bcal (Byte CALculator) is a REPL CLI utility for storage expression evaluation, unit conversion and address calculation. If you can't calculate the hex address offset for (512 - 16) MiB, or the value when the 43rd bit of a 64-bit address is set mentally,
bcal is for you.
bcal follows Ubuntu's standard unit conversion and notation policy. Only 64-bit operating systems are supported.
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Table of Contents
- REPL and single execution modes
- evaluate arithmetic expressions involving storage units
- perform general purpose calculations (using bc or calc)
- works with piped input or file redirection
- convert to IEC/SI standard data storage units
- interactive mode with the last valid result stored for reuse
- show the address in bytes
- show address as LBA:OFFSET
- convert CHS to LBA and vice versa
- base conversion to binary, decimal and hex
- custom sector size, max heads/cylinder and max sectors/track
- minimal dependencies
bcal is written in C and depends on standard libc and libreadline. It invokes GNU
calc for non-storage expressions.
From a package manager
bcal from your package manager. If the version available is dated try an alternative installation method.
Packages for Arch Linux, CentOS, Debian, Fedora, OpenSUSE Leap and Ubuntu are available with the latest stable release.
Install to default location (
$ make $ sudo make strip install
To uninstall, run:
$ sudo make uninstall
PREFIX is supported, in case you want to install to a different location.
bcal can be compiled and installed from source in the Termux environment on
aarch64 Android devices. Instructions:
$ aria2c https://github.com/jarun/bcal/archive/master.zip $ unzip bcal-master.zip $ cd bcal-master/ $ pkg install make clang readline-dev $ make strip install
usage: bcal [-c N] [-f loc] [-s bytes] [expr] [N [unit]] [-b [expr]] [-m] [-d] [-h] Storage expression calculator. positional arguments: expr expression in decimal/hex operands N [unit] capacity in B/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB/kB/MB/GB/TB see https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UnitsPolicy default unit is B (byte), case is ignored N can be decimal or '0x' prefixed hex value optional arguments: -c N show +ve integer N in binary, decimal, hex -f loc convert CHS to LBA or LBA to CHS refer to the operational notes in man page -s bytes sector size [default 512] -b [expr] enter bc mode or evaluate expression in bc -m show minimal output (e.g. decimal bytes) -d enable debug information and logs -h show this help prompt keys: b toggle bc mode r show result from last operation s show sizes of storage types ? show prompt help q/double ↵ quit program
- Interactive mode:
bcalenters the REPL mode if no arguments are provided. Storage unit conversion, base conversion and expression evaluation are supported in this mode. The last valid result is stored in the variable r.
- Expression: Expression passed as argument in one-shot mode must be within double quotes. Inner spaces are ignored. Supported operators:
%and C bitwise operators (except
~due to storage width dependency).
- N [unit]:
Ncan be a decimal or '0x' prefixed hex value.
unitcan be B/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB/kB/MB/GB/TB following Ubuntu policy. Default is byte. As all of these tokens are unique,
- Numeric representation: Decimal and hex are recognized in expressions and unit conversions. Binary is also recognized in other operations.
- Syntax: Prefix hex inputs with
0x, binary inputs with
- Precision: 128 bits if
__uint128_tis available or 64 bits for numerical conversions. Floating point operations use
long double. Negative values in storage expressions are unsupported. Only 64-bit operating systems are supported.
- Fractional bytes do not exist because they can't be addressed.
bcalshows the floor value of non-integer bytes.
- CHS and LBA syntax:
lLBA-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR[NOTE: LBA starts with
cC-H-S-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR[NOTE: CHS starts with
- Format conversion arguments must be hyphen separated.
- Any unspecified value, including the one preceding the first
-to the one following the last
-, is considered
c-50--0x12--> C = 0, H = 50, S = 0, MH = 0x12, MS = 0
l50-0x12-> LBA = 50, MH = 0x12, MS = 0
- Default values:
- sector size: 0x200 (512)
- max heads per cylinder: 0x10 (16)
- max sectors per track: 0x3f (63)
- bc variables:
ris synced and can be used in expressions.
bcis not called in minimal output mode.
Evaluate arithmetic expression of storage units.
$ bcal "(5kb+2mb)/3" $ bcal "5 tb / 12" $ bcal "2.5mb*3" $ bcal "(2giB * 2) / (2kib >> 2)"
Convert storage capacity to other units and get address, LBA.
$ bcal 20140115 b $ bcal 0x1335053 B $ bcal 0xaabbcc kb $ bcal 0xdef Gib
Note that the units are case-insensitive.
Convert storage capacity, set sector size to 4096 to calculate LBA.
$ bcal 0xaabbcc kb -s 4096
Convert LBA to CHS.
$ bcal -f l500 $ bcal -f l0x600-18-0x7e $ bcal -f l0x300-0x12-0x7e
Convert CHS to LBA.
$ bcal -f c10-10-10 $ bcal -f c0x10-0x10-0x10 $ bcal -f c0x10-10-2-0x12 $ bcal -f c-10-2-0x12 $ bcal -f c0x10-10--0x12
Show binary, decimal and hex representations of a number.
$ bcal -c 20140115 $ bcal -c 0b1001100110101000001010011 $ bcal -c 0x1335053 bcal> c 20140115 // Interactive mode
$ bcal -b '3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7' bcal> b // Interactive mode bc vars: scale = 10, ibase = 10, last = r bc> 3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7
$ printf '15 kib + 15 gib \n r / 5' | bcal -m $ printf '15 + 15 + 2' | bcal -bm
Redirect from file.
$ cat expr 15 gib + 15 kib r / 5 $ bcal -m < expr
Help and additional information.
$ man bcal $ bcal -h
Due to the nature of the project, it's extremely important to test existing functionality before raising any PR.
bcal has several test cases written in
test.py. To execute the test cases locally, install
pytest and run:
$ make $ python3 -m pytest test.py
Copyright © 2016 Arun Prakash Jana