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MetroHash: Faster, Better Hash Functions

MetroHash is a set of state-of-the-art hash functions for non-cryptographic use cases. They are notable for being algorithmically generated in addition to their exceptional performance. The set of published hash functions may be expanded in the future, having been selected from a very large set of hash functions that have been constructed this way.

  • Fastest general-purpose functions for bulk hashing.
  • Fastest general-purpose functions for small, variable length keys.
  • Robust statistical bias profile, similar to the MD5 cryptographic hash.
  • Hashes can be constructed incrementally (new)
  • 64-bit, 128-bit, and 128-bit CRC variants currently available.
  • Optimized for modern x86-64 microarchitectures.
  • Elegant, compact, readable functions.

You can read more about the design and history here.


23 October 2018

The project has been re-licensed under Apache License v2.0. The purpose of this license change is consistency with the imminent release of MetroHash v2.0, which is also licensed under the Apache license.

27 July 2015

Two new 64-bit and 128-bit algorithms add the ability to construct hashes incrementally. In addition to supporting incremental construction, the algorithms are slightly superior to the prior versions.

A big change is that these new algorithms are implemented as C++ classes that support both incremental and stateless hashing. These classes also have a static method for verifying the implementation against the test vectors built into the classes. Implementations are now fully contained by their respective headers e.g. "metrohash128.h".

Note: an incremental version of the 128-bit CRC version is on its way but is not included in this push.

Usage Example For Stateless Hashing

MetroHash128::Hash(key, key_length, hash_ptr, seed)

Usage Example For Incremental Hashing

MetroHash128 hasher;
hasher.Update(partial_key, partial_key_length);
hasher.Update(partial_key, partial_key_length);

An Initialize(seed) method allows the hasher objects to be reused.

27 May 2015

Six hash functions have been included in the initial release:

  • 64-bit hash functions, "metrohash64_1" and "metrohash64_2"
  • 128-bit hash functions, "metrohash128_1" and "metrohash128_2"
  • 128-bit hash functions using CRC instructions, "metrohash128crc_1" and "metrohash128crc_2"

Hash functions in the same family are effectively statistically unique. In other words, if you need two hash functions for a bloom filter, you can use "metrohash64_1" and "metrohash64_2" in the same implementation without issue. An unbounded set of statistically unique functions can be generated in each family. The functions in this repo were generated specifically for public release.

The hash function generation software made no effort toward portability. While these hash functions should be easily portable to big-endian microarchitectures, they have not been tested on them and the performance optimization algorithms were not targeted at them. ARM64 microarchitectures might be a worthwhile hash function generation targets if I had the hardware.


MetroHash v1: Exceptionally fast and statistically robust hash functions







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