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Change Log

All notable changes to this project will be documented in this file. This project adheres to Semantic Versioning.

4.0.0 / 16 January 2020

Majority of using projects don't have to worry by this being a new major version.

TLDR; if your project manipulates Writer.prototype.parse | Writer.cache directly or uses .to_html(), you probably have to change that code.

This release allows the internal template cache to be customised, either by disabling it completely or provide a custom strategy deciding how the cache should behave when mustache.js parses templates.

const mustache = require('mustache');

// disable caching
Mustache.templateCache = undefined;

// or use a built-in Map in modern environments
Mustache.templateCache = new Map();

Projects that wanted to customise the caching behaviour in earlier versions of mustache.js were forced to override internal method responsible for parsing templates; Writer.prototype.parse. In short, that was unfortunate because there is more than caching happening in that method.

We've improved that now by introducing a first class API that only affects template caching.

The default template cache behaves as before and is still compatible with older JavaScript environments. For those who wants to provide a custom more sopisiticated caching strategy, one can do that with an object that adheres to the following requirements:

  set(cacheKey: string, value: string): void
  get(cacheKey: string): string | undefined
  clear(): void



3.2.1 / 30 December 2019


  • #733: Allow the CLI to use JavaScript views when the project has ES6 modules enabled, by @eobrain.

3.2.0 / 18 December 2019


  • #728: Expose ECMAScript Module in addition to UMD (CommonJS, AMD & global scope), by @phillipj and @zekth.

Using mustache.js as an ES module

To stay backwards compatible with already using projects, the default exposed module format is still UMD. That means projects using mustache.js as an CommonJS, AMD or global scope module, from npm or directly from can keep on doing that for now.

For those projects who would rather want to use mustache.js as an ES module, the mustache/mustache.mjs file has to be imported directly.

Below are some usage scenarios for different runtimes.

Modern browser with ES module support

<!-- index.html -->
<script type="module">
  import mustache from ""

  console.log(mustache.render('Hello {{name}}!', { name: 'Santa' }))
  // Hello Santa!

Node.js (>= v13.2.0 or using --experimental-modules flag)

// index.mjs
import mustache from 'mustache/mustache.mjs'

console.log(mustache.render('Hello {{name}}!', { name: 'Santa' }))
// Hello Santa!

ES Module support for Node.js will be improved in the future when Conditional Exports is enabled by default rather than being behind an experimental flag.

More info in Node.js ECMAScript Modules docs.


// index.ts
import mustache from ''

console.log(mustache.render('Hello {{name}}!', { name: 'Santa' }))
// Hello Santa!

3.1.0 / 13 September 2019


  • #717: Added support .js files as views in command line tool, by @JEStaubach.


3.0.3 / 27 August 2019


  • #713: Add test cases for custom functions in partials, by @wol-soft.


  • #714: Bugfix for wrong function output in partials with indentation, by @phillipj.

3.0.2 / 21 August 2019



  • #701: Fix test failure for Node 10 and above, by @andersk.
  • #704: Lint all test files just like the source files, by @phillipj.
  • Start experimenting & comparing GitHub Actions vs Travis CI, by @phillipj.

3.0.1 / 11 November 2018

  • #679: Fix partials not rendering tokens when using custom tags, by @stackchain.

3.0.0 / 16 September 2018

We are very happy to announce a new major version of mustache.js. We want to be very careful not to break projects out in the wild, and adhering to Semantic Versioning we have therefore cut this new major version.

The changes introduced will likely not require any actions for most using projects. The things to look out for that might cause unexpected rendering results are described in the migration guide below.

A big shout out and thanks to @raymond-lam for this release! Without his contributions with code and issue triaging, this release would never have happened.


  • #618: Allow rendering properties of primitive types that are not objects, by @raymond-lam.
  • #643: Writer.prototype.parse to cache by tags in addition to template string, by @raymond-lam.
  • #664: Fix Writer.prototype.parse cache, by @seminaoki.


Migrating from mustache.js v2.x to v3.x

Rendering properties of primitive types

We have ensured properties of primitive types can be rendered at all times. That means Array.length, String.length and similar. A corner case where this could cause unexpected output follows:


  stooges: [
    { name: "Moe" },
    { name: "Larry" },
    { name: "Curly" }


  {{name}}: {{name.length}} characters

Output with v3.0:

  Moe: 3 characters
  Larry: 5 characters
  Curly: 5 characters

Output with v2.x:

  Moe:  characters
  Larry:  characters
  Curly:  characters

Caching for templates with custom delimiters

We have improved the templates cache to ensure custom delimiters are taken into consideration for the cache. This improvement might cause unexpected rendering behaviour for using projects actively using the custom delimiters functionality.

Previously it was possible to use Mustache.parse() as a means to set global custom delimiters. If custom delimiters were provided as an argument, it would affect all following calls to Mustache.render(). Consider the following:

const template = "[[item.title]] [[item.value]]";
mustache.parse(template, ["[[", "]]"]);

  mustache.render(template, {
    item: {
      title: "TEST",
      value: 1

>> TEST 1

The above illustrates the fact that Mustache.parse() made mustache.js cache the template without considering the custom delimiters provided. This is no longer true.

We no longer encourage using Mustache.parse() for this purpose, but have rather added a fourth argument to Mustache.render() letting you provide custom delimiters when rendering.

If you still need the pre-parse the template and use custom delimiters at the same time, ensure to provide the custom delimiters as argument to Mustache.render() as well.

2.3.2 / 17 August 2018

This release is made to revert changes introduced in 2.3.1 that caused unexpected behaviour for several users.


2.3.1 / 7 August 2018


  • #643: Writer.prototype.parse to cache by tags in addition to template string, by @raymond-lam.
  • #664: Fix Writer.prototype.parse cache, by @seminaoki.



  • #644: Document global Mustache.escape overriding capacity, by @paultopia.
  • #657: Correct Mustache.parse() return type documentation, by @bbrooks.

2.3.0 / 8 November 2016




  • #542: Add API documentation to README, by @tomekwi.
  • #546: Add missing syntax highlighting to README code blocks, by @pra85.
  • #569: Update Ctemplate links in README, by @mortonfox.
  • #592: Change "loadUser" to "loadUser()" in README, by @Flaque.
  • #593: Adding doctype to HTML code example in README, by @calvinf.


  • eslint -> 2.2.0. Breaking changes fix by @phillipj. #548
  • eslint -> 2.5.1.
  • mocha -> 3.0.2.
  • zuul -> 3.11.0.

2.2.1 / 13 December 2015


2.2.0 / 15 October 2015


  • Add Partials support to CLI, by @palkan.



  • Fix README spelling error to "aforementioned", by @djchie.
  • Equal error message test in .render() for server and browser, by @phillipj.


  • chai -> 3.3.0
  • eslint -> 1.6.0

2.1.3 / 23 July 2015


  • Throw error when providing .render() with invalid template type, by @phillipj.
  • Documents use of string literals containing double quotes, by @jfmercer.


  • Move mustache gif to githubusercontent, by @Andersos.


  • Update UMD Shim to be resilient to HTMLElement global pollution, by @mikesherov.

2.1.2 / 17 June 2015


2.1.1 / 11 June 2015



  • Bugfix for using values from view's context prototype, by @phillipj.
  • Improve test with undefined/null lookup hit using dot notation, by @dasilvacontin.
  • Bugfix for null/undefined lookup hit when using dot notation, by @phillipj.
  • Remove moot version property from bower.json, by @kkirsche.
  • bower.json doesn't require a version bump via hook, by @dasilvacontin.

2.1.0 / 5 June 2015

  • Added license attribute to package.json, by @pgilad.
  • Minor changes to make mustache.js compatible with both WSH and ASP, by @nagaozen.
  • Improve CLI view parsing error, by @phillipj.
  • Bugfix for view context cache, by @phillipj.

2.0.0 / 27 Mar 2015

1.2.0 / 24 Mar 2015

  • Added -v option to CLI, by @phillipj.
  • Bugfix for rendering Number when it serves as the Context, by @phillipj.
  • Specified files in package.json for a cleaner install, by @phillipj.

1.1.0 / 18 Feb 2015

  • Refactor Writer.renderTokens() for better readability, by @phillipj.
  • Cleanup tests section in readme, by @phillipj.
  • Added JSHint to tests/CI, by @phillipj.
  • Added node v0.12 on travis, by @phillipj.
  • Created command line tool, by @phillipj.
  • Added falsy to Inverted Sections description in README, by @kristijanmatic.

1.0.0 / 20 Dec 2014

  • Inline tag compilation, by @mjackson.
  • Fixed AMD registration, volo package.json entry, by @jrburke.
  • Added spm support, by @afc163.
  • Only access properties of objects on Context.lookup, by @cmbuckley.

0.8.2 / 17 Mar 2014

  • Supporting Bower through a bower.json file.

0.8.1 / 3 Jan 2014

  • Fix usage of partial templates.

0.8.0 / 2 Dec 2013

  • Remove compile* writer functions, use mustache.parse instead. Smaller API.
  • Throw an error when rendering a template that contains higher-order sections and the original template is not provided.
  • Remove low-level Context.make function.
  • Better code readability and inline documentation.
  • Stop caching templates by name.

0.7.3 / 5 Nov 2013

  • Don't require the original template to be passed to the rendering function when using compiled templates. This is still required when using higher-order functions in order to be able to extract the portion of the template that was contained by that section. Fixes #262.
  • Performance improvements.

0.7.2 / 27 Dec 2012

  • Fixed a rendering bug (#274) when using nested higher-order sections.
  • Better error reporting on failed parse.
  • Converted tests to use mocha instead of vows.

0.7.1 / 6 Dec 2012

  • Handle empty templates gracefully. Fixes #265, #267, and #270.
  • Cache partials by template, not by name. Fixes #257.
  • Added Mustache.compileTokens to compile the output of Mustache.parse. Fixes #258.

0.7.0 / 10 Sep 2012

  • Rename Renderer => Writer.
  • Allow partials to be loaded dynamically using a callback (thanks @TiddoLangerak for the suggestion).
  • Fixed a bug with higher-order sections that prevented them from being passed the raw text of the section from the original template.
  • More concise token format. Tokens also include start/end indices in the original template.
  • High-level API is consistent with the Writer API.
  • Allow partials to be passed to the pre-compiled function (thanks @fallenice).
  • Don't use eval (thanks @cweider).

0.6.0 / 31 Aug 2012

  • Use JavaScript's definition of falsy when determining whether to render an inverted section or not. Issue #186.
  • Use Mustache.escape to escape values inside {{}}. This function may be reassigned to alter the default escaping behavior. Issue #244.
  • Fixed a bug that clashed with QUnit (thanks @kannix).
  • Added volo support (thanks @guybedford).
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