Physics::UEMColumn - An Implementation of the Analytic Gaussian (AG) Model for Ultrafast Electron Pulse Propagation
use strict; use warnings; use Physics::UEMColumn alias => ':standard'; use Physics::UEMColumn::Auxiliary ':constants'; my $pulse = Pulse->new( number => 1e8, velocity => '1e8 m/s', sigma_t => 100 ** 2 / 2 . 'um^2', sigma_z => 50 ** 2 / 2 . 'um^2', eta_t => me * 5.3 / 3 * 0.5 / 10 . 'kg eV', ); my $column = Column->new( length => '100 cm', ); my $sim = Physics::UEMColumn->new( column => $column, pulse => $pulse, ); my $result = $sim->propagate;
Physics::UEMColumn is an implementation of the Analytic Gaussian (AG) electron pulse propagation model, presented by Michalik and Sipe (http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2178855) and extended by Berger and Schroeder (http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3512847).
This extended model calculates the dynamics of electron pulse propagation for an ultrashort pulse of electrons (that is electron packets of short enough temporal length to be completely contained inside the acceleration region). These electrons are then subject to the internal repulsive Coulomb forces, as well as the external forces of acceleration regions, magnetic lenses and radio-frequency (RF) cavities.
The model is a self-similar Gaussian model, and therefore a mean-field model; futher the modeling of external forces is restricted to perfect lensing. Also, the equations governing the generation of pulse (and therefore the initial parameters), are as-yet unpublished, and unexplained. Should this not be preferable, one should manually create a Physics::UEMColumn::Pulse object, rather than allowing the
Physics::UEMColumn::Photocathode object to create one automatically.
Included in the source package is an examples directory. Contained within is a system analogous to an optical Cooke triplet. After a Tantalum photocathod and the acceleration region, is a magnetic lens, RF cavity and magnetic lens triplet. The script then uses PDL and PDL::Graphics::Prima to plot the transverse (red) and longitudinal (green) HW1/eM beam widths.
Instances of the Physics::UEMColumn class may be thought of as the "simulation" objects. The state of a simulation and all its constituent objects are stored in an instance of this class. It does not rely on any internal global state and thus several objects may be used simultaneously.
Physics::UEMColumn objects have certain properties which may be set during instantiation when passed as key value pairs to the
new method or may be accessed and possible changed via accessor methods of the same name. These attributes are as follows.
A testing parameter which might give additional output. At this early release stage, no specific output is guaranteed.
The number of electrons to be generated. If no
Pulseobject is available, this value is used for pulse generation.
Holder for a Physics::UEMColumn::Pulse object. If one is not given, an attempt will be made to generate one, if enough other information has been given. If generation of such an object is not possible an error message will be shown. Such an object must be present to simulate a column.
Holder for a Physics::UEMColumn::Column object. This object acts as a holder for other column elements and defines the total column length. This object is required.
Initial time for the simulation, this is
0by default. Unit: seconds.
The estimated time at which the simulation will be ended. In actuality the full simulation will end when the pulse has reached the end of the column. For performance reasons it is advantageous for this time to be long enough to reach the end of the simulation. If no value is given for this attribute, one will be estimated from known parameters. Unit: seconds.
The requested number of time-step data points returned. This is neither the total number evaluations performed nor guaranteed to be the number of actual data points returned. This is more of a shorthand for specifying a step-width when the total duration is unknown. The default is
100. This number must be an integer.
The estimated duration of steps. This number is usually determined from the above parameters. This helps to create a uniform data spacing, even if multiple runs are needed to span the entire column. Unit: seconds.
A multiplicative factor used when estimating the simulation ending time. The default is
1.1or 10% additional time. Set to
1for no extra time.
The options hashref passed directly to the
ode_solverfrom PerlGSL::DiffEq. Unless explicitly changed, the options
h_max => 5e-12and
h_init => 5e-13are used.
A pass-through convenience method which adds a given Physics::UEMColumn::Element instance to the column. Therefore these two calls are exactly equivalent.
This method call begins the main simulation. It returns the result of this evaluation. Should a single pulse be propagated more than once the return will not include the results of the previous runs; the full propagation history will be available via the pulse's
Since this is an object oriented simulation, many classes available to be created. To prevent carpal tunnel syndrom, these classes may be aliased in the current package (via stub functions) to remove the leading namespace
Physics::UEMColumn::. To create these aliases, use the import directive
use Physics::UEMColumn alias => ':standard';
The value of the alias directive can be an arrayref of strings of the names of the classes to be aliased, or else the special strings
:all (attempts to alias all classes) or
:standard (aliases the classes
Laser Column Photocathode MagneticLens DCAccelerator RFCavity).
Joel Berger, <email@example.com>
Copyright (C) 2012 by Joel Berger
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.