>Use the <gi>fw</gi> element to contain any type of running head (usually, but not always, found in the header or footnote of a given page) that appears on a page or series of pages. The <att>rend</att> may be used as needed to mark the location of this element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><fw rend="center">1</fw></egXML>
</p>
<p>For any page numbers instituted by Livingstone himself, use the <gi>fw</gi> element plus <att>n</att> in the following manner:</p> <egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><fw n="heading_XIV">XIV</fw></egXML>
<p>In other words, whenever <gi>fw</gi> is used to encode one of Livingstone's page numbers, <att>n</att> value should begin with "heading_" followed by the number Livingstone uses, in the form that he uses it (i.e., Roman or Arabic numeral).</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="fw" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="formatting">
<head>Textual Formatting</head>
<p>If the original text is formatted in some manner such as underlining,
superscript, etc., use the <gi>hi</gi> element with the <att>rend</att>
attribute. </p>
<p>
<label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg>I saw <hi rend="underline">the man</hi></eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"> I saw <hi rend="underline">the man</hi>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>If there is more than one type of formatting, for instance both underline and
superscript, use the <att>rend</att> attribute only once but provide two values
separated by a space.
</p>
<p>
<label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg>He was the N<hi rend="sup"><hi rend="underline">umber</hi></hi> 1 man</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">He was the N<hi rend="sup underline">umber</hi> 1 man</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please Note: </hi> The <att>rend</att> attribute is part of the
att.global class and so can be used on other elements if they are present. For
example instead of marking up:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><hi rend="underline"><placeName><geogName type="river">Lualaba</geogName></placeName></hi>
</egXML>
one can do:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName rend="underline"><geogName type="river">Lualaba</geogName></placeName>
</egXML>
but if unsure then the former is acceptable. </p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="hi" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="colors">
<head>Textual Colors</head>
<p>Livingstone occasionally changes the color of his text. In the majority of cases, such changes fall into one of two categories: a change in color for a few words; a change in color for a longer section of a text. Changes of the former sort (a few words) are usally due to an after-the-fact addition, so the color change should be marked with <att>rend</att> and the appropriate color directly on the <gi>add</gi> element:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">We followed <add place="above" rend="blue">the</add> path</egXML>
</p>
<p>If Livingstone changes color for a longer section of text (this often happens in his field diaries), use the <gi>seg</gi> element (or, for very long sections, <gi>div</gi> element) plus <att>rend</att> and the appropriate color to mark the different sections of the text:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<div>
<lb/><p><seg rend="black">First section in black would go here and
<lb/>could span part of a line, a line, or several lines</seg>.</p>
</div>
<div rend="blue">
<lb/><p>Second longer section in blue would go here.</p>
</div>
</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> Sometimes words appear to be the same color but are darker than their surrounding text. This may or may not be an intentional attempt by Livingstone to emphasize a portion of the text. To be on the safe side, code such darkening as appropriate. If it seems to be intentional, code it as follows with <att>hi</att> plus the appropriate color:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><p rend="black"><hi rend="black"><persName>Mtarika</persName></hi> came at last.</p></egXML>
If it seems to be unintentional, code it with <att>seg</att> plus the appropriate color:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><p rend="black">They do not appear to have asked for the
<lb/><seg rend="black">names of places</seg> so much as for those of people</p>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="add"/>
<specDesc key="seg"/>
<specDesc key="div"/>
<specDesc key="hi" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="word-division">
<head>A Word Broken Up Over Two Lines</head>
<p>Use the <gi>w</gi> element to mark words that Livingstone breaks up over two
lines. You also add the <att>break</att> attribute with the value of
"<val>no</val>" to the <tag>lb/</tag> that falls between the two halves of
the word. For LEAP materials the assumed value for the <att>break</att>
attribute is <val>yes</val>, so you do not need to provide this unless it is an
exceptional circumstance. Use <val>maybe</val> only in those cases when you are
not sure whether a single word apparently broken up over two lines may indeed be
two words.</p>
<p>Livingstone's use of hyphens is erratic. Sometimes he hyphenates a word at the
end of the first line, sometimes at the beginning of the second, sometimes in
both places, sometimes in neither. </p>
<p>We code each of these instances in the same way, but we also always supply a
hyphen at the end of the line if Livingstone himself has failed to provide it. </p>
<p><label>Example #1 (no hyphen at all)</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>I look on the drove they brought <w>un<supplied>-</supplied>
<lb break="no"/>chained</w> with a sort of pleasure after </egXML>
</p>
<p><label>Example #2 (hyphen only in first line)</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>by one of <persName>Dugumbe</persName>'s people after <w>finish-
<lb break="no"/>ing</w> a piece of work = said he was tired
</egXML>
</p>
<p><label>Example #3 (hyphen only in second line)</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>sorely needed to be employed <w>him<supplied>-</supplied>
<lb break="no"/>-self</w> in something else than penny </egXML>
</p>
<p><label>Example #4 (hyphen in both lines)</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<lb/>by which the irresponsible <w>con-
<lb break="no"/>-clave</w> brought the Indian command </egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="w"/>
<specDesc key="lb" atts="break"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="extra-space">
<head>More Than One Space between Words</head>
<p>If you are encoding text where the author has placed more than one space between
words, do not insert additional space in your transcription. Rather insert only
one space plus the following markup:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
a <space extent="4" unit="chars"/>word
</egXML>
</p>
<p>In other words, in the example above the space being marked is actually five characters long. One of these spaces is marked in the normal fashion, the other four are marked with the <gi>space</gi> tag. Please follow this format when marking usual spacing between words.</p>
<p>The value for the <att>extent</att> attribute will of course be a bit of a
judgment call, but a good rule of thumb is to mark only those spaces that extend for more than two characters and/or have some obvious, non-trivial significance in the text. For instance, Livingstone on occasion inserts an unusally large space just before a new sentence and indeed uses this space to indicate that the substance of the sentence that follows the space differs significantly from that of the sentence that precedes the space.</p>
<p>The value "<val>chars</val>" stands for "characters"; you can
also use "<val>words</val>". There is a <att>dim</att> attribute on
<gi>space</gi> with allowed values of <val>horiztonal</val> or
<val>vertical</val>. The default assumption in LEAP is that extra space is
horizontal so this does not need to be marked.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="space" atts="extent unit"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="extra-space-lines">
<head>One or More Spaces between Lines</head>
<p>If you are encoding text where the author has left extra spaces between lines,
you can mark up the spaces in one of two ways:</p>
<p>If there is only one space between lines, only an extra <tag>lb/</tag> tag is needed:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><p>...and he arranges any
<lb/>differences that may
<lb/>arise -</p>
<lb/>
<lb/><p>Called at <persName>Mataka</persName>'s house ...</p>
</egXML>
If there is more than one space between lines, a <tag>space/</tag> tag is used,
along with the <att>dim</att>, <att>extent</att>, and
<att>unit</att> attributes and their appropriate values.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><p>...and he arranges any
<lb/>differences that may
<lb/>arise -</p>
<lb/><space dim="vertical" extent="3" unit="lines"/>
<lb/><p>Called at <persName>Mataka</persName>'s house ...</p>
</egXML></p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="lb"/>
<specDesc key="space" atts="extent unit"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="dividing-lines">
<head>Dividing Lines Across the Page</head>
<p>Livingstone often uses lines that he draws across the page to separate sections of the text. Sometimes he uses a single line that runs across the entire page from left to right; sometimes a double-line; sometimes a single line that only runs across half or a quarter of the page. For all such lines, use the <tag>milestone/</tag> element in the following manner:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><milestone unit="section" rend="line"/></egXML>
<p>As in the example, <tag>milestone/</tag> should always inlcude a <att>unit</att> attribute with the value of "<val>section</val>" and a <att>rend</att> attribute. Possible values for the rend attribute include: "<val>line</val>", "<val>double-line</val>", "<val>triple-line</val>", "<val>three-quarter-line</val>", "<val>half-line</val>", "<val>quarter-line</val>", "<val>dotted-line</val>", and "<val>dotted-double-line</val>".</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="milestone" atts="unit rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="text-direction">
<head>Textual Directions</head>
<p>There are four possible situations we've encountered, so here's how to handle
them: <list type="ordered">
<item> The page text is upside-down. If it is upside-down for only a phrase or a
few lines, use <tag>seg rend="upside-down"</tag> or some other relevant element to contain the text.
If it runs upside-down for a larger amount of text, create a new <gi>div</gi> and
mark the orientation there: <tag>div rend="upside-down"</tag>.</item>
<item> The page text is horizontal, then it clearly <emph>continues</emph>
to vertical text in the margin. Use <gi>cb</gi> plus <att>rend</att> with a value of <val>vertical</val>
in either one of the two following ways (line numbering continues in the normal way):
<list type="ordered" rend="alphabetical">
<item>If the vertical text in the margin is really a new paragraph
then mark it as such by ending the current paragraph with
<tag>/p</tag> at the end of the horizontal text, then start
the vertical text with <tag>cb rend="vertical"/</tag><gi>p</gi> and when you
finish the vertical text close it with <tag>/p</tag> as
normal.</item>
<item> If the vertical text in the margin continues the horizontal
text without a paragraph break, do not end the paragraph but
indicate the place where the text changes to vertical with a
<tag>cb rend="vertical"/</tag> element. When the paragraph ends mark it with
a closing <tag>/p</tag>.</item>
</list></item>
<item> The page text is horizontal, but ends at the bottom of the page. You
believe that the vertical text continues from the horizontal text, but
it seems to be a new "section" (how you define section is a bit
subjective). Then close the horizontal text as normal with
<tag>/p</tag><tag>/div</tag>. Begin the vertical text as a new
division with <tag>div rend="vertical"</tag><gi>p</gi> then when it is finished close the
vertical text with <tag>/p</tag><tag>/div</tag> and begin the next section with a new <gi>div</gi> tag.
In other words, you're breaking this up into two sections (with one or more paragraphs inside)
that you believe are continuous. Line numbering is continuous. </item>
<item> The page text is horizontal and may or may not end at the bottom of
the page. The vertical text has no clear relationship to the horizontal
text. End the page text with <tag>/p</tag> (whether or not it continues
to the next page), then begin the vertical text with
<tag>cb rend="vertical"</tag><gi>ab</gi> and close the vertical text with
<tag>/ab</tag>. Then on the next page, whether or not it's a new
paragraph, begin with <gi>p</gi>, etc. Restart the line numbering in
this new <gi>ab</gi>section. </item>
</list>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="seg"/>
<specDesc key="div"/>
<specDesc key="cb"/>
<specDesc key="ab"/>
<specDesc key="p"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="columns">
<head>Text in Columns</head>
<p>Occassionaly Livingstone breaks up his text into one or more columns. We mark this shift using the <tag>cb/</tag> tag plus the <att>rend</att> attribute with the appropriate value of <val>left</val>, <val>center</val>, or <val>right</val>, <hi rend="italics">or</hi> the <att>n</att> attribute with the appropriate value of <val>1</val>, <val>2</val>, <val>3</val>, etc. Either of these attribute/value combinations is acceptable; it is left open to the judgment of the transcriber to choose the one most appropriate for the context. However, one should use <att>n</att> plus a series of numbers for instances of four or more columns.</p>
<p>If Livingstone breaks his writing up into more than one column, please code as follows. First, use <tag>cb rend="left/</tag> (or <tag>cb n="1"/</tag>) to mark the beginning of the first column to the left. Then transcribe the first column. Then, as appropriate, use <tag>cb rend="center/</tag> or <tag>cb rend="right/</tag> (or <tag>cb n="2"/</tag>) to mark the beginning of the next column to the right. Then transcribe the next column (if there is one). And so on. Finally, use <tag>cb/</tag> without any attribute to mark the return to normal text.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"> <cb n="1"/>
<lb/><p>First
<lb/>column
<lb/>of text
<cb n="2"/>
<lb/>and
<lb/>second
<lb/>column.</p>
<cb n="3"/>
<lb/><p>Third
<lb/>column.</p>
<cb/>
<lb/><p>Additional text that is not
<lb/>broken up into columns.</p>
</egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> As in the example above, <tag>cb</tag> may be used inside or outside of the <gi>p</gi> tag (or the <gi>ab</gi> tag).</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> <tag>cb</tag> is the assumed default, so should not normally be marked except in instances, as above, where there have been multiple columns, but the text is now returning to normal.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In some instances it may be better to use the <gi>table</gi> tag plus the <gi>row</gi> and <gi>cell</gi> tags or, alternately, to use the <gi>list</gi> and <gi>item</gi> tags (see <ptr target="#lists"/>). However, there is no fast rule; often it will be a judgment call. If in doubt, please consult the project directors.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="cb" atts="rend n"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="anonymous-blocks">
<head>Text with No Clear Relationship to the Surrounding Text</head>
<p>Occasionally Livingstone includes blocks of text on a given manuscript page that have no clear relationship to the main text on that page. Such blocks should be encoded with the <gi>ab</gi> element.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><p><!-- First line of main text -->
<lb/><!-- Second line of main text -->
<lb/><!-- Last line of main text, etc. --></p>
<lb/><ab><!-- First line of text with no clear relation to main text -->
<lb/><!-- Second line of text with no clear relation to main text, etc. --></ab>
</egXML>
<p>Note that, as in the example above, you can use <gi>p</gi> or <gi>ab</gi> to enclose sections of text, but not both.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="ab"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="add-del">
<head>Addition to or Deletions from the Original Manuscript</head>
<p>If a portion of the text has been added by the author or someone else other than
you (see above), use <gi>add</gi> to mark up that text. The <att>place</att>
attribute has values of: "<val>inline</val>", "<val>above</val>",
"<val>below</val>", "<val>marginleft</val>", "<val>marginright</val>",
"<val>margintop</val>", "<val>marginbottom</val>". <label rend="italic"
>Original text:</label>
<eg>he saw us [in this case it's clear in the ms. that "saw" was added
later]</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"> he <add place="inline">saw</add> us </egXML>
</p>
<p>If a portion of the text has been deleted by the author or someone else, use
<gi>del</gi> to mark up that text. Optinally, use the <att>type</att> attribute to
indicate the type of deletion with values of "<val>strikethrough</val>"
(deleted with a single line) or "<val>cancelled</val>" (deleted with multiple
lines). <label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg><hi rend="strikethrough">he saw us</hi></eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<del type="strikethrough">he saw us</del>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>If the deletion makes the character(s) or word(s) being deleted impossible to read, use the <gi>gap</gi> element to indicate this:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><del><gap extent="1" unit="words"/></del></egXML>
</p>
<p>Note: For coding additions and deletions that span more than a few lines of text, please consult the project team.</p>
<p>If it isn't a standalone addition or deletion but you believe a combined deletion
and addition has been done (usually by the author) as a single intervention,
then you may nest the <gi>del</gi> and <gi>add</gi> elements in a <gi>subst</gi>
(substitution) element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">Then we went <subst><del>towards</del><add place="inline">to</add> the river</subst></egXML>
</p>
<p>When Livingstone uses a caret (^) to indicate the place of an addition, use a separate <gi>add</gi> tag for the caret and place a space between the tagged caret and the additional text that Livingstone has added:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="below">^</add> <add place="above">a word</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>In both the cases of added or deleted text, if you believe that the work has been
done by someone other than Livingstone but cannot identify who that person is,
use the <att>hand</att> attribute with a value of "<val>#U</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">he <add place="inline" hand="#U">saw</add> us </egXML>
</p>
<p>If the other hand is writing in a different color to that used in the body of Livingstone's text, capture this using the <att>rend</att> attribute with the appropriate color as a value (see <ptr target="#colors"/>):
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="inline" rend="gray" hand="#U2">addition by an editor</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>Deletions work in the same way:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><del type="cancelled" rend="red" hand="#U3">deletion by an editor</del></egXML>
</p>
<p>The <val>#U</val> is a pointer to a <gi>handNote</gi> element (in a <gi>handDesc</gi> in a <gi>physDesc</gi> in the <gi>msDesc</gi> in the <gi>sourceDesc</gi> in the header).
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<!-- in the <sourceDesc> in the header -->
<physDesc>
<handDesc>
<handNote xml:id="U"><label>Unknown Hand</label> This hand is unknown
but thought not David Livingstone's.</handNote>
</handDesc>
</physDesc>
<!-- later in the text -->
<lb/>he <add place="inline" hand="#U">saw</add> us
</egXML></p>
<p>If you can identify individual hands, but not to whom they belong, these values
could be <val>#hand01</val> or <val>#hand02</val> or similar.
</p>
<p>Finally, to denote any kind of arrow or other mark (other than a caret) that Livingstone uses to indicate
where a bit of add or deleted text should go, use an empty <tag>metamark/</tag>
element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">Then we went towards <metamark/><add place="inline">home</add>.<!-- Livingstone writes "home" in the margin, then uses a long arrow to indicate it should be placed here. AW --></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> The <label rend="italic">Missionary Travels</label> team is also working with more specialized metamarks. For guidance on using these, see <ptr target="#metamarks"/>. This additional coding is not required in other parts of the project, so should only be done in consultation with the project team.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="handDesc"/>
<specDesc key="handNote"/>
<specDesc key="add" atts="place hand rend"/>
<specDesc key="del" atts="type"/>
<specDesc key="subst"/>
<specDesc key="metamark"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="long-addition">
<head>Additions or Deletions that Span More Than One Paragraph</head>
<p>For additions or deletions that span more than one paragraph (<gi>p</gi>) or section of text (<gi>ab</gi>), use the <tag>addSpan/</tag> or <tag>delSpan/</tag> elements combined with the <tag>anchor/</tag> element.
</p>
<p>The <tag>addSpan/</tag>, <tag>delSpan/</tag>, and <tag>anchor/</tag> elements can appear anywhere in a <gi>div</gi>, including outside or inside a <gi>p</gi> or <gi>ab</gi>. As a result, they can be used to mark precisely where a longer addition or deletion begins and ends without regard to other coding.
</p>
<p>Use these tags as follows. First, place a <tag>addSpan/</tag> or <tag>delSpan/</tag> element where the given addition or deletion begins and include an <att>spanTo</att> attribute with the value preceded by "#" [number sign]:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><addSpan spanTo="#longadd-1"/></egXML>
or
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><delSpan spanTo="#del-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>Then, wherever the addition or deletion ends, place an <tag>anchor/</tag> with an <att>xml:id</att> attribute. The value of the <att>xml:id</att> will correspond to the <att>spanTo</att> value, but will not include the "#" [number sign]:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><anchor xml:id="longadd-1"/></egXML>
or
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><anchor xml:id="del-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In the above examples the values "<val>longadd-1</val>" and "<val>del-1</val>" are arbitrary. The value, however, must be the same for the <tag>addSpan/</tag> and its corresponding <tag>anchor/</tag> tag, or for <tag>delSpan/</tag> and its corresponding <tag>anchor/</tag> tag. The given value should not otherwise be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive these values for each instance of <tag>addSpan/</tag> or <tag>delSpan/</tag> in order to avoid repetition.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> You may place the <att>hand</att> and <att>rend</att> attributes on the <tag>addSpan/</tag> or <tag>delSpan/</tag> to indicate, respectively, the individual who made the addition or deletion, or other characteristics of the addition or deletion:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><delSpan spanTo="#del-2" rend="gray" hand="#U2"/>lengthy passage written by Livingstone
<lb/>but deleted by unknown hand #2 in pencil<anchor xml:id="del-2"/></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> If the given addition or deletion spans less than one paragraph, then use the <gi>add</gi> or <gi>del</gi> tags (see <ptr target="#add-del"/>).
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="addSpan"/>
<specDesc key="delSpan" atts="spanTo hand rend"/>
<specDesc key="anchor" atts="xml:id"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="standalone">
<head>Standalone Additions to the Main Text</head>
<p>On a number of occasions, Livingstone or someone else places an addition elsewhere other than in the immediate area where it should be added (for instance on another page). The place for insertion is often indicated by an arrow that runs from the addition to its intended position. Code such additions as follows.
</p>
<p>First, code the addition in the place where it actually appears on the page.
</p>
<p>If the addition is on an otherwise blank page, this will involve indicating that there are empty lines that precede the addition. For this, use the <tag>space/</tag> tag (see <ptr target="#extra-space-lines"/>):
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><space dim="vertical" extent="10" unit="lines"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>Then transcribe the addition as normal, being sure to wrap it in the <gi>add</gi> tag. You should also use the attribute <att>corresp</att> on the <gi>add</gi> tag which will link the addition to the place in the text where it is to be inserted:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><add place="inline" corresp="#add-1">a portion of text on a page of its own that DL wants to insert elsewhere</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value for <att>corresp</att> is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p>Finally, on the page where the addition should be inserted, indicate the specific place for the insertion by using the <tag>anchor/</tag> tag with an attribute <att>xml:id</att>. Be sure to leave a space before and after this tag:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><anchor xml:id="add-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value of the attribute <att>xml:id</att> is the same as on the <att>corresp</att> above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In the above example the value of "<val>add-1</val>" is arbitrary. The value must be the same for the relevant attributes on the <gi>add</gi> and <tag>anchor/</tag> tags, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive this value for each such addition in order to avoid repetition.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> The above method can be used to insert longer additions that span several paragraphs by replacing <gi>add</gi> with <tag>addSpan/</tag>. (For guidance on <tag>addSpan</tag> see <ptr target="#long-addition"/>).
</p>
<p>However, to use <tag>addSpan/</tag> to encode a standalone addition, two <tag>anchor/</tag> tags will be required – one in conjunction with <tag>addSpan/</tag> to record the extent of the addition (i.e., its beginning and end), the other to mark the place the addition is intended to be inserted. The <tag>addSpan/</tag> should thus have both the <att>spanTo</att> and <att>corresp</att> attributes.
</p>
<p>For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><addSpan spanTo="#longadd-1" corresp="#add-17"/><p>a long addition
<lb/>going over multiple paragraphs</p>
<lb/><p>to be inserted on another page.</p><anchor xml:id="longadd-1"/>
<pb facs="liv_000099_0376.jpg" n="0376"/>
<lb/><p>Text from Livingstone that does not
<lb/>continue from the previous page <anchor xml:id="add-17"/>
<lb/>more text</p></egXML>
</p>
<p>In the example above, the first <tag>anchor/</tag> tag thus indicates where the addition ends; the second <tag>anchor/</tag> tag indicates where Livingstone wants the addition inserted.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In the above example, the value "<val>longadd-1</val>" on <att>spanTo</att> is arbitrary. The value must be the same for the corresponding <tag>addSpan/</tag> and <tag>anchor/</tag> tags but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Depending on the project, you will be given specific instructions on how to derive this value for each instance of <tag>addSpan/</tag> in order to avoid repetition.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="space" atts="dim extent unit"/>
<specDesc key="add" atts="place corresp"/>
<specDesc key="anchor" atts="xml:id"/>
<specDesc key="addSpan" atts="spanTo corresp"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="overtext">
<head>Text Written Over Other Text</head>
<p>Livingstone often deletes a character or word by writing another character or word over it. For such instances use the following coding formula:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">He <subst><del>gave</del><add place="over-text">handed</add></subst> it to me.</egXML>
</p>
<p>If such a substitution occurs in the middle of a word, you may use <gi>w</gi> to avoid confusion by indicating the beginning and end of the full word:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">He <w>g<subst><del>i</del><add place="over-text">a</add></subst>ve</w> it to me.</egXML>
</p>
<p>If someone else (for instance, the editor in <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>) intervenes by writing directly over one of Livingstone’s words or characters with a different word or symbol, code as follows.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><subst><del hand="#U2">no</del><add place="over-text" rend="gray" hand="#U2">any</add></subst></egXML>
</p>
<p>In the example above, unknown hand #2 writes the word "any" over Livingstone’s word "no." The mark up shows that Livingstone’s initial word has been replaced (and hence deleted) by overwriting.
</p>
<p>Sometimes Livingstone writes over a word suggested by another individual with a different character or word in order to delete or change the suggested character or word. We thus have an addition by someone else that is replaced by Livingstone's overwriting. This is encoded similarly to the previous examples, while also showing that the initial word was added by another hand:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="marginleft" rend="gray" hand="#U2"><subst><del hand="#DL">editor's
word</del><add place="over-text" hand="#DL">Livingstone’s correction</add></subst></add></egXML>
</p>
<p>If Livingstone writes over a word or a symbol suggested by someone else in order to confirm it (i.e., Livingstone writes the same word or symbol), code Livingstone’s addition using the <gi>retrace</gi> element:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><retrace hand="#DL"><add place="below" rend="red" hand="#U3">^</add>
<add place="above" rend="red" hand="#U3">him from</add></retrace></egXML>
</p>
<p>The <gi>retrace</gi> element specifies that it is Livingstone’s hand doing the retracing.</p>
<p>Finally, sometimes Livingstone deletes a word that has already been deleted by someone else. In other words, he confirms the deletion. To encode this form of overwriting, code the word as a double deletion by enclosing it within two <gi>del</gi> elements:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><del type="cancelled" hand="#DL"><del type="cancelled" hand="#U2">You</del></del></egXML>
</p>
<p>In the example above, the word "You" has been deleted by someone else and then also deleted by Livingstone.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="subst"/>
<specDesc key="del" atts="type"/>
<specDesc key="add" atts="place rend"/>
<specDesc key="retrace" atts="hand"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="notes">
<head>Authorial Notes within the Text</head>
<p>Use the <gi>note</gi> element anytime Livingstone himself inserts a note, gloss, or footnote outside the body of the main text that explains an item within the main text.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">the whole tribe x
<add place="marginleft"><note>if it were necessary for me
to seek a character I would confidently refer to the
<term type="tribe">Bakwains</term> for it</note></add></egXML>
</p>
<p>The <gi>note</gi> element combined <att>place</att> and the "marginleft" value should also be used to mark the dates that Livingstone periodically adds to the left margin of the <hi rend="italic">Unyanyembe Journal</hi>. These should be marked as they occur, even if that happens in the middle of a sentence:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/>I was content
<lb/><note place="marginleft"><date when="1871-05-08">8th</date></note> to take the canoe on any terms -</egXML>
</p>
<p>If the date added to the left margin spans more than one line, use <tag>lb/</tag> as appropriate (see <ptr target="#linebreak"/>):</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<lb/><note place="marginleft"><date when="1866-04-13">13<hi rend="sup underline">th</hi>
April <lb/>1866</date></note> alone but other nations feel</egXML>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="note" atts="place"/>
<specDesc key="lb"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="editorial">
<head>Recording Editorial Interventions</head>
<p/>
<div xml:id="punctuation">
<head>Authorial Punctuation and Capitalization</head>
<p>Livingstone limits his punctuation primarily to n-dashes (-), which often shade into m-dashes or even longer dashes, and equal signs (=). He distinctly prefers n-dashes, but he uses these interchangeably with equal signs in places of such punctuation as commas, colons, semicolons, and periods as well as to mark simple pauses in the text. When transcribing an n-dash or equal sign, please adhere to the following guidelines.</p>
<p>When Livingstone uses an n-dash for any reason other than hyphenation of a word, place a space before and after the n-dash when trascribing it, even if it looks like Livingstone himself hasn't:</p>
<eg>a very old town - country</eg>
<p>Likewise, when transcribing an equal sign that Livingstone has used as punctuation, place a space before and after, even if it looks like Livingstone himself hasn't:</p>
<eg>tea = coffee</eg>
<p>When Livingstone uses an n-dash to introduce or follow a quotation, he places the n-dash directly below the opening or closing quotation marks rather than next to them. However, when transcribing this, you should nonetheless put a space between the dash and the quotation mark:</p>
<eg>He said - "I will" - in answer to me.</eg>
<p>If unsure, whether Livingstone is using a period or dash, select dash by default.</p>
<p>If Livingstone's n-dash looks like an m-dask or even longer, use two or more n-dashes without any space between them:</p>
<eg>poor -- mostly</eg>
<p>Livingstone also has a tendency to run the first person pronoun ("I") onto the following word, as in the following: "Iwent". All instances of this should be silently separated when transcribed:</p>
<eg>I went</eg>
<p>Livingstone is by no means consistent in his use of capitalization and, moreover, it is often even not clear whether a word is capitalized or not. When transcribing, use the following rules of thumb. When a word is capitalized (or not) and the context suggests this is correct, transcribe as is. When a word is capitalized (or not) and the context suggests this is incorrect, transcribe as is but if (in your opinion) it is very important that the capitalization be corrected, use <gi>choice</gi> plus <gi>sic</gi> and <gi>corr</gi> to provide a corrected verison of the word:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">The man spoke to me - <choice><sic>then</sic><corr>Then</corr></choice> he left.</egXML>
<p>For use of the <gi>choice</gi>, <gi>sic</gi>, and <gi>corr</gi> elements, see <ptr target="#sic-corr"/>.</p>
<p>Finally, if it is not clear whether a word is capitalized and it would therefore be OK to transcribe it either way, allow context to guide your decision as to whether to capialize it or not.</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="sic-corr">
<head>Authorial Grammatical, Typographical, and Other Mistakes</head>
<p>When you encounter some sort of textual mistake made by the author, mark it with
a combination of the <gi>choice</gi> element and <hi rend="bold">both</hi> the
<gi>sic</gi> (apparent error) and <gi>corr</gi> (correction) elements.
<label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg>I recieved your letter</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I <choice><sic>recieved</sic><corr>received</corr></choice> your letter</egXML>
</p>
<p>If there is an uncertainty as to the correction that you provide use the
<att>cert</att> attribute with values of "<val>low</val>",
"<val>medium</val>", "<val>high</val>" to denote the degree of confidence in
the addition you have made:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><choice><sic>recieved</sic><corr cert="high">received</corr></choice></egXML>
</p>
<p>If a duplicate word appears in the text, use the <gi>choice</gi>, <gi>sic</gi>, and <gi>corr</gi> elements to remove it:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">till the <choice><sic>the</sic><corr/></choice> astringent poison</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Livingstone tends to leave off apostrophes for contractions and possessives. To mark such instances in the text, do not use <gi>supplied</gi> plus an apostrophe, but rather code with <gi>choice</gi> plus <gi>sic</gi> and <gi>corr</gi>:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><choice><sic>dont</sic><corr>don't</corr></choice></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Important Note:</hi> Be sure to remember that there is a difference between errors and variants. If Livingstone makes an obvious error, then use <gi>choice</gi>, <gi>sic</gi>, and <gi>corr</gi>, as described above. However, if Livingstone uses a variant that would not have been incorrect in his own day (e.g., Mosambique) and/or that exists in a more common, alternative form now (Mozambique), use <gi>choice</gi>, <gi>orig</gi>, and <gi>reg</gi> to normalize this (see <ptr target="#normalized-text"/>).</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="choice"/>
<specDesc key="sic"/>
<specDesc key="corr" atts="cert"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="unclear-text">
<head>Text that is Not Clear</head>
<p>Use <gi>unclear</gi> to mark up any text that is not clear; furthermore, use the
<att>cert</att> attribute with values of "<val>low</val>",
"<val>medium</val>", or "<val>high</val>" to denote the degree of confidence
in the transcription you have made:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"> he said he would <unclear cert="low">say</unclear> me tomorrow </egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="unclear" atts="cert"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="variant-readings">
<head>Variant Readings</head>
<p>Use the <gi>app</gi> element plus at least two or more instances of the <gi>rdg</gi> element to mark valid alternate readings of a single word or textual passage. If needed, <att>cert</att> may be used with values of "<val>low</val>", "<val>medium</val>", "<val>high</val>" to denote the degree of confidence in a given reading.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><app><rdg cert="high">will</rdg><rdg>well</rdg></app></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="app"/>
<specDesc key="rdg" atts="cert"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="gaps-and-other-things">
<head>Missing Portions of the Manuscript Page or Text that is Illegible</head>
<p>We use <gi>gap</gi> to tag text that is wholly illegible due to deletion or some
other factor, or missing all together from the manuscript page due to physical
damage. The <gi>gap</gi> element never contains text:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><gap extent="6" unit="chars" agent="blot"/> sugar -- candles</egXML>
</p>
<p>In the <gi>gap</gi> element, the values we use for the <att>agent</att> attribute
include: "<val>blot</val>", "<val>fading</val>", "<val>hole</val>", "<val>illegible</val>",
"<val>overwriting</val>", and "<val>stain</val>". </p>
<p>The value of the <att>extent</att> attribute is always an approximation.</p>
<p>Note: For coding manuscript damage that spans more than a few lines of text, please consult the project team.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="gap" atts="agent extent unit"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="supplied-text">
<head>Portion of the Text that You Have Supplied</head>
<p>If a portion of the original text is missing for whatever reason and you supply
it, use <gi>supplied</gi> to mark up this addition; furthermore, use the
<att>cert</att> with values of "<val>low</val>", "<val>medium</val>",
"<val>high</val>" to denote the degree of confidence in the addition you
have made:</p>
<p>
<label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg>He saw man</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">he saw <supplied cert="high">the</supplied> man</egXML></p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Important Note:</hi> You should be <hi rend="underline">very conservative</hi> in your use of the <gi>supplied</gi> tag and only supply text of which you are 100% certain. Otherwise, use <tag>gap/</tag>. In other words, avoid guessing at Livingstone's meaning unnecessarily.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> The <gi>supplied</gi> tag is never nested in the <gi>gap</gi> tag.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">he saw <gap agent="damage" extent="3" unit="letters"/><supplied cert="high">the</supplied> man</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="supplied" atts="cert"/>
<specDesc key="gap"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="normalized-text">
<head>Normalized Text</head>
<p>Use the <gi>choice</gi> element plus <gi>orig</gi> and <gi>reg</gi> to mark any instances where Livingstone's text, although not incorrect necessarily, is nonetheless normalized or otherwise corrected by you.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><choice><orig>shew</orig><reg>show</reg></choice></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> this also includes the normalization of proper nouns:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">The <term type="tribe"><choice><orig>Suaheli</orig><reg>Swahili</reg></choice></term></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">The <placeName><geogName type="river"><choice><orig>Chambeze</orig><reg>Chambezi</reg></choice></geogName></placeName></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="choice"/>
<specDesc key="orig"/>
<specDesc key="reg"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="project-formatting">
<head>Project-Specific Formatting Practices</head>
<p/>
<div xml:id="special-characters">
<head>The Ampersand and Other Special Characters</head>
<p>When you transcribe an ampersand, use <code>&amp;amp;</code> instead of an actual
ampersand: <label rend="italic">Original text:</label>
<eg>I saw John &amp; Jim</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I saw John <?entity amp?> Jim</egXML>
</p>
<p>If you come across any other unusual characters that are not found within the
"Insert from Character Map" option from the "Edit" dropdown menu in oXygen, add
a comment to draw the attention of the project to this.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><!-- Adrian, there is a weird character you need to insert here. DH -->
</egXML>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="quotations">
<head>Quotation from Another Source</head>
<p>When dealing with a quotation from another source, usually a printed source (which may or may not be explicitly identified in Livingstone's text), use the <gi>quote</gi> element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">As it is stated in the Bible, "<quote>Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel...</quote>."</egXML>
<hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> As in the example above, the <gi>quote</gi> element goes inside of the quotation marks that surround the given quotation. In other words, do not mark the quotation marks as part of the quotation.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="quote"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="abbreviations">
<head>Abbreviations</head>
<p>When you encounter an abbreviation made by the author, mark it with the
<gi>choice</gi> element and <hi rend="bold">both</hi> the <gi>abbr</gi>
(abbreviation) and <gi>expan</gi> (expansion) elements. <label rend="italic"
>Original text:</label>
<eg>my no. 1 friend</eg>
<label rend="italic">Marked up:</label>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">my <choice><abbr>no.</abbr><expan>number</expan></choice> 1 friend</egXML>
</p>
<p>If there is an uncertainty as to the expansion that you provide, use the
<att>cert</att> attribute with values of "<val>low</val>",
"<val>medium</val>", "<val>high</val>" to denote the degree of confidence in
the expansion you have provided.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">my <choice><abbr>no.</abbr><expan cert="high">number</expan></choice></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> any prefix pertaining to a personal name, i.e.
Dr, Mr, Miss, Rev, <hi rend="underline">need not be expanded</hi>.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="choice"/>
<specDesc key="abbr"/>
<specDesc key="expan" atts="cert"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="fractions">
<head>Fractions</head>
<p>We use <gi>choice</gi> and the <gi>orig</gi> and <gi>reg</gi> elements to encode
fractions:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><choice><orig>½</orig><reg>1/2</reg></choice></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="choice"/>
<specDesc key="orig"/>
<specDesc key="reg"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="personal-names">
<head>Names of People</head>
<p> When marking up a person's name, use the <gi>persName</gi> element.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I saw <persName>David Livingstone</persName></egXML>
</p>
<p>However, note the following example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I saw <persName>Dr David Livingstone</persName>'s tent</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> any prefix pertaining to a personal name, i.e.
Dr, Mr, Miss, Rev, <hi rend="underline">should be included within the
<gi>persName</gi> element but and does <hi rend="bold">not</hi> need to
be expanded.</hi> Likewise any possessive marker ('s) can be outside the
<gi>persName</gi>.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="persName"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="place-names">
<head>Place Names and Geographical Elements</head>
<p>When you mark up a geographical element, use the <gi>placeName</gi> element <hi
rend="bold">and</hi> one of the following: <gi>bloc</gi> (for multi-national
entities like 'Africa'), <gi>country</gi> (for countries), <gi>region</gi> (for
large administrative units), or <gi>settlement</gi> (for cities, towns,
villages). On <gi>settlement</gi> use the <att>type</att> attribute to record
values such as "<val>city</val>", "<val>town</val>", or "<val>village</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName><settlement type="village">Nyangwe</settlement></placeName></egXML>
</p>
<p>Use <gi>geogName</gi> to denote a specific named geographical entity not covered
by the above, using the <att>type</att> attribute with values such as
"<val>lake</val>", "<val>river</val>", etc.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName><geogName type="river">Nile</geogName></placeName></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Livingstone uses distinct abbreviations to denote "river" and "rivulet." He abbreviates "river" as either "R." or "R", while he abbreviates "rivulet" as "Rt" or "R<hi rend="sup">t</hi>". In the latter case, the superscript "t" may resemble a superscript "r" but should nonetheless be treated as a "t". Code these abbreviations as follows:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">the <placeName><geogName type="river">Lualaba <choice><abbr>R.</abbr>
<expan>River</expan></choice></geogName></placeName></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">the <placeName><geogName type="rivulet">Lipande <choice><abbr>R<hi rend="sup">t</hi></abbr>
<expan>Rivulet</expan></choice></geogName></placeName></egXML>
<p>You should also use <gi>geogName</gi> when encoding the full reference to a geographical entity that includes any kind of formal name (which itself would also be separately encoded:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName><geogName type="source">sources of the <placeName><geogName type="river">Nile</geogName></placeName></geogName></placeName></egXML>
<p>If Livingstone refers to a specific, named geographical entity (and you know what that entity is), but uses only a generic term such as "the Lake" or "the River," you should identify this entity in a comment that directly follows the relevant term, but not otherwise mark the term used:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I saw the Lake.<!-- geog: Tanganyika --></egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Livingstone uses "Metamba" to reference the Central African rainforest, although the term is really a local word for "forest." To account for this usage, please code as follows:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><foreign xml:lang="und"><placeName><region><geogName type="forest">Metamba</geogName></region></placeName></foreign></egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> "Cape" and "Interior" should
be coded with the <gi>region</gi> element (even though technically
incorrect). Code "Zanzibar" as follows:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName><geogName type="island">Zanzibar</geogName></placeName></egXML>
<p>Directional words (North, South, East, and West) should not be tagged when referring to directions. Rather tag directional words only when Livingstone uses them to designate a region:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><placeName><region>South of <placeName><geogName type="lake">Lake Nyassa</geogName></placeName></region></placeName></egXML>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="placeName"/>
<specDesc key="bloc"/>
<specDesc key="region"/>
<specDesc key="country"/>
<specDesc key="settlement"/>
<specDesc key="geogName" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
<div xml:id="measurements">
<head>Geographical Measurements</head>
<p>Use the <gi>measure</gi> element to mark any geographical quantities (including geographical coordinates) that Livingstone cites in the text. This includes distances measured in days or hours as well (most often used in reference to the party's marches).
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">The village was <measure>a few days' march</measure> from here</egXML>
If Livingstone provides an obvious group of geographical quantities, an additional <gi>measure</gi> element should be used to encapsulate the group.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
The river was <measure><measure>30 feet deep</measure>
and <measure>1000 yards across</measure></measure></egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> If Livingstone introduces a larger set of geographical coordinates, these should normally <hi rend="underline">not be transcribed</hi>, but rather be noted with the <gi>figure</gi> and <gi>figDes</gi> elements. See <ptr target="#figures"/>.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="measure"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="weather">
<head>References to Weather</head>
<p>Use <tag>seg type="weather"</tag> to mark passages in the text where Livingstone refers to the weather.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">We have <seg type="weather">rain in large quantity almost every night</seg></egXML>
<p>Such weather references may be loosely made, and it may be difficult to determine where exactly they begin and end. In all cases use the <gi>seg</gi> elment and best judgment to mark such references. Opt for one use of <gi>seg</gi> to mark a longer passage with a series of specific descriptions rather than multiple uses of the <gi>seg</gi> element.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> When Livingstone provides the outside temperature, this should be be coded with only <tag>seg type="weather"</tag>, and not the <gi>measure</gi> element.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">6 AM <seg type="weather">98°</seg></egXML>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="seg" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="terms">
<head>Terms to Mark</head>
<div xml:id="animals">
<head>Animals (Including Fish), Insects, Plants, and Foodstuffs</head>
<p>When dealing with animals, including fish, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>animal</val>". The value of "<val>animal</val>" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple animals of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "animal" or "beast" need not be tagged.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="animal">elephants</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>When dealing with insects, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>insect</val>". The value of "<val>insect</val>" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple insects of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "insects" or "bugs" need not be tagged.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="insect">tetse</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>When dealing with specifically named plants, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>plant</val>". The value of "<val>plant</val>" in the singular should be used in all cases, even when the text refers to multiple plants of one kind. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "trees," "bushes," or "grass" need not be tagged.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="plant">Euphorbias</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>When dealing with foodstuffs, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>foodstuff</val>". The value of "<val>foodstuff</val>" in the singular should be used in all cases. Livingstone's uses of general terms such as "food" need not be tagged.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="foodstuff">bread</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>If Livingstone refers to a foodstuff that is also a plant, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with the value of "<val>plant_foodstuff</val>" (in that order):
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="plant_foodstuff">maize</term></egXML>
This format should be used regardless of the state in which the given item appears in the text.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><term type="plant_foodstuff">coffee</term></egXML>
If Livingstone refers to an animal that, in context, is also a foodstuff, code as follows using two <gi>term</gi> elements:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="animal"><term tag="foodstuff">goat</term></term></egXML>
Beverages, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic, <hi rend="underline">should be coded</hi> as foodstuff and follow previously stated formats.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><term type="foodstuff">brandy</term></egXML></p>
<p><hi rend="bold underline">Note:</hi> Terms relating to meals (such as breakfast, lunch, supper) <hi rend="underline">should not be coded</hi> as "foodstuff."</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="nationalities">
<head>Nationalities</head>
<p>When dealing with nationalities used adjectivally, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>nationality</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">the <term type="nationality">English</term> settlements</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="people">
<head>People of a Given Nationality</head>
<p>When dealing with people of a given nationality (e.g., Englishmen, Americans), use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>people</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="people">Englishmen</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>If the reference is to just one person of a nationality (e.g., a Englishman, American), use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>person</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="person">Englishman</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="tribes">
<head>African Tribes</head>
<p>When marking up an African tribal name, use the <gi>term</gi> element with the
<att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>tribe</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I saw the <term type="tribe">Nyamwezi</term></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="faiths">
<head>Religious Faith</head>
<p>Use the <gi>term</gi> element with a <att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>faith</val>" to mark instances in the text
where religious faith or an organized religion is cited.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="faith">Christianity</term> and <term type="faith">Islam</term></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><term type="faith">Christian</term> values</egXML>
</p>
<p>However, for practitioners of particular faiths, see <ptr target="#organizations"/>.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="occupations">
<head>Occupation</head>
<p>Use the <gi>term</gi> element with a <att>type</att> attribute with a value of "<val>occupation</val>"
anytime an occupation of any sort is mentioned in the text.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">Livingstone was a <term type="occupation">missionary</term>,
<term type="occupation">geographer</term>, and <term type="occupation">abolitionist</term> </egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>, the following terms and any variations thereof should be marked up as "<val>occupation</val>": chief, chieftain, and rain doctor.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="medical">
<head>Medical Terms</head>
<p>When marking up a medical reference or term, use <gi>term</gi> plus the
<att>type</att> attribute and appropriate value, such as
"<val>ailment</val>" or <val>medicament</val>".
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">I had <term type="ailment">malaria</term> for a month.</egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="organizations">
<head>Organizations and Other Groups</head>
<p>Use the <gi>orgName</gi> element to mark instances in the text where there is mention of an organization or other type of group (or any reference to an individual as being part of a group) that is not covered by <ptr target="#nationalities"/>, <ptr target="#people"/>, or <ptr target="#tribes"/>. Note that all the following entities should be marked with the <gi>orgName</gi> element: Aborigine, Aborigines, African, Africans, Arab, Arabs, Banian, Banians, Boer, Boers, Bushman, Bushmen, Caffre (or the variant spellings, Kaffre and Kaffir), Caffres (or the variant spellings, Kaffres and Kaffirs), Christian (an individual; for use of Christian as an adjective, see <ptr target="#faiths"/>), Christians, European, Europeans, Griqua, Moslem (an individual; for use of Moslem as an adjective, see <ptr target="#faiths"/>), and Moslems. For references to organized religions (e.g., Christianity, Islam), see <ptr target="#faiths"/>.</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">the <orgName>the London Missionary Society</orgName></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName>African</orgName> villages</egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">I spoke with the <orgName>Arab</orgName></egXML>
<p>"Johanna men" and "Nassick boys" (and all variants of these two groups) to be coded as follows:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName><placeName><geogName type="island">Johanna</geogName></placeName> men</orgName></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName><placeName><settlement type="city">Nassick</settlement></placeName> boys</orgName></egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> All references to "slaves" and "slavery" should also be marked with <gi>orgName</gi> as should references to "caste," "freemen," "free men," "natives," "cannibals," and "flesh eaters":</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">He had two <orgName>slaves</orgName> and spoke of <orgName>slavery</orgName></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">It is believed by the <orgName>natives</orgName>.</egXML>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> Havildar and Sepoy (singular and plural) should be marked with both <gi>orgName</gi>, and <gi>term</gi> with the <att>type</att> attribute and a value of "<val>occupation</val>":</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName><term type="occupation">Havildar</term></orgName></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName><term type="occupation">Sepoys</term></orgName></egXML>
<p>Groups relating to a specific person should also be marked with <gi>orgName</gi>:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><orgName><persName>Emboro</persName>'s men</orgName>
</egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/>from depositions of survivors of <orgName><persName>Baron</persName>'s party</orgName>
</egXML>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="orgName"/>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
<div xml:id="orgname-usage">
<head>Additional Notes on Coding Organizations</head>
<p>In some cases, one or more entities encoded with the <gi>orgName</gi> or <tag>term type="occupation"</tag> tags may themselves, in combination, constitute a larger organization or group. In such cases, nestle the individual entities within one additonal <gi>orgName</gi> as follows:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">An <orgName><orgName>Arab</orgName> <term type="occupation">trader</term></orgName>.</egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">A <orgName><term type="nationality">Portuguese</term> <term type="occupation">sailor</term></orgName>.</egXML>
<p>In the above examples, "Arab" and "trader" (first example) and "Portuguese" and "sailor" (second example) are coded per normal practice, but are also collectively encapsulated, in each case, in an additional <gi>orgName</gi> tag.</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> All variants of "slave trader" should be coded in the following <hi rend="underline">unique</hi> manner:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><orgName><term type="occupation"><orgName>slave</orgName> trader</term></orgName></egXML>
<p>In other words code "slave" with <gi>orgName</gi> per usual practice. Then code the whole phrase "slave trader" as a <tag>term type="occupation"</tag>. Finally, wrap the fully coded phrase "slave trader" in an additional <gi>orgName</gi> tag.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="orgName"/>
<specDesc key="term" atts="type"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
<div xml:id="bibliographical">
<head>Bibliographical Elements</head>
<p>Use <gi>bibl</gi> to encode any elements of a book, including the title, that Livingstone references:</p>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><bibl>Genesis</bibl></egXML>
<p>Also use <gi>bibl</gi> to encode any mention of letters or manuscripts, including Livingstone's own:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><bibl>Letters from <placeName><settlement type="city">Mecca</settlement></placeName></bibl> told of its coming</egXML>
or
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/>he assures me that my <bibl>packet of letters</bibl> was not destroyed</egXML></p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="bibl"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="foreign-words">
<head>Words in a Foreign Language</head>
<p>When dealing with foreign words, there are three steps to complete: <list
type="ordered">
<item>Find the abbreviation for the foreign language at the following
webpage: <ref type="newWindow"
target="https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry/language-subtag-registry"
>https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry/language-subtag-registry</ref>
</item>
<item>In the header, add in a <gi>langUsage</gi> for the foreign language
under the one for English as follows. Put English first, then all other languages in alphabetical order:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<langUsage>
<language ident="en">English</language>
<language ident="la">Latin</language>
</langUsage>
</egXML>
</item>
<item>Within the text, when the language comes up, you code the word/phrase
as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<foreign xml:lang="la">et id genus omne</foreign>
</egXML>
<hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> The <gi>foreign</gi> tag should go outside of any other tags used relating to the word or phrase:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">
<foreign xml:lang="nym"><term type="occupation">Pagazi</term></foreign>
</egXML>
</item>
</list>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Please note: </hi> If you are unsure of the language/dialect, but
know that it is not English, simply mark it as "Undetermined"
using the code "<val>und</val>". Also, we do not tag references to languages (Spanish, French, etc.) in any way.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="langUsage"/>
<specDesc key="language" atts="ident"/>
<specDesc key="foreign" atts="xml:lang"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="lists">
<head>Using Lists and Tables</head>
<p>Use the <gi>list</gi> element to contain any lists that appear in the text.
The title of any such list should be marked with the <gi>head</gi> element, while <gi>item</gi> should be used for each item within the list:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><list><head>Villages:</head> <item>Bambarre,</item> <item>Nyangwe,</item> <item>Ujiji</item></list></egXML>
Lists may also be broken up with line breaks (<tag>lb/</tag>)as needed:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<list><head>Villages</head>
<lb/><item>Bambarre</item>
<lb/><item>Nyangwe</item>
<lb/><item>Ujiji</item></list>
</egXML>
Livingstone's texts sometimes also contain tables or have information laid out in a such a way that the table format seems appropriate. Code tables and similar text (as seems appropriate -- such use may be subjective) with the <gi>table</gi> tag plus the <gi>head</gi> (for any title that the table may have), <gi>row</gi>, and <gi>cell</gi> tags.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<table><head>Villages</head>
<lb/><row><cell>Bambarre</cell> <cell>West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row>
<lb/><row><cell>Nyangwe</cell> <cell>West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row>
<lb/><row><cell>Ujiji</cell> <cell>East of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row></table>
</egXML>
Finally, if it turns out that marking columns is most appropriate, please use the <tag>cb/</tag> tag (see <ptr target="#columns"/>).
<hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Headings, lists, items, tables, rows, and cells may all be assigned various attributes and values as relevant, as in the following example where color is marked, rows are numbered, and cells are coded for placement on the page:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<table rend="blue"><head rend="black">Villages</head>
<lb/><row n="1"><cell rend="left">Bambarre</cell> <cell rend="right">West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row>
<lb/><row n="2"><cell rend="left">Nyangwe</cell> <cell rend="right">West of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row>
<lb/><row n="3"><cell rend="left">Ujiji</cell> <cell rend="right">East of Lake Tanganyika</cell></row></table></egXML>
<hi rend="bold">Note on all the above:</hi> Normally, in the examples above, the various settlements, regions, and geographical entities would be coded as per the instructions set out elsewhere in this manual. However, such coding has here been omitted for the sake of simplicity and clarity in the examples given. Additionally, in the last example, the numbering of rows is done only for illustrative purposes. Such numbering is optional and should normally not be undertaken.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="list"/>
<specDesc key="head"/>
<specDesc key="item"/>
<specDesc key="table"/>
<specDesc key="row"/>
<specDesc key="cell" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="figures">
<head>Figures, Drawings, and Calculations</head>
<p>If you come across any figures, drawings, or calculations, please mark them with
an empty <tag>figure/</tag> element. However, you can also describe them using
the <gi>figDesc</gi> element, which must then be contained by the
<gi>figure</gi> element. <egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure/></egXML>
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure><figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open towards the viewer.</figDesc></figure></egXML>
The description of the figure should be short and to the point, as in the example above. In the description, you should not as a rule describe the extent of the figure (i.e, "for three lines," etc.), but rather should focus only on its content. Also, assume that phrases like "Livingstone has here..." are a given and do not need to be used explicitly.</p>
<p>If Livingstone has himself given the figure a title, use the <gi>head</gi> element to record this:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure><head>Lion</head><figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open towards the viewer.</figDesc></figure></egXML>
</p>
<p>If your description of the figure cites any text that Livingstone himself has provided and that text in turn can be coded, then it should be coded directly in the citation:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples">The <term type="animal">lion</term> looked like this: <figure><head>Lion</head>
<figDesc>Drawing of a lion with it's mouth open
towards the viewer, with a note from Livingstone that he saw this lion "in the <placeName><geogName type="desert">Kalahari</geogName></placeName>."</figDesc>
</figure></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="figure"/>
<specDesc key="figDesc"/>
<specDesc key="head"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="oddities">
<head>Anything Unusual in the Text</head>
<p>If you come across anything unusal in the text that cannot be otherwise encoded,
please do not mark it other than leaving a comment to alert the project team.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><!-- Adrian: There's a drawing or something strange here. DH --></egXML>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="MissionaryTravels">
<head><hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi> Specific Practices</head>
<div xml:id="pagenumbers">
<head>Page Numbers</head>
<p>In the manuscript of <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>, page numbers generally appear in the running header in the top margin and so should appear in the <gi>fw</gi> element. The <gi>add</gi> elements plus the <att>place</att> attribute is used to show that they appear in the "<val>margintop</val>". Since the numbers have been added later by an editor or group of editors <att>hand</att> is also required. To indicate the colour and their position within the margintop, use <att>rend</att>. For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><fw><add place="margintop" hand="#U1" rend="gray right">5</add></fw></egXML>
</p>
<p>If there are two sets of numbers, as often happens, encode them as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><fw><add place="margintop" hand="#U1" rend="gray right">26</add>
<add place="margintop" hand="#U1" rend="gray right">29</add></fw></egXML>
</p>
<p>The above example indicates that "26" and "29" appear sequentially, left to right and separated by a space, in the right-hand corner of the top margin of the given page.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> While the various sets of numbers may be added by different hands there is little to be gained by differentiating them. Indeed, it’s quite likely that they’re actually the same hand – sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish between them. So on the assumption that it’s one hand adding the numbers, but perhaps at different times, we consider them to be two separate additions.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> While "<val>gray right</val>" is often the right value to use on <att>rend</att>, "<val>gray left</val>" and "<val>gray center</val>" will also be required on occasion.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> Occasionally one set of page numbers appears below the other. In such cases, use a second <att>place</att> value to indicate this, as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><fw><add place="margintop" hand="#U1" rend="gray right">58</add>
<add place="margintop below" hand="#U1" rend="gray right">80</add></fw></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="fw"/>
<specDesc key="add" atts="place hand rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="pagelayout">
<head>Page Layout</head>
<p>In <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>, the majority of text is rendered to the right of the page in order to leave room for marginal comments on the left. Accordingly, the value "<val>right</val>" is used on <att>rend</att> in the <gi>body</gi> element at the beginning of the transcription i.e. <tag>body rend="right"</tag>.
</p>
<p>Encode any departure from this norm. To do so, use <gi>seg</gi> with the <att>rend</att> attribute. For example, when Livingstone writes across the full width of the page, departing from his usual practice of writing on the right hand side, mark it up as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><seg rend="left">portion of text written across the full width of the page</seg>
<lb/>return to normal text</egXML>
</p>
<p>Please also include a comment in such places, noting that Livingstone has departed from his norm by writing a portion of text across the full width of the page.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="body"/>
<specDesc key="seg" atts="rend"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="formatting-hand">
<head>Textual Formatting in Another Hand</head>
<p>In <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi> the various editors occasionally format portions of Livingstone's text. For instance, unknown hand#2 might underline one of Livingstone's words in pencil. Record such occurrences using the <att>resp</att> (responsibility) attribute on the <gi>hi</gi> tag. Use the <att>rend</att> attribute per usual practice, as necessary, to record other characteristics of the formatting.
</p>
<p>For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><hi rend="gray underline" resp="#U2">some words of Livingstone's underlined in gray by unknown hand #2</hi></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> The <gi>hi</gi> element doesn’t accept <att>hand</att>, so we indicate authorial responsibility using <att>resp</att>, as in the example above.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> If both Livingstone and an editor format the same portion of text, use two separate <gi>hi</gi> tags to distinguish between the hands:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><hi rend="gray underline" resp="#U2"><hi rend="underline" resp="#DL">rain making</hi></hi></egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="hi" atts="rend resp"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="metamarks">
<head>Metamarks</head>
<list type="ordered">
<item><p><label rend="bold">Long Arrows</label></p>
<p>Carets that appear on their own are encoded as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><add place="below" >^</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>But when there appears to be a caret with a long line following it, we should just treat this as an arrow and therefore encode it with the <tag>metamark/</tag> tag. In other words, in such a case we shouldn’t mark up the caret and arrow separately.
</p>
<p>For such arrows:
Use the <gi>add</gi> element since most of them are clearly added later in order to point to an additional piece of text.
</p>
<p> Also include <att>function</att> on the <tag>metamark/</tag> to indicate the purpose of the metamark. Arrows will be marked up with the function "<val>insertion</val>".
</p>
<p>For the most part, these arrows go all the way from a point in the body of the text to a portion of additional text in the margin. We'll consider the arrow, along with the additional text, to be added in the "<val>marginleft</val>" (or "<val>margintop</val>", "<val>marginbottom</val>", etc. as appropriate). The <tag>metamark/</tag> is thus included as part of the same addition as the portion of text in the margin. Accordingly, long arrows will generally be encoded as follows:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="marginleft"><metamark function="insertion"/>rest of Livingstone's text in the margin</add></egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> Long arrows leading to a portion of text are generally the only metamarks (aside from carets) that should be nested in an <gi>add</gi> tag. See further details below.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="add"/>
<specDesc key="metamark" atts="function"/>
</specList>
</p>
</item>
<item><p><label rend="bold">Other Metamarks</label></p>
<p>Where possible, record the purpose of a particular metamark by using the <att>function</att> attribute with any of the following values: "<val>insertion</val>", "<val>deletion</val>", "<val>reorder</val>", "<val>newParagraph</val>", "<val>let-stand</val>", or "<val>query</val>":
<list>
<item><label>"<val>insertion</val>":</label> Use this for arrows intended to indicate an addition included in the margin or elsewhere.</item>
<item><label>"<val>deletion</val>":</label> Use this for the proof correction mark for delete (used by unknown hand #2), and editorial pencil marks/boxes that are intended to indicate a deletion.</item>
<item><label>"<val>reorder</val>":</label> This should be used when a line or mark is included to indicate that a portion of text should be moved to another place. (Also see <ptr target="#reordering"/> below.)</item>
<item><label>"<val>newParagraph</val>":</label> Use this for signs that are intended to indicate that a new paragraph should be taken. For the most part we’ll use this when Livingstone or an editor uses "/" and "//".</item>
<item><label>"<val>let-stand</val>":</label> Use this when Livingstone or the editor underlines a word with a dotted line. This is the proof correction mark for "let stand," indicating that a word marked for deletion should instead be retained.</item>
<item><label>"<val>query</val>":</label> Use this for any mark used to query a word or portion of text. For example, a circle or square drawn around a word in order to draw attention to it.</item>
</list>
</p>
<p>For metamarks not covered by the above, only record the presence of the <tag>metamark/</tag> along with a note that the metamark should be reviewed.
</p>
<p>Sometimes, a closed metamark will be sufficient:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><metamark function="insertion"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>However, if a metamark encloses text (for example, a square or circle is drawn around a word, or a long line in the margin brackets a portion of text), encode the extent of the metamark by using the <att>spanTo</att> attribute and the <tag>anchor/</tag> tag, as per the following instructions.
</p>
<p>At the beginning of a portion of text surrounded by a metamark, encode as normal, marking the function, but now including the <att>spanTo</att> attribute as well.
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><metamark function="query" spanTo="#meta-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value for <att>spanTo</att> is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p>Next, indicate the place that the metamark ends by using the <tag>anchor/</tag> tag with an attribute of <att>xml:id</att>. The <tag>anchor/</tag> tag simply marks a spot, and in this case indicates the endpoint of the metamark:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><anchor xml:id="meta-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value of the attribute <att>xml:id</att> is the same as on the <att>spanTo</att> above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p>For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><metamark function="query" spanTo="#meta-1"/>Livingstone's text, enclosed in a circle<anchor xml:id="meta-1"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>Please also add a comment describing the metamark:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples"><!-- Livingstone has drawn a circle around the word "and." JL --></egXML>
</p>
<p>In the above example, the value of "<val>meta-1</val>" is arbitrary. The value must be the same for <att>spanTo</att> on the <tag>metamark/</tag> tag and <att>xml:id</att> on the <tag>anchor/</tag> tag, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Drawing from the list on the <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi> google doc "Transcription Workflows," use the next available value and highlight it in yellow to show that it has been used.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> If a metamark is in an unusual place (for example "<val>marginleft</val>", "<val>margintop</val>", "<val>marginbottom</val>"), you may also include the <att>place</att> attribute on <tag>metamark/</tag>. This is only necessary if the metamark is outside (or above or below) the body of the text and needs to be signalled specially.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> Often a metamark is written by an editorial/unknown hand, but surrounds text written by Livingstone. Record such instances using the <att>rend</att> and <att>resp</att> (responsibility) attributes on <tag>metamark/</tag>:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><metamark function="query" rend="gray" resp="#U2" spanTo="#meta-2"/>
Livingstone's text<anchor xml:id="meta-2"/></egXML>
</p>
<p>As in the example above, the <tag>metamark/</tag> element doesn’t accept <att>hand</att>, so we indicate the authorial responsibility using <att>resp</att>.
</p>
<p>Please note that it is generally only necessary to use a separate <gi>add</gi> tag on a metamark when encoding a long arrow leading to a portion of text. In other words, if the metamark is part of a longer addition that includes text added by either DL or an editor, it should be nested in an <gi>add</gi> tag. Otherwise, by default we assume that metamarks are added later and therefore this does not need to be coded separately.
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="metamark" atts="function spanTo rend resp"/>
<specDesc key="anchor" atts="xml:id"/>
<specDesc key="add"/>
</specList>
</p>
</item>
<item><p><label rend="bold" xml:id="reordering">Note on "<val>reorder</val>"</label></p>
<p>When a textual mark or arrow is used to signal that a portion of text should be moved to another place in the document (often up or down several lines), do not move the word itself while transcribing. Instead, transcribe what you see on the page, while capturing the intended reordering as follows:
</p>
<p>First, mark the portion of text intended for relocation using the <gi>seg</gi> element with the <att>corresp</att> attribute. For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><seg corresp="#reorder-1">some words to be moved three lines below</seg></egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value for <att>corresp</att> is preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p>Next, at the place where the word(s) are intended to be moved to, indicate this by using the anchor tag, which simply marks a spot. Leave a space before and after this tag:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/>the text to be repositioned belongs right <anchor xml:id="reorder-1"/> in the middle of this sentence.</egXML>
</p>
<p>(Notice that the value of the attribute <att>xml:id</att> is the same as on the <att>corresp</att> above, but now is not preceded by a "#" [number sign].)
</p>
<p>Finally, since reordering in Livingstone’s manuscripts is indicated using a metamark of some kind, the word or words marked up using <gi>seg</gi> should also be wrapped in the <tag>metamark/</tag> and <tag>anchor/</tag> tags. Use these tags as explained above, remembering to include the <att>function</att>, <att>rend</att>, and <att>resp</att> attributes on <tag>metamark/</tag> as appropriate. For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><metamark function="reorder" rend="gray" resp="#U2" spanTo="#meta-3"/>
<seg corresp="#reorder-2">some words, circled by an editor,</seg><anchor xml:id="meta-3"/>
<lb/>to be placed in the middle <anchor xml:id="reorder-2"/> of the line below.</egXML>
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> In the above examples the values "<val>reorder-1</val>" and "<val>reorder-2</val>" are arbitrary. The value must be the same for <att>corresp</att> on the <gi>seg</gi> tag and the <att>xml:id</att> on the <tag>anchor/</tag> tag, but should also not be repeated for any other tags. Drawing from the list on the <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi> google doc "Transcription Workflows," take the next available value and highlight it in yellow to show that it has been used.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Also note:</hi> If it is the case that two words are intended to be switched (a transposition, technically), code this as a single reordering where possible (i.e. if the two words are side-by-side). However, if it is not possible to capture Livingstone's or the editor's intention using a single reordering, code the two words as separate reorderings, each contained in their own <tag>metamark/</tag> and <tag>anchor/</tag> tags.
</p>
<p>In the example below, Livingstone intends to transpose the words "lions" and "baboons":
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><lb/><metamark function="reorder" spanTo="#meta-4"/><seg corresp="#reorder-3">lions</seg>
<anchor xml:id="meta-4"/> <anchor xml:id="reorder-4"/> and <metamark function="reorder" spanTo="#meta-5"/>
<seg corresp="#reorder-4">baboons</seg><anchor xml:id="meta-5"/> <anchor xml:id="reorder-3"/> </egXML>
</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="seg" atts="corresp"/>
<specDesc key="anchor" atts="xml:id"/>
<specDesc key="metamark" atts="function rend resp spanTo"/>
</specList>
</p>
</item>
</list>
</div>
<div xml:id="another-hand">
<head>Substantial Sections in Another Hand</head>
<p>Short portions of text in another hand are encoded using variations on the following formula:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><add place="inline" rend="gray" hand="#U2">addition by an editor</add></egXML>
</p>
<p>If, however, the hand changes for a longer portion of text (for instance, for many paragraphs or even several pages), use the <gi>div</gi> element plus the <att>resp</att> attribute to mark the new hand composing the section. For example:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve"><div resp="#CL">
<lb/><p>long portion of text in Charles Livingstone's hand.</p>
</div></egXML>
</p>
<p>This is particularly important for volume three of <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>, where a considerable portion of text is written by Charles Livingstone and by another unidentified hand.
</p>
<p><hi rend="bold">Note:</hi> <gi>p</gi> must be contained within <gi>div</gi>, so the previous paragraph must be closed before a new <gi>div</gi> can be opened. Whether or not the long portion of text begins a new paragraph, it will thus be necessary to make one to indicate the change of hand.</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="div" atts="resp"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="handnotes">
<head>Handnotes</head>
<p>It is important to note that multiple hands contribute to the manuscript of <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi>. (For guidance on coding these, see <ptr target="#add-del"/> and <ptr target="#another-hand"/>.)
</p>
<p>In <hi rend="italic">Missionary Travels</hi> the hands currently in use are:
<list>
<item><label rend="bold">Unknown Hand 1:</label> This hand belongs to a later librarian or archivist, whose additions are normally limited to adding page numbers.</item>
<item><label rend="bold">Unknown Hand 2:</label> This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray, making corrections and additions in pencil.</item>
<item><label rend="bold">Unknown Hand 3:</label> This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray, making corrections and additions in red ink.</item>
<item><label rend="bold">Unknown Hand 4:</label> This unknown hand is possibly Dr. Keith of Hamilton.</item>
<item><label rend="bold">Charles Livingstone:</label> This hand belongs to Charles Livingstone.</item>
</list>
</p>
<p>Remember that both known and unknown hands require a <gi>handNote</gi> in the header:
<egXML xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/Examples" xml:space="preserve">
<handNote xml:id="U1"><label>Unknown Hand 1</label>
This hand belongs to a later librarian or archivist, whose
additions are normally limited to adding page numbers.</handNote>
<handNote xml:id="U2"><label>Unknown Hand 2</label>
This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group
of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray,
making corrections and additions in pencil.</handNote>
<handNote xml:id="U3"><label>Unknown Hand 3</label>
This hand is unknown but is thought to be an editor or group
of editors in the employment of the publisher, John Murray,
making corrections and additions in red ink.</handNote>
<handNote xml:id="U4"><label>Unknown Hand 4</label>
This unknown hand is possibly Dr Keith of Hamilton.</handNote>
<handNote xml:id="CL"><label>Charles Livingstone</label>
This hand belongs to Charles Livingstone.</handNote>
</egXML>
</p>
<p>Please notify the project team if you discover another hand.</p>
<p><label rend="bold">Note:</label> In the example above, empty lines have been put between the <gi>handNote</gi> elements to facilitate reading, but such emtpy lines are not necessary in your actual transcription</p>
<p>Definitions of the elements used above are: <specList>
<specDesc key="handNote"/>
<specDesc key="label"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
</div>
</body>
<back>
<div xml:id="element-summary">
<head>Summary of Elements in LEAP Schema</head>
<p>
<label>Analysis Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="w"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Core Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="abbr"/>
<specDesc key="add"/>
<specDesc key="addrLine"/>
<specDesc key="address"/>
<specDesc key="author"/>
<specDesc key="bibl"/>
<specDesc key="biblScope"/>
<specDesc key="biblStruct"/>
<specDesc key="cb"/>
<specDesc key="choice"/>
<specDesc key="corr"/>
<specDesc key="date"/>
<specDesc key="del"/>
<specDesc key="desc"/>
<specDesc key="editor"/>
<specDesc key="expan"/>
<specDesc key="foreign"/>
<specDesc key="gap"/>
<specDesc key="gb"/>
<specDesc key="gloss"/>
<specDesc key="graphic"/>
<specDesc key="head"/>
<specDesc key="hi"/>
<specDesc key="imprint"/>
<specDesc key="item"/>
<specDesc key="label"/>
<specDesc key="lb"/>
<specDesc key="list"/>
<specDesc key="listBibl"/>
<specDesc key="measure"/>
<specDesc key="milestone"/>
<specDesc key="monogr"/>
<specDesc key="name"/>
<specDesc key="note"/>
<specDesc key="orig"/>
<specDesc key="p"/>
<specDesc key="pb"/>
<specDesc key="pubPlace"/>
<specDesc key="publisher"/>
<specDesc key="q"/>
<specDesc key="quote"/>
<specDesc key="ref"/>
<specDesc key="reg"/>
<specDesc key="resp"/>
<specDesc key="respStmt"/>
<specDesc key="sic"/>
<specDesc key="term"/>
<specDesc key="title"/>
<specDesc key="unclear"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Figures Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="figure"/>
<specDesc key="figDesc"/>
<specDesc key="table"/>
<specDesc key="row"/>
<specDesc key="cell"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Header Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="authority"/>
<specDesc key="availability"/>
<specDesc key="category"/>
<specDesc key="catDesc"/>
<specDesc key="change"/>
<specDesc key="classDecl"/>
<specDesc key="edition"/>
<specDesc key="editionStmt"/>
<specDesc key="encodingDesc"/>
<specDesc key="fileDesc"/>
<specDesc key="funder"/>
<specDesc key="handNote"/>
<specDesc key="idno"/>
<specDesc key="keywords"/>
<specDesc key="langUsage"/>
<specDesc key="language"/>
<specDesc key="licence"/>
<specDesc key="listChange"/>
<specDesc key="listPrefixDef"/>
<specDesc key="notesStmt"/>
<specDesc key="prefixDef"/>
<specDesc key="principal"/>
<specDesc key="profileDesc"/>
<specDesc key="projectDesc"/>
<specDesc key="publicationStmt"/>
<specDesc key="rendition"/>
<specDesc key="revisionDesc"/>
<specDesc key="sourceDesc"/>
<specDesc key="styleDefDecl"/>
<specDesc key="tagsDecl"/>
<specDesc key="taxonomy"/>
<specDesc key="textClass"/>
<specDesc key="teiHeader"/>
<specDesc key="titleStmt"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Linking Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="ab"/>
<specDesc key="anchor"/>
<specDesc key="link"/>
<specDesc key="linkGrp"/>
<specDesc key="seg"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Manuscript Description Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="accMat"/>
<specDesc key="acquisition"/>
<specDesc key="additional"/>
<specDesc key="adminInfo"/>
<specDesc key="altIdentifier"/>
<specDesc key="collection"/>
<specDesc key="condition"/>
<specDesc key="custEvent"/>
<specDesc key="custodialHist"/>
<specDesc key="decoDesc"/>
<specDesc key="decoNote"/>
<specDesc key="depth"/>
<specDesc key="dim"/>
<specDesc key="dimensions"/>
<specDesc key="foliation"/>
<specDesc key="handDesc"/>
<specDesc key="height"/>
<specDesc key="history"/>
<specDesc key="institution"/>
<specDesc key="layout"/>
<specDesc key="layoutDesc"/>
<specDesc key="locus"/>
<specDesc key="locusGrp"/>
<specDesc key="material"/>
<specDesc key="msContents"/>
<specDesc key="msDesc"/>
<specDesc key="msIdentifier"/>
<specDesc key="msItem"/>
<specDesc key="msName"/>
<specDesc key="msPart"/>
<specDesc key="objectDesc"/>
<specDesc key="objectType"/>
<specDesc key="origDate"/>
<specDesc key="origPlace"/>
<specDesc key="origin"/>
<specDesc key="physDesc"/>
<specDesc key="provenance"/>
<specDesc key="recordHist"/>
<specDesc key="repository"/>
<specDesc key="scriptDesc"/>
<specDesc key="seal"/>
<specDesc key="sealDesc"/>
<specDesc key="signatures"/>
<specDesc key="stamp"/>
<specDesc key="summary"/>
<specDesc key="support"/>
<specDesc key="supportDesc"/>
<specDesc key="surrogates"/>
<specDesc key="width"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Names and Dates Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="addName"/>
<specDesc key="affiliation"/>
<specDesc key="age"/>
<specDesc key="birth"/>
<specDesc key="bloc"/>
<specDesc key="country"/>
<specDesc key="death"/>
<specDesc key="education"/>
<specDesc key="event"/>
<specDesc key="faith"/>
<specDesc key="forename"/>
<specDesc key="geo"/>
<specDesc key="geogFeat"/>
<specDesc key="geogName"/>
<specDesc key="listEvent"/>
<specDesc key="listOrg"/>
<specDesc key="listPerson"/>
<specDesc key="listPlace"/>
<specDesc key="location"/>
<specDesc key="nationality"/>
<specDesc key="occupation"/>
<specDesc key="offset"/>
<specDesc key="org"/>
<specDesc key="orgName"/>
<specDesc key="persName"/>
<specDesc key="person"/>
<specDesc key="place"/>
<specDesc key="placeName"/>
<specDesc key="region"/>
<specDesc key="roleName"/>
<specDesc key="settlement"/>
<specDesc key="state"/>
<specDesc key="surname"/>
<specDesc key="trait"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Text Critical Apparatus Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="app"/>
<specDesc key="rdg"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Text Structure Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="TEI"/>
<specDesc key="back"/>
<specDesc key="body"/>
<specDesc key="closer"/>
<specDesc key="dateline"/>
<specDesc key="div"/>
<specDesc key="front"/>
<specDesc key="opener"/>
<specDesc key="postscript"/>
<specDesc key="salute"/>
<specDesc key="signed"/>
<specDesc key="text"/>
<specDesc key="trailer"/>
</specList>
</p>
<p>
<label>Transcription Module</label>
<specList>
<specDesc key="addSpan"/>
<specDesc key="damage"/>
<specDesc key="damageSpan"/>
<specDesc key="delSpan"/>
<specDesc key="facsimile"/>
<specDesc key="fw"/>
<specDesc key="handNotes"/>
<specDesc key="handShift"/>
<specDesc key="listTranspose"/>
<specDesc key="metamark"/>
<specDesc key="mod"/>
<specDesc key="redo"/>
<specDesc key="restore"/>
<specDesc key="retrace"/>
<specDesc key="space"/>
<specDesc key="subst"/>
<specDesc key="supplied"/>
<specDesc key="surface"/>
<specDesc key="surfaceGrp"/>
<specDesc key="surplus"/>
<specDesc key="transpose"/>
<specDesc key="undo"/>
<specDesc key="zone"/>
</specList>
</p>
</div>
<div xml:id="schema-specification">
<head>Formal declaration and Reference Pages</head>
<!-- If you add or delete elements, modify the specList above and the documentation -->
<schemaSpec ident="leap" xml:lang="en" start="TEI">
<moduleRef key="analysis" include="w"/>
<moduleRef key="core"
include="abbr add addrLine address author bibl biblScope
biblStruct cb choice corr date del desc editor expan foreign gap gb gloss
graphic head hi imprint item label lb list measure measureGrp milestone
monogr name note orig p pb pubPlace publisher q quote ref reg resp respStmt
sic term title unclear"/>
<moduleRef key="figures" include="figure figDesc table row cell"/>
<moduleRef key="header"
include="authority availability category catDesc change
classDecl edition editionStmt encodingDesc fileDesc funder handNote idno
keywords langUsage language licence listChange listPrefixDef notesStmt
prefixDef principal profileDesc projectDesc publicationStmt rendition
revisionDesc sourceDesc styleDefDecl tagsDecl taxonomy textClass teiHeader
titleStmt"/>
<moduleRef key="linking" include="ab anchor link linkGrp seg"/>
<moduleRef key="msdescription"
include="accMat acquisition additional
adminInfo altIdentifier collection condition custEvent custodialHist
decoDesc decoNote depth dim dimensions foliation handDesc height history
institution layout layoutDesc locus locusGrp material msContents msDesc
msIdentifier msItem msName msPart objectDesc objectType origDate origPlace origin
physDesc provenance recordHist repository scriptDesc seal sealDesc
signatures stamp summary support supportDesc surrogates width "/>
<moduleRef key="namesdates"
include="addName affiliation age birth bloc country
death education event faith forename geo geogFeat geogName listEvent listOrg
listPerson listPlace location nationality occupation offset org orgName
persName person place placeName region roleName settlement state surname
trait"/>
<moduleRef key="tei"/>
<moduleRef key="textcrit" include="app rdg"/>
<moduleRef key="textstructure"
include="TEI back body closer dateline div front
opener postscript salute signed text trailer"/>
<moduleRef key="transcr"
include="addSpan damage damageSpan delSpan
facsimile fw handNotes handShift listTranspose metamark mod redo restore
retrace space subst supplied surface surfaceGrp surplus transpose undo zone"/>
<!-- gap change @reason and @agent -->
<elementSpec ident="gap" module="core" mode="change">
<attList>
<attDef ident="agent" mode="change">
<valList mode="replace" type="semi" xml:id="gap-agent">
<valItem ident="blot">
<desc>There is a blotting</desc>
</valItem>
<valItem ident="fading">
<desc>There is fading</desc>
</valItem>
<valItem ident="hole">
<desc>There is a hole</desc>
</valItem>
<valItem ident="illegible">
<desc>There is illegible text</desc>
</valItem>
<valItem ident="overwriting">
<desc>There is overwriting</desc>
</valItem>
<valItem ident="stain">
<desc>There is a stain</desc>
</valItem>
</valList>
</attDef>
<!-- <attDef ident="reason" mode="change">
<valList mode="replace" type="semi" xml:id="gap-reason">