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Helper functions for op tree manipulation
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    B::Utils - Helper functions for op tree manipulation


      use B::Utils;

        Returns the name of the op, even if it is currently optimized to
        null. This helps you understand the stucture of the op tree.

        Returns an array of all this op's non-null children, in order.

        Returns the parent node in the op tree, if possible. Currently
        "possible" means "if the tree has already been optimized"; that is,
        if we're during a "CHECK" block. (and hence, if we have valid "next"

        In the future, it may be possible to search for the parent before we
        have the "next" pointers in place, but it'll take me a while to
        figure out how to do that.

        Returns all parents of this node, recursively. The list is ordered
        from younger/closer parents to older/farther parents.

        Returns all children of this node, recursively. The list is

        Returns all younger siblings of this node. The list is ordered from
        younger/closer siblings to older/farther siblings.

        Like " $op->next ", but not quite.

        Returns a nice stringification of an opcode.

        From the op tree it is called on, "as_opgrep_pattern()" generates a
        data structure suitable for use as a condition pattern for the
        "opgrep()" function described below in detail. *Beware*: When using
        such generated patterns, there may be false positives: The pattern
        will most likely not match *only* the op tree it was generated from
        since by default, not all properties of the op are reproduced.

        You can control which properties of the op to include in the pattern
        by passing named arguments. The default behaviour is as if you
        passed in the following options:

          my $pattern = $op->as_opgrep_pattern(
            attributes          => [qw(name flags)],
            max_recursion_depth => undef,

        So obviously, you can set "max_recursion_depth" to a number to limit
        the maximum depth of recursion into the op tree. Setting it to 0
        will limit the dump to the current op.

        "attributes" is a list of attributes to include in the produced
        pattern. The attributes that can be checked against in this way are

          name targ type seq flags private pmflags pmpermflags.

        Returns a hash of all of the starting ops or root ops of optrees,
        keyed to subroutine name; the optree for main program is simply
        keyed to "__MAIN__".

        Note: Certain "dangerous" stashes are not scanned for subroutines:
        the list of such stashes can be found in @B::Utils::bad_stashes.
        Feel free to examine and/or modify this to suit your needs. The
        intention is that a simple program which uses no modules other than
        "B" and "B::Utils" would show no addition symbols.

        This does not return the details of ops in anonymous subroutines
        compiled at compile time. For instance, given

            $a = sub { ... };

        the subroutine will not appear in the hash. This is just as well,
        since they're anonymous... If you want to get at them, use...

        This returns an array of hash references. Each element has the keys
        "start" and "root". These are the starting and root ops of all of
        the anonymous subroutines in the program.

        If PL_sub_generation has changed or you have some other reason to
        want to force the re-examination of the optrees, everywhere, call
        this function.

    "walkoptree_simple($op, \&callback, [$data])"
        The "B" module provides various functions to walk the op tree, but
        they're all rather difficult to use, requiring you to inject methods
        into the "B::OP" class. This is a very simple op tree walker with
        more expected semantics.

        All the "walk" functions set $B::Utils::file, $B::Utils::line, and
        $B::Utils::sub to the appropriate values of file, line number, and
        sub name in the program being examined.

    "walkoptree_filtered($op, \&filter, \&callback, [$data])"
        This is much the same as "walkoptree_simple", but will only call the
        callback if the "filter" returns true. The "filter" is passed the op
        in question as a parameter; the "opgrep" function is fantastic for
        building your own filters.

    "walkallops_simple(\&callback, [$data])"
        This combines "walkoptree_simple" with "all_roots" and "anon_subs"
        to examine every op in the program. $B::Utils::sub is set to the
        subroutine name if you're in a subroutine, "__MAIN__" if you're in
        the main program and "__ANON__" if you're in an anonymous

    "walkallops_filtered(\&filter, \&callback, [$data])"
        Same as above, but filtered.

    "opgrep(\%conditions, @ops)"
        Returns the ops which meet the given conditions. The conditions
        should be specified like this:

            @barewords = opgrep(
                                { name => "const", private => OPpCONST_BARE },

        where the first argument to "opgrep()" is the condition to be
        matched against the op structure. We'll henceforth refer to it as an

        You can specify alternation by giving an arrayref of values:

            @svs = opgrep ( { name => ["padsv", "gvsv"] }, @ops)

        And you can specify inversion by making the first element of the
        arrayref a "!". (Hint: if you want to say "anything", say "not
        nothing": "["!"]")

        You may also specify the conditions to be matched in nearby ops as
        nested patterns.

                sub { opgrep( {name => "exec",
                               next => {
                                         name    => "nextstate",
                                         sibling => { name => [qw(! exit warn die)] }
                              }, @_)},
                sub {
                      carp("Statement unlikely to be reached");
                      carp("\t(Maybe you meant system() when you said exec()?)\n");

        Get that?

        Here are the things that can be tested in this way:

                name targ type seq flags private pmflags pmpermflags
                first other last sibling next pmreplroot pmreplstart pmnext

        Additionally, you can use the "kids" keyword with an array reference
        to match the result of a call to "$op->kids()". An example use is
        given in the documentation for "op_or" below.

        For debugging, you can have many properties of an op that is
        currently being matched against a given condition dumped to STDERR
        by specifying "dump =" 1> in the condition's hash reference.

        If you match a complex condition against an op tree, you may want to
        extract a specific piece of information from the tree if the
        condition matches. This normally entails manually walking the tree a
        second time down to the op you wish to extract, investigate or
        modify. Since this is tedious duplication of code and information,
        you can specify a special property in the pattern of the op you wish
        to extract to capture the sub-op of interest. Example:

          my ($result) = opgrep(
            { name => "exec",
              next => { name    => "nextstate",
                        sibling => { name => [qw(! exit warn die)]
                                     capture => "notreached",
          if ($result) {
            my $name = $result->{notreached}->name; # result is *not* the root op
            carp("Statement unlikely to be reached (op name: $name)");
            carp("\t(Maybe you meant system() when you said exec()?)\n");
        While the above is a terribly contrived example, consider the win
        for a deeply nested pattern or worse yet, a pattern with many
        disjunctions. If a "capture" property is found anywhere in the op
        pattern, "opgrep()" returns an unblessed hash reference on success
        instead of the tested op. You can tell them apart using
        Scalar::Util's "blessed()". That hash reference contains all
        captured ops plus the tested root up as the hash entry
        "$result->{op}". Note that you cannot use this feature with
        "walkoptree_filtered" since that function was specifically
        documented to pass the tested op itself to the callback.

        You cannot capture disjunctions, but that doesn't really make sense

    "opgrep( \@conditions, @ops )"
        Same as above, except that you don't have to chain the conditions
        yourself. If you pass an array-ref, opgrep will chain the conditions
        for you using "next". The conditions can either be strings (taken as
        op-names), or hash-refs, with the same testable conditions as given

    "op_or( @conditions )"
        Unlike the chaining of conditions done by "opgrep" itself if there
        are multiple conditions, this function creates a disjunction
        ("$cond1 || $cond2 || ...") of the conditions and returns a
        structure (hash reference) that can be passed to opgrep as a single


          my $sub_structure = {
            name => 'helem',
            first => { name => 'rv2hv', },
            'last' => { name => 'const', },
          my @ops = opgrep( {
              name => 'leavesub',
              first => {
                name => 'lineseq',
                kids => [,
                  { name => 'nextstate', },
                      name => 'return',
                      first => { name => 'pushmark' },
                      last => $sub_structure,
          }, $op_obj );

        This example matches the code in a typical simplest-possible
        accessor method (albeit not down to the last bit):

          sub get_foo { $_[0]->{foo} }

        But by adding an alternation we can also match optional op layers.
        In this case, we optionally match a return statement, so the
        following implementation is also recognized:

          sub get_foo { return $_[0]->{foo} }

        Essentially, this is syntactic sugar for the following structure
        recognized by "opgrep()":

          { disjunction => [@conditions] }

        Warn and die, respectively, from the perspective of the position of
        the op in the program. Sounds complicated, but it's exactly the kind
        of error reporting you expect when you're grovelling through an op

    None by default.

    This modules uses ExtUtils::Depends to export some useful functions for
    XS modules to use. To use those, include in your Makefile.PL:

      my $pkg = ExtUtils::Depends->new("Your::XSModule", "B::Utils");
        ... # your normal makefile flags

    Your XS module can now include BUtils.h and BUtils_op.h. To see document
    for the functions provided, use:

      perldoc -m B::Utils::Install::BUtils.h
      perldoc -m B::Utils::Install::BUtils_op.h

    Originally written by Simon Cozens

    Contributions from Mattia Barbon, Jim Cromie, Steffen Mueller, and
    Chia-liang Kao, Alexandr Ciornii, Josh ben Jore.

    This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the same terms as Perl itself.

    B, B::Generate.

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