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JavaScript module to calculate times for sunrise, solar noon, and sunset, as well as moon phases based on "Astronomical Algorithms" by Jean Meeus
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MIT License

A JavaScript module for accurately calculating times of sunrise, solar noon, sunset, as well as moon phases.

Based on "Astronomical Algorithms" by Jean Meeus.



MeeusSunMoon requires Moment.js and Moment Timezone.


Script Include

Compiled versions (both minified and not) are located in dist/. Since ES6 module support of currently used browsers is still limited, the versions not ending in -es are recommended for most use cases.

<script src="{yourjspath}/meeussunmoon.min.js"></script>

The dependencies are best included from a CDN, such as CDNJS:

<script src=""></script>
<script src=""></script>

(Exact bundles depending on requirements)


npm install meeussunmoon

For bundling (e.g., with Rollup) you can then import the ES6 module via

import MeeusSunMoon from 'meeussunmoon'

or directly use it in the browser via

import MeeusSunMoon from 'node_modules/meeussunmoon/dist/meeussunmoon-es.js'


There are three configuration options that can be set as

  roundToNearestMinute: true, // default: false
  returnTimeForPNMS: true, // default: false
  dateFormatKeys: {'**': '‡', '--': '†'} // default {'**': '‡', '--': '†'};

roundToNearestMinute rounds the reported time: up if seconds are 30+, down if less.

returnTimeForPNMS handles the behaviour when no sunrise or sunset time can be returned because the specified region would be experiencing polar night or midnight sun on the date. If set to false, a string is returned, either 'PN' or 'MS'. If set to true, the return time will be 6:00 local standard time (i.e. 7:00 local time if DST is in effect) for sunrise and 18:00 local standard time for sunset. Additionally, the object that is returned will be tagged inside its creationData property, with '--' for polar night and '**' for midnight sun. This way, the fact that this is not an actual sunrise/sunset time can be retrieved later, e.g. with MeeusSunMoon.formatCI (see below).

For civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn and dusk, if returnTimeForPNMS is true, the times returned are 0:30h, 1:00h, and 1:30h earlier / later, respectively, than for sunrise and sunset.


Sunrise & Sunset

MeeusSunMoon.sunrise(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.sunset(datetime, latitude, longitude);

Returns the sunrise or sunset for the given date and location as a object.

datetime is a object designating the day for which the sunrise/set time should be calculated. The object should either contain a definite timezone, or be in UTC, just a UTC offset will lead to unexpected behaviour

latitude is the geographic latitude in degrees (-90 to 90, North is positive, South negative).

longitude is the geographic longitude in degrees (-180 to 180, East is positive, West negative).

If there is no sunrise or sunset event on the given day, a string or a tagged time will be returned (see above).

Civil, Nautical, and Astronomical Dawn & Dusk

MeeusSunMoon.civilDawn(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.civilDusk(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.nauticalDawn(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.nauticalDusk(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.astronomicalDawn(datetime, latitude, longitude);
MeeusSunMoon.astronomicalDusk(datetime, latitude, longitude);

As above but for civil (center of the sun is 6° below the horizon), nautical (center of the sun is 12° below the horizon), and astronomical (center of the sun is 18° below the horizon) dawn and dusk.

If the specified event does not occur on the given day, a string or a tagged time will be returned (see above).

Solar Noon

MeusSunMoon.solarNoon(datetime, longitude);

Returns the solar noon for the given date and location as a object. Inputs as above.

Moon Phases

MeeusSunMoon.yearMoonPhases(year, phase, timezone);

Returns an array of the datetimes as objects for all moons of the given phase in the year.

year The Gregorian year for which the phases should be returned. Note: years need to be written out in all digits, setting e.g. 96 as the year will NOT return phases for the year 1996 but the year 96!

phase Phase of the moon as an integer. 0 for new moon, 1 for first quarter, 2 for full moon, 3 for last quarter.

timezone Optional. IANA timezone string, e.g. 'Europe/London'. If not specified, times are returned as UTC.


formatCI is a helper function of MeeusSunMoon which (arguable mis-) uses the creationData property of a moment object to store custom meta-information, in this context to indicate that a given time is a fallback due to no sunrise or sunset occuring on the given day. It makes use of the fact that the parser for the String + Format constructor of moment.js ignores non-alphanumeric characters. Thus, a key of special symbols can be stored in the creationData by constructing a date like this:

moment('**12-25-1995', 'MM-DD-YYYY');

By calling MeeusSunMoon.formatCI(datetime, formatString), where datetime is a moment object as above and formatString uses the same syntax as moment.format(), if the datetime was created with a key as described above, a string as defined by dateFormatKeys is appended to the formatted date.


const myMoment = moment('**12-25-1995 06:00', 'MM-DD-YYYY HH:mm');
console.log(MeeusSunMoon.formatCI(myMoment, 'HH:mm'));
>> 06:00


The algorithms themselves use many higher-order corrections in order to achieve a high degree of accuracy. To ensure a correct implementation, I have compared over 50,000 times across 16 locations spanning extremes of latitude and longitude to outside sources such as the US Naval Observatory and and found that almost 98% agreed to the minute, with almost the entire rest deviating by at most one minute. The only exception to this are days immediately preceeding or following periods for which the given event does not occur, where the discrepancy can be larger. For sunrise and sunset, this only affects regions within the polar circles which experience polar night and midnight sun.

test/index.html can be run to verify this if you downloaded the entire repository. When maxError (maximum deviation in minutes for the test to pass) in test/tests.js is set to 0, about 2% of the tests will fail. When set to 1, all will pass. (Some times which fall under the exception above have been excluded from testing, they are listed as empty strings in referenceTimes.js.)

Tests can also be run in the console via npm run node-test.



Updated dependencies, use moment import as global, added coverage


Updated dependencies, fixed imports for node usage


Added functions for civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn and dusk.


Refactored into ES6 modules and distributed via node.


Initial release


MeeusSunMoon is freely distributable under the terms of the MIT license.

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