Ruby server for tus resumable upload protocol
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README.md

tus-ruby-server

A Ruby server for the tus resumable upload protocol. It implements the core 1.0 protocol, along with the following extensions:

Installation

# Gemfile
gem "tus-server", "~> 2.0"

Usage

The gem provides a Tus::Server Roda app, which you can mount inside your main application. If you're using Rails, you can mount it in config/routes.rb:

# config/routes.rb (Rails)
Rails.application.routes.draw do
  mount Tus::Server => "/files"
end

Otherwise you can run it in config.ru:

# config.ru (Rack)
require "tus/server"

map "/files" do
  run Tus::Server
end

Now you can tell your tus client library (e.g. tus-js-client) to use this endpoint:

// using tus-js-client
new tus.Upload(file, {
  endpoint: "/files",
  chunkSize: 5*1024*1024, // required unless using Falcon
  // ...
})

By default uploaded files will be stored in the data/ directory. After the upload is complete, you'll probably want to attach the uploaded file to a database record. Shrine is currently the only file attachment library that provides an integration with tus-ruby-server, see this walkthrough that adds resumable uploads from scratch, and for a complete example you can check out the demo app.

Streaming web server

Running the tus server alongside your main app using popular web servers like Puma or Unicorn is probably fine for most cases, however, it does come with a few gotchas. First, since these web servers don't accept partial requests (request where the request body hasn't been fully received), the tus client must be configured to split the upload into multiple requests. Second, since web workers are tied for the duration of the request, serving uploaded files through the tus server app could significantly impact request throughput; this can be avoided by having your frontend server (Nginx) serve the files if using Filesystem storage, or if you're using a cloud service like S3 having download requests redirect to the service file URL.

That being said, there is a ruby web server that addresses these limitations – Falcon. Falcon is part of the async ecosystem, and it utilizes non-blocking IO to process requests and responses in a streaming fashion without tying up your web workers. This has several benefits for tus-ruby-server:

  • since tus server is called to handle the request as soon as the request headers are received, data from the request body will be uploaded to the configured storage as it's coming in from the client

  • your web workers don't get tied up waiting for the client data, because as soon as the server needs to wait for more data from the client, Falcon's reactor switches to processing another request

  • if the upload request that's in progress gets interrupted, tus server will be able save data that has been received so far, so it's not necessary for the tus client to split the upload into multiple chunks

  • when uploaded files are being downloaded from the tus server, the request throughput won't be impacted by the speed in which the client retrieves the response body, because Falcon's reactor will switch to another request if the client buffer gets full

Falcon provides a Rack adapter and is compatible with Rails, so you can use it even if you're mounting tus-ruby-server inside your main app, just add falcon to the Gemfile and run falcon serve.

# Gemfile
gem "falcon"
$ falcon serve # reads from config.ru and starts the server

Alternatively, you can run tus-ruby-server as a standalone app, by creating a separate "rackup" file just for it and pointing Falcon to that rackup file:

# tus.ru
require "tus/server"

# ... configure tus-ruby-server ...

map "/files" do
  run Tus::Server
end
$ falcon serve --config tus.ru

Storage

Filesystem

By default Tus::Server stores uploaded files in the data/ directory. You can configure a different directory:

require "tus/storage/filesystem"

Tus::Server.opts[:storage] = Tus::Storage::Filesystem.new("public/tus")

If the configured directory doesn't exist, it will automatically be created. By default the UNIX permissions applied will be 0644 for files and 0755 for directories, but you can set different permissions:

Tus::Storage::Filesystem.new("data", permissions: 0600, directory_permissions: 0777)

One downside of filesystem storage is that it doesn't work by default if you want to run tus-ruby-server on multiple servers, you'd have to set up a shared filesystem between the servers. Another downside is that you have to make sure your servers have enough disk space. Also, if you're using Heroku, you cannot store files on the filesystem as they won't persist.

All these are reasons why you might store uploaded data on a different storage, and luckily tus-ruby-server ships with two more storages.

Serving files

If your retrieving uploaded files through the download endpoint, by default the files will be served through the Ruby application. However, that's very inefficient, as web workers are tied when serving download requests and cannot serve additional requests for that duration.

Therefore, it's highly recommended to delegate serving uploaded files to your frontend server (Nginx, Apache). This can be achieved with the Rack::Sendfile middleware, see its documentation to learn more about how to use it with popular frontend servers.

If you're using Rails, you can enable the Rack::Sendfile middleware by setting the config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header value accordingly:

Rails.application.config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = "X-Sendfile" # Apache and lighttpd
# or
Rails.application.config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = "X-Accel-Redirect" # Nginx

Otherwise you can add the Rack::Sendfile middleware to the stack in config.ru:

use Rack::Sendfile, "X-Sendfile" # Apache and lighttpd
# or
use Rack::Sendfile, "X-Accel-Redirect" # Nginx

Amazon S3

You can switch to Tus::Storage::S3 to uploads files to AWS S3 using the multipart API. For this you'll also need to add the aws-sdk-s3 gem to your Gemfile.

# Gemfile
gem "aws-sdk-s3", "~> 1.2"
require "tus/storage/s3"

# You can omit AWS credentials if you're authenticating in other ways
Tus::Server.opts[:storage] = Tus::Storage::S3.new(
  bucket:            "my-app", # required
  access_key_id:     "abc",
  secret_access_key: "xyz",
  region:            "eu-west-1",
)

One thing to note is that S3's multipart API requires each chunk except the last to be 5MB or larger, so that is the minimum chunk size that you can specify on your tus client if you want to use the S3 storage.

If you'll be retrieving uploaded files through the tus server app, it's recommended to set Tus::Server.opts[:redirect_download] to true. This will avoid tus server downloading and serving the file from S3, and instead have the download endpoint redirect to the direct S3 object URL.

Tus::Server.opts[:redirect_download] = true

You can customize how the S3 object URL is being generated by passing a block to :redirect_download, which will then be evaluated in the context of the Tus::Server instance (which allows accessing the request object). See Aws::S3::Object#get for the list of options that Tus::Storage::S3#file_url accepts.

Tus::Server.opts[:redirect_download] = -> (uid, info, **options) do
  storage.file_url(uid, info, expires_in: 10, **options) # link expires after 10 seconds
end

If you want to files to be stored in a certain subdirectory, you can specify a :prefix in the storage configuration.

Tus::Storage::S3.new(prefix: "tus", **options)

You can also specify additional options that will be fowarded to Aws::S3::Client#create_multipart_upload using :upload_options.

Tus::Storage::S3.new(upload_options: { content_disposition: "attachment" }, **options)

All other options will be forwarded to Aws::S3::Client#initialize, so you can for example change the :endpoint to use S3's accelerate host:

Tus::Storage::S3.new(endpoint: "https://s3-accelerate.amazonaws.com", **options)

If you're using concatenation, you can specify the concurrency in which S3 storage will copy partial uploads to the final upload (defaults to 10):

Tus::Storage::S3.new(concurrency: { concatenation: 20 }, **options)

Google Cloud Storage, Microsoft Azure Blob Storage

While tus-ruby-server doesn't currently ship with integrations for Google Cloud Storage or Microsoft Azure Blob Storage, you can still use these services via Minio.

Minio is an open source distributed object storage server that implements the Amazon S3 API and provides gateways for GCP and Azure. This means it's possible to use the existing S3 tus-ruby-server integration to point to the Minio server, which will then in turn forward those calls to GCP or Azure.

Let's begin by installing Minio via Homebrew:

$ brew install minio/stable/minio

And starting the Minio server as a gateway to GCP or Azure:

# Google Cloud Storage
$ export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS=/path/credentials.json
$ export MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=minioaccesskey
$ export MINIO_SECRET_KEY=miniosecretkey
$ minio gateway gcs yourprojectid
# Microsoft Azure Blob Storage
$ export MINIO_ACCESS_KEY=azureaccountname
$ export MINIO_SECRET_KEY=azureaccountkey
$ minio gateway azure

Now follow the displayed link to open the Minio web UI and create a bucket in which you want your files to be stored. Once you've done that, you can initialize Tus::Storage::S3 to point to your Minio server and bucket:

Tus::Storage::S3.new(
  access_key_id:     "<MINIO_ACCESS_KEY>", # "AccessKey" value
  secret_access_key: "<MINIO_SECRET_KEY>", # "SecretKey" value
  endpoint:          "<MINIO_ENDPOINT>",   # "Endpoint"  value
  bucket:            "<MINIO_BUCKET>",     # name of the bucket you created
  region:            "us-east-1",
  force_path_style:  true,
)

MongoDB GridFS

MongoDB has a specification for storing and retrieving large files, called "GridFS". Tus-ruby-server ships with Tus::Storage::Gridfs that you can use, which uses the Mongo gem.

# Gemfile
gem "mongo", "~> 2.3"
require "tus/storage/gridfs"

client = Mongo::Client.new("mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/mydb")
Tus::Server.opts[:storage] = Tus::Storage::Gridfs.new(client: client)

You can change the database prefix (defaults to fs):

Tus::Storage::Gridfs.new(client: client, prefix: "fs_temp")

By default MongoDB Gridfs stores files in chunks of 256KB, but you can change that with the :chunk_size option:

Tus::Storage::Gridfs.new(client: client, chunk_size: 1*1024*1024) # 1 MB

Note that if you're using the concatenation tus feature with Gridfs, all partial uploads except the last one are required to fill in their Gridfs chunks, meaning the length of each partial upload needs to be a multiple of the :chunk_size number.

Other storages

If none of these storages suit you, you can write your own, you just need to implement the same public interface:

def create_file(uid, info = {})            ... end
def concatenate(uid, part_uids, info = {}) ... end
def patch_file(uid, io, info = {})         ... end
def update_info(uid, info)                 ... end
def read_info(uid)                         ... end
def get_file(uid, info = {}, range: nil)   ... end
def file_url(uid, info = {}, **options)    ... end # optional
def delete_file(uid, info = {})            ... end
def expire_files(expiration_date)          ... end

Hooks

You can register code to be executed on the following events:

  • before_create – before upload has been created
  • after_create – before upload has been created
  • after_finish – after the last chunk has been stored
  • after_terminate – after the upload has been deleted

Each hook also receives two parameters: ID of the upload (String) and additional information about the upload (Tus::Info).

Tus::Server.after_finish do |uid, info|
  uid  #=> "c0b67b04a9eccb4b1202000de628964f"
  info #=> #<Tus::Info>

  info.length        #=> 10      (Upload-Length)
  info.offset        #=> 0       (Upload-Offset)
  info.metadata      #=> {...}   (Upload-Metadata)
  info.expires       #=> #<Time> (Upload-Expires)

  info.partial?      #=> false   (Upload-Concat)
  info.final?        #=> false   (Upload-Concat)

  info.defer_length? #=> false   (Upload-Defer-Length)
end

Because each hook is evaluated inside the Tus::Server instance (which is also a Roda instance), you can access request information and set response status and headers:

Tus::Server.after_terminate do |uid, info|
  self     #=> #<Tus::Server> (and #<Roda>)
  request  #=> #<Roda::Request>
  response #=> #<Roda::Response>
end

So, with hooks you could for example add authentication to Tus::Server:

Tus::Server.before_create do |uid, info|
  authenticated = Authentication.call(request.headers["Authorization"])

  unless authenticated
    response.status = 403 # Forbidden
    response.write("Not authenticated")
    request.halt # return response now
  end
end

If you want to add hooks on more types of events, you can use Roda's hooks plugin to set before or after hooks for any request, which are also evaluated in context of the Roda instance:

Tus::Server.plugin :hooks
Tus::Server.before do
  # called before each Roda request
end
Tus::Server.after do
  # called after each Roda request
end

Provided that you're mounting Tus::Server inside your main app, any Rack middlewares that your main app uses will also be called for requests routed to the Tus::Server. If you want to add Rack middlewares to Tus::Server, you can do it by calling Tus::Server.use:

Tus::Server.use SomeRackMiddleware

Maximum size

By default the size of files the tus server will accept is unlimited, but you can configure the maximum file size:

Tus::Server.opts[:max_size] = 5 * 1024*1024*1024 # 5GB

Expiration

Tus-ruby-server automatically adds expiration dates to each uploaded file, and refreshes this date on each PATCH request. By default files expire 7 days after they were last updated, but you can modify :expiration_time:

Tus::Server.opts[:expiration_time] = 2*24*60*60 # 2 days

Tus-ruby-server won't automatically delete expired files, but each storage knows how to expire old files, so you just have to set up a recurring task that will call #expire_files.

expiration_time = Tus::Server.opts[:expiration_time]
tus_storage     = Tus::Server.opts[:storage]
expiration_date = Time.now.utc - expiration_time

tus_storage.expire_files(expiration_time)

Download

In addition to implementing the tus protocol, tus-ruby-server also comes with a GET endpoint for downloading the uploaded file, which by default streams the file from the storage. It supports Range requests, so you can use the tus file URL as src in <video> and <audio> HTML tags.

It's highly recommended not to serve files through the app, but offload it to your frontend server if using disk storage, or if using S3 storage have the download endpoint redirect to the S3 object URL. See the documentation for the individual storage for instructions how to set this up.

The endpoint will automatically use the following Upload-Metadata values if they're available:

  • type -- used to set Content-Type response header
  • name -- used to set Content-Disposition response header

The Content-Disposition header will be set to "inline" by default, but you can change it to "attachment" if you want the browser to always force download:

Tus::Server.opts[:disposition] = "attachment"

Checksum

The following checksum algorithms are supported for the checksum extension:

  • SHA1
  • SHA256
  • SHA384
  • SHA512
  • MD5
  • CRC32

Concatenation

When validating the Upload-Concat header for the final upload, tus-ruby-server needs to first fetch info about all partial uploads in order to check whether everything is in order. By default this retrieval is parallelized with 10 threads, but if you're using S3 storage you can change the :concurrency, and Tus::Server will automatically pick it up for its validation:

Tus::Storage::S3.new(concurrency: { concatenation: 20 }, **options)

Tests

Run tests with

$ bundle exec rake test # unit tests
$ bundle exec cucumber  # acceptance tests

Set MONGO=1 environment variable if you want to also run MongoDB tests.

Inspiration

The tus-ruby-server was inspired by rubytus and tusd.

License

MIT