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# The `coffee` utility. Handles command-line compilation of CoffeeScript
# into various forms: saved into `.js` files or printed to stdout
# or recompiled every time the source is saved,
# printed as a token stream or as the syntax tree, or launch an
# interactive REPL.
# External dependencies.
fs = require 'fs'
path = require 'path'
helpers = require './helpers'
optparse = require './optparse'
CoffeeScript = require './'
{spawn, exec} = require 'child_process'
{EventEmitter} = require 'events'
useWinPathSep = path.sep is '\\'
# Allow CoffeeScript to emit Node.js events.
helpers.extend CoffeeScript, new EventEmitter
printLine = (line) -> process.stdout.write line + '\n'
printWarn = (line) -> process.stderr.write line + '\n'
hidden = (file) -> /^\.|~$/.test file
# The help banner that is printed in conjunction with `-h`/`--help`.
BANNER = '''
Usage: coffee [options] path/to/ [args]
If called without options, `coffee` will run your script.
# The list of all the valid option flags that `coffee` knows how to handle.
['-b', '--bare', 'compile without a top-level function wrapper']
['-c', '--compile', 'compile to JavaScript and save as .js files']
['-e', '--eval', 'pass a string from the command line as input']
['-h', '--help', 'display this help message']
['-i', '--interactive', 'run an interactive CoffeeScript REPL']
['-j', '--join [FILE]', 'concatenate the source CoffeeScript before compiling']
['-m', '--map', 'generate source map and save as files']
['-M', '--inline-map', 'generate source map and include it directly in output']
['-n', '--nodes', 'print out the parse tree that the parser produces']
[ '--nodejs [ARGS]', 'pass options directly to the "node" binary']
[ '--no-header', 'suppress the "Generated by" header']
['-o', '--output [PATH]', 'set the output path or path/filename for compiled JavaScript']
['-p', '--print', 'print out the compiled JavaScript']
['-r', '--require [MODULE*]', 'require the given module before eval or REPL']
['-s', '--stdio', 'listen for and compile scripts over stdio']
['-l', '--literate', 'treat stdio as literate style coffeescript']
['-t', '--transpile', 'pipe generated JavaScript through Babel']
[ '--tokens', 'print out the tokens that the lexer/rewriter produce']
['-v', '--version', 'display the version number']
['-w', '--watch', 'watch scripts for changes and rerun commands']
# Top-level objects shared by all the functions.
opts = {}
sources = []
sourceCode = []
notSources = {}
watchedDirs = {}
optionParser = null
exports.buildCSOptionParser = buildCSOptionParser = ->
new optparse.OptionParser SWITCHES, BANNER
# Run `coffee` by parsing passed options and determining what action to take.
# Many flags cause us to divert before compiling anything. Flags passed after
# `--` will be passed verbatim to your script as arguments in `process.argv` = ->
optionParser = buildCSOptionParser()
try parseOptions()
catch err
console.error "option parsing error: #{err.message}"
process.exit 1
if (not opts.doubleDashed) and (opts.arguments[1] is '--')
printWarn '''
coffee was invoked with '--' as the second positional argument, which is
now deprecated. To pass '--' as an argument to a script to run, put an
additional '--' before the path to your script.
'--' will be removed from the argument list.
printWarn "The positional arguments were: #{JSON.stringify opts.arguments}"
opts.arguments = [opts.arguments[0]].concat opts.arguments[2..]
# Make the REPL *CLI* use the global context so as to (a) be consistent with the
# `node` REPL CLI and, therefore, (b) make packages that modify native prototypes
# (such as 'colors' and 'sugar') work as expected.
replCliOpts = useGlobal: yes
opts.prelude = makePrelude opts.require if opts.require
replCliOpts.prelude = opts.prelude
replCliOpts.transpile = opts.transpile
return forkNode() if opts.nodejs
return usage() if
return version() if opts.version
return require('./repl').start(replCliOpts) if opts.interactive
return compileStdio() if opts.stdio
return compileScript null, opts.arguments[0] if opts.eval
return require('./repl').start(replCliOpts) unless opts.arguments.length
literals = if then opts.arguments.splice 1 else []
process.argv = process.argv[0..1].concat literals
process.argv[0] = 'coffee'
if opts.output
outputBasename = path.basename opts.output
if '.' in outputBasename and
outputBasename not in ['.', '..'] and
not helpers.ends(opts.output, path.sep)
# An output filename was specified, e.g. `/dist/scripts.js`.
opts.outputFilename = outputBasename
opts.outputPath = path.resolve path.dirname opts.output
# An output path was specified, e.g. `/dist`.
opts.outputFilename = null
opts.outputPath = path.resolve opts.output
if opts.join
opts.join = path.resolve opts.join
console.error '''
The --join option is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
If for some reason it's necessary to share local variables between files,
$ coffee --compile --join bundle.js --
$ cat | coffee --compile --stdio > bundle.js
for source in opts.arguments
source = path.resolve source
compilePath source, yes, source
makePrelude = (requires) -> (module) ->
[full, name, module] = match if match = module.match(/^(.*)=(.*)$/)
name or= helpers.baseFileName module, yes, useWinPathSep
"global['#{name}'] = require('#{module}')"
.join ';'
# Compile a path, which could be a script or a directory. If a directory
# is passed, recursively compile all '.coffee', '.litcoffee', and ''
# extension source files in it and all subdirectories.
compilePath = (source, topLevel, base) ->
return if source in sources or
watchedDirs[source] or
not topLevel and (notSources[source] or hidden source)
stats = fs.statSync source
catch err
if err.code is 'ENOENT'
console.error "File not found: #{source}"
process.exit 1
throw err
if stats.isDirectory()
if path.basename(source) is 'node_modules'
notSources[source] = yes
compilePath findDirectoryIndex(source), topLevel, base
watchDir source, base if
files = fs.readdirSync source
catch err
if err.code is 'ENOENT' then return else throw err
for file in files
compilePath (path.join source, file), no, base
else if topLevel or helpers.isCoffee source
sources.push source
sourceCode.push null
delete notSources[source]
watch source, base if
code = fs.readFileSync source
catch err
if err.code is 'ENOENT' then return else throw err
compileScript source, code.toString(), base
notSources[source] = yes
findDirectoryIndex = (source) ->
for ext in CoffeeScript.FILE_EXTENSIONS
index = path.join source, "index#{ext}"
return index if (fs.statSync index).isFile()
catch err
throw err unless err.code is 'ENOENT'
console.error "Missing or index.litcoffee in #{source}"
process.exit 1
# Compile a single source script, containing the given code, according to the
# requested options. If evaluating the script directly, set `__filename`,
# `__dirname` and `module.filename` to be correct relative to the script's path.
compileScript = (file, input, base = null) ->
options = compileOptions file, base
task = {file, input, options}
CoffeeScript.emit 'compile', task
if opts.tokens
printTokens CoffeeScript.tokens task.input, task.options
else if opts.nodes
printLine CoffeeScript.nodes(task.input, task.options).toString().trim()
else if
CoffeeScript.eval opts.prelude, task.options if opts.prelude task.input, task.options
else if opts.join and task.file isnt opts.join
task.input = helpers.invertLiterate task.input if helpers.isLiterate file
sourceCode[sources.indexOf(task.file)] = task.input
compiled = CoffeeScript.compile task.input, task.options
task.output = compiled
task.output = compiled.js
task.sourceMap = compiled.v3SourceMap
CoffeeScript.emit 'success', task
if opts.print
printLine task.output.trim()
else if opts.compile or
saveTo = if opts.outputFilename and sources.length is 1
path.join opts.outputPath, opts.outputFilename
writeJs base, task.file, task.output, saveTo, task.sourceMap
catch err
CoffeeScript.emit 'failure', err, task
return if CoffeeScript.listeners('failure').length
message = err?.stack or "#{err}"
printLine message + '\x07'
printWarn message
process.exit 1
# Attach the appropriate listeners to compile scripts incoming over **stdin**,
# and write them back to **stdout**.
compileStdio = ->
console.error '--stdio and --map cannot be used together'
process.exit 1
buffers = []
stdin = process.openStdin()
stdin.on 'data', (buffer) ->
buffers.push buffer if buffer
stdin.on 'end', ->
compileScript null, Buffer.concat(buffers).toString()
# If all of the source files are done being read, concatenate and compile
# them together.
joinTimeout = null
compileJoin = ->
return unless opts.join
unless sourceCode.some((code) -> code is null)
clearTimeout joinTimeout
joinTimeout = wait 100, ->
compileScript opts.join, sourceCode.join('\n'), opts.join
# Watch a source CoffeeScript file using ``, recompiling it every
# time the file is updated. May be used in combination with other options,
# such as `--print`.
watch = (source, base) ->
watcher = null
prevStats = null
compileTimeout = null
watchErr = (err) ->
throw err unless err.code is 'ENOENT'
return unless source in sources
removeSource source, base
compile = ->
clearTimeout compileTimeout
compileTimeout = wait 25, ->
fs.stat source, (err, stats) ->
return watchErr err if err
return rewatch() if prevStats and
stats.size is prevStats.size and
stats.mtime.getTime() is prevStats.mtime.getTime()
prevStats = stats
fs.readFile source, (err, code) ->
return watchErr err if err
compileScript(source, code.toString(), base)
startWatcher = ->
watcher = source
.on 'change', compile
.on 'error', (err) ->
throw err unless err.code is 'EPERM'
removeSource source, base
rewatch = ->
catch err
watchErr err
# Watch a directory of files for new additions.
watchDir = (source, base) ->
watcher = null
readdirTimeout = null
startWatcher = ->
watcher = source
.on 'error', (err) ->
throw err unless err.code is 'EPERM'
.on 'change', ->
clearTimeout readdirTimeout
readdirTimeout = wait 25, ->
files = fs.readdirSync source
catch err
throw err unless err.code is 'ENOENT'
return stopWatcher()
for file in files
compilePath (path.join source, file), no, base
stopWatcher = ->
removeSourceDir source, base
watchedDirs[source] = yes
catch err
throw err unless err.code is 'ENOENT'
removeSourceDir = (source, base) ->
delete watchedDirs[source]
sourcesChanged = no
for file in sources when source is path.dirname file
removeSource file, base
sourcesChanged = yes
compileJoin() if sourcesChanged
# Remove a file from our source list, and source code cache. Optionally remove
# the compiled JS version as well.
removeSource = (source, base) ->
index = sources.indexOf source
sources.splice index, 1
sourceCode.splice index, 1
unless opts.join
silentUnlink outputPath source, base
silentUnlink outputPath source, base, ''
timeLog "removed #{source}"
silentUnlink = (path) ->
fs.unlinkSync path
catch err
throw err unless err.code in ['ENOENT', 'EPERM']
# Get the corresponding output JavaScript path for a source file.
outputPath = (source, base, extension=".js") ->
basename = helpers.baseFileName source, yes, useWinPathSep
srcDir = path.dirname source
dir = unless opts.outputPath
else if source is base
path.join opts.outputPath, path.relative base, srcDir
path.join dir, basename + extension
# Recursively mkdir, like `mkdir -p`.
mkdirp = (dir, fn) ->
mode = 0o777 & ~process.umask()
do mkdirs = (p = dir, fn) ->
fs.exists p, (exists) ->
if exists
mkdirs path.dirname(p), ->
fs.mkdir p, mode, (err) ->
return fn err if err
# Write out a JavaScript source file with the compiled code. By default, files
# are written out in `cwd` as `.js` files with the same name, but the output
# directory can be customized with `--output`.
# If `generatedSourceMap` is provided, this will write a `` file into the
# same directory as the `.js` file.
writeJs = (base, sourcePath, js, jsPath, generatedSourceMap = null) ->
sourceMapPath = "#{jsPath}.map"
jsDir = path.dirname jsPath
compile = ->
if opts.compile
js = ' ' if js.length <= 0
if generatedSourceMap then js = "#{js}\n//# sourceMappingURL=#{helpers.baseFileName sourceMapPath, no, useWinPathSep}\n"
fs.writeFile jsPath, js, (err) ->
if err
printLine err.message
process.exit 1
else if opts.compile and
timeLog "compiled #{sourcePath}"
if generatedSourceMap
fs.writeFile sourceMapPath, generatedSourceMap, (err) ->
if err
printLine "Could not write source map: #{err.message}"
process.exit 1
fs.exists jsDir, (itExists) ->
if itExists then compile() else mkdirp jsDir, compile
# Convenience for cleaner setTimeouts.
wait = (milliseconds, func) -> setTimeout func, milliseconds
# When watching scripts, it's useful to log changes with the timestamp.
timeLog = (message) ->
console.log "#{(new Date).toLocaleTimeString()} - #{message}"
# Pretty-print a stream of tokens, sans location data.
printTokens = (tokens) ->
strings = for token in tokens
tag = token[0]
value = token[1].toString().replace(/\n/, '\\n')
"[#{tag} #{value}]"
printLine strings.join(' ')
# Use the [OptionParser module](optparse.html) to extract all options from
# `process.argv` that are specified in `SWITCHES`.
parseOptions = ->
o = opts = optionParser.parse process.argv[2..]
o.compile or= !!o.output = not (o.compile or o.print or
o.print = !! (o.print or (o.eval or o.stdio and o.compile))
# The compile-time options to pass to the CoffeeScript compiler.
compileOptions = (filename, base) ->
if opts.transpile
# The user has requested that the CoffeeScript compiler also transpile
# via Babel. We don’t include Babel as a dependency because we want to
# avoid dependencies in general, and most users probably won’t be relying
# on us to transpile for them; we assume most users will probably either
# run CoffeeScript’s output without transpilation (modern Node or evergreen
# browsers) or use a proper build chain like Gulp or Webpack.
require 'babel-core'
# Give appropriate instructions depending on whether `coffee` was run
# locally or globally.
if require.resolve('.').indexOf(process.cwd()) is 0
console.error '''
To use --transpile, you must have babel-core installed:
npm install --save-dev babel-core
And you must save options to configure Babel in one of the places it looks to find its options.
console.error '''
To use --transpile with globally-installed CoffeeScript, you must have babel-core installed globally:
npm install --global babel-core
And you must save options to configure Babel in one of the places it looks to find its options, relative to the file being compiled or to the current folder.
process.exit 1
opts.transpile = {} unless typeof opts.transpile is 'object'
# Pass a reference to Babel into the compiler, so that the transpile option
# is available for the CLI. We need to do this so that tools like Webpack
# can `require('coffeescript')` and build correctly, without trying to
# require Babel.
opts.transpile.transpile = CoffeeScript.transpile
# Babel searches for its options (a `.babelrc` file, a `.babelrc.js` file,
# a `package.json` file with a `babel` key, etc.) relative to the path
# given to it in its `filename` option. Make sure we have a path to pass
# along.
unless opts.transpile.filename
opts.transpile.filename = filename or path.resolve(base or process.cwd(), '<anonymous>')
opts.transpile = no
answer =
filename: filename
literate: opts.literate or helpers.isLiterate(filename)
bare: opts.bare
header: opts.compile and not opts['no-header']
transpile: opts.transpile
inlineMap: opts['inline-map']
if filename
if base
cwd = process.cwd()
jsPath = outputPath filename, base
jsDir = path.dirname jsPath
answer = helpers.merge answer, {
sourceRoot: path.relative jsDir, cwd
sourceFiles: [path.relative cwd, filename]
generatedFile: helpers.baseFileName(jsPath, no, useWinPathSep)
answer = helpers.merge answer,
sourceRoot: ""
sourceFiles: [helpers.baseFileName filename, no, useWinPathSep]
generatedFile: helpers.baseFileName(filename, yes, useWinPathSep) + ".js"
# Start up a new Node.js instance with the arguments in `--nodejs` passed to
# the `node` binary, preserving the other options.
forkNode = ->
nodeArgs = opts.nodejs.split /\s+/
args = process.argv[1..]
args.splice args.indexOf('--nodejs'), 2
p = spawn process.execPath, nodeArgs.concat(args),
cwd: process.cwd()
env: process.env
stdio: [0, 1, 2]
for signal in ['SIGINT', 'SIGTERM']
process.on signal, do (signal) ->
-> p.kill signal
p.on 'exit', (code) -> process.exit code
# Print the `--help` usage message and exit. Deprecated switches are not
# shown.
usage = ->
# Print the `--version` message and exit.
version = ->
printLine "CoffeeScript version #{CoffeeScript.VERSION}"