Agda proofs about polymonads
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README.md

Formalizations and Proofs of Category Theory, Supermonads and Polymonads

This repository contains the formalization of supermonads (Bracker and Nilsson, 2016) and polymonads (Hicks et al., 2014) as well as formalizations and proofs about their connection to category theory.

The connection between the categorical notions and Haskell is hinted at by proof of equivalency between Haskell-like notions in the category Set and their categorical counterparts.

Type Checking and Versions

Calling make should type check all files that don't contain unsolved holes.

This was tested with Agda in version 2.5.3 and the Adga standard library in version 0.14. If you have problems type checking the code, please contact me.

Type checking some of the proofs, e.g., Polymonad.Union, is very memory hungry. Make sure you have few gigabytes of free RAM when type checking!

Module Structure and Guide

  • Top-level Modules:
    • Identity: Contains some basic stuff about the identity and the identity type function. Provides an identity Kleisli-arrow that is polymorphic over the identity type constructor; this is central to the formalization of polymonads.
    • Utilities: Basic stuff to formalize things and provides utilities that are used throughout.
    • Extensionality: We postulate function extensionality here and make extensive use of it accross all modules. This modules contains helper to utilize function extensionality in the context of heterogeneous equality and implicit arguments.
    • Equality: Helpers to prove equality of library data structures.
    • Congruence: Generalization of congruence for propositional equality up to nine arguments. Usefulness is limited.
    • Substitution: Generalization of substitution for propositional equality up to nine arguments. Usefulness is limited.
    • Bijection: Definition of what it means for a function to be bijective. These definitions are mainly used to prove that structures are isomorphic in the Theory modules.
    • ProofIrrelevance: Proofs of proof irrelevance for several library data types.
    • Haskell: Collection of basic definitions and utilities in the category Set.
  • Haskell: Formalizations of Haskell-like structures in the category Set.
    • Functor: Formalization of functors as they are represented in Haskell together with a derivation from a monad.
    • Applicative: Formalization of applicative functor as they are represented in Haskell together with a derivation from a monad.
    • Monad: Formalization of monads as they are represented in Haskell.
      • Polymonad, Unionable and Principal: Monads form polymonads, are unionable, and principal.
      • PrincipalUnion: A specialised proof that the union of monads forms a principal polymonad.
      • Identity, List and Maybe: The Identity, List, and Maybe monad.
    • Parameterized: Formalizations of graded and indexed monads as they are represented in Haskell.
      • Indexed: Formalization of indexed monads and applicatives. Contains proof that they are polymonads and the applicative notion can be derived from the monadic notion.
      • Graded: Formalization of graded monads and applicatives. Contains proof that they are polymonads and the applicative notion can be derived from the monadic notion.
  • Hicks: Contains a formalization of Hicks polymonads without the alteration.
    • Equivalency shows that both formulations are equivalent.
    • UniqueBinds shows that bind-operations are unique in this formalization of polymonads as well.
  • Polymonad: Formalization of polymonads (slightly altered from the version in Hicks paper). The submodules contain proofs and formalizations of other polymonad concepts.
    • Identity: The identity polymonad.
    • Unionable: The formalization of what is required to union two polymonads that do not have morphisms between them.
    • Union: The proof that UnionablePolymonads actually form a polymonad again.
    • Union.Principal: Proof that union preserves principality (under some preconditions).
    • Principal: The formalization of principal polymonads.
    • UniqueBinds: Proof that bind-operations on the same type are unique, i.e., bind-operations with the same type have the same semantics.
  • MorphMonad: These modules contain ideas about the union of standard monads to polymonads by providing lifting functions (morphisms) between them (discontinued).
  • Supermonad: Another approach to generalizing different kinds of monads, that we call Supermonads. This approach is driven by practical examples of generalized monads. This is a formalization of supermonads based on the definition given in the supermonad paper (Bracker and Nilsson, 2016).
    • EffectMonad, IxMonad and Monad: Examples of how standard, graded and effect monads can be made supermonads according to this formalization.
  • Theory: Formalization of category theory to give a category theoretic model of supermonads.
    • Monoid and Triple: Definition of monoids and triples.
    • Category: Definition of categories, subcategories, monoidal categories and closed categories.
      • Examples and Monoidal.Examples: Examples for categories and monoidal categories, e.g., Set, categories of functor and natural transformations, monoid and (co)discrete categories.
      • Dependent and Monoidal.Dependent: Definition of product categories using dependent products.
      • Isomorphism: Definition of what it means for a morphism in a category to be an isomorphism. This definition is equivalent to the definition in the Bijection module when the underlying category is Set.
    • Functor: Definition of functors, profunctors, (lax) monoidal functors and closed functors.
      • Application, Association, Constant and Composition: Combinators to manipulate functors, e.g., apply them to certain arguments, compose them or reassociate them.
      • Examples: Some examples of functors.
      • Properties.IsomorphicHaskellFunctor: Proof that functors in Haskell (Set) are isomorphic to categorical functors.
      • Monoidal.Properties.IsomorphicHaskellApplicative: Proof that applicative functors in Haskell (Set) are isomorhic to certain lax monoidal functors.
      • Monoidal.Properties.IsomorphicGradedApplicative: Proof that graded applicative functors in Haskell (Set) are isomorhic to certain lax monoidal functors.
      • Monoidal.Properties.IsomorphicMonad: Proof that monads in Haskell (Set) are isomorhic to certain lax monoidal functors.
      • Monoidal.Properties.IsomorphicGradedMonad: Proof that graded monads in Haskell (Set) are isomorhic to certain lax monoidal functors.
    • Natural: Definition of (di/extra)natural transformations and isomorphisms.
      • Transformation.Examples and Isomorphism.Examples: Examples of natural transformations and isomorphism.
    • Monad: Definition of different monadic notions.
      • Definition: Definition of standard categorical monads.
      • Kleisli: Definition of monads as Kleisli triples, together with proof of conversion between monads and kleisli triples.
      • Relative: Definition of relative monads (Altenkirch et al., 2015)
      • Atkey: Definition of indexed monads in category theory as suggested by Atkey (Atkey, 2009)
      • Properties.IsomorphicHaskellMonad: Proof that monads in Haskell (Set) are isomorhic to categorical monads.
    • Haskell: Categorized definitionso of Haskell concepts.
      • Parameterized.Graded: Category theory version of graded monads that is isomorphic to Haskell (Set) graded monads if Set is used as the underlying category.
      • Parameterized.Indexed: Category theory version of indexed monads that is isomorphic to Haskell (Set) indexed monads if Set is used as the underlying category.
      • Constrained: Specialized definition for constrained functors and applicative functors, together with an example of how endomorphism and Sets (as in Haskell finite unordered collection without duplicates) can form constrained functors.
    • TwoCategory: Definition of strict 2-categories and bicategories. Examples can be found in the Examples submodules.
    • TwoFunctor: Definition of lax 2-functors.
      • ConstZeroCell: A specialized definition of lax 2-functor that uses a constant mapping of 0-cells to ease some of the proofs. This definition yields a lax 2-functor and therefore captures a subset of all lax 2-functors.
      • Properties:
        • IsomorphicMonad: Proof that certain lax 2-functors are isomorphic to categorical monads.
        • IsomorphicGradedMonad: Proof that certain lax 2-functors are isomorphic to our definition of categorical graded monads.
        • IsomorphicIndexedMonad: Proof that certain lax 2-functors are isomorphic to our definition of categorical indexed monads.
        • IsomorphicLaxMonoidalFunctor: Proof that certain lax 2-functors are isomorphic to certain lax monoidal functors.
    • End: Definition of ends, wedges and day convolution. This is unfinished and discontinued work due to the difficulty to capture these notions in Agda.
    • Yoneda: Proof of the Yoneda lemma.