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# Written by FyberOptic, archived from http://www.fybertech.net/mailstation/fyos_c_002.zip
INTRO
-----
Loading code onto the Mailstation was once a lofty goal, but over time, some
smart folk have figured out just how to do that. And the ironic part, as it
turns out, is that the Mailstation itself includes the code which facilitates
doing so.
Mind you, we aren't going to reflash the Mailstation, we're merely going to
take advantage of some of its features to run arbitrary code. This lets you
keep the original firmware intact, without fear of bricking it, while still
inserting a bit of permanent code onto it, which allows us to then easily
transfer larger code via the parallel port into system memory. This not only
makes it easy for debugging, but it saves wear and tear on the flash memory.
I'm not aware of the details on all the Mailstation models, but most of the
older ones should work with this process just fine. The only one that probably
wouldn't is the 350. Possibly the 300 as well. I don't know anything about
the latter, but I understand that the 350 uses an entirely different cpu.
In any case, I'll go ahead and say the normal mumbo jumbo, where if you screw
up and break your Mailstation, it's not my fault! This is all "try at your own
risk" sort of stuff.
LAPLINK
-------
Using a parallel laplink cable is required for the transfers. And
forunately, this is the only extra hardware you require, short of a PC. If you
don't have the cable, there's lots of resources for making it on the internet.
In fact, here's you a pinout that I had handy:
1-1
2-15
3-13
4-12
5-10
6-11
8-NC
9-NC
10-5
11-6
12-4
13-3
14-14
15-2
16-16
17-17
18-NC
19-NC
20-NC
21-NC
22-NC
24-NC
24-NC
25-25
There's question over whether 1, 15, 16, and 17 are necessary, but it couldn't
hurt to do them anyway in case something else wants them in the future that you
try to use the cable on.
HEX VIEWER
----------
Once you have a cable handy, the next question is "So how do I copy code from
my computer to the Mailstation?" Well we're not quite there yet. We still
have to put code onto the Mailstation to allow it to be able to copy your
own code over. We start by taking advantage of one of the Mailstation's
hidden features: the hex editor.
Accessing the hex editor seems to vary from model to model. The first step
is reaching the diagnostic screen. On my original black DET1 running v3.03a
firmware, the key combination is Function + Shift + T when powering the device
on. I got this information from the spew.txt on the Yahoo Mailstation group
(http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/mailstation/), written by Cyrano Jones
(who discovered much of what I will discuss here). You can find it in the
Files/Mailbug section. Quoted from his file:
"Enter test mode with vulcan nerve pinch while booting. <func><shift><t>, or
<func><size><t> or on the newer models, <func><q><a>, then "qa781206", without
the quotes, of course."
Hopefully one of those will work for you. Once you're into the diagnostic
screen, press Shift + F5 to get into the hex editor. The F keys are those gray
rectangular ones beneath the screen.
Keep in mind that this does not allow you to modify the codeflash on the
device. It's merely for the 512KB of dataflash, which is where the Mailstation
stores all your email and settings and such. Something else the Mailstation
stores here however are third-party applications, particularly ones that were
included from Yahoo, for getting weather and TV listings or whatever. These
weren't included with all Mailstations, but the functionality to use them
apparently was. This is what we're going to take advantage of to run code on
the device, since aforementioned smart folk figured out the structure to these
apps, allowing us to create our own.
We're not ready to do so yet, but at any time, you can hit the Back button to
exit the hex editor, and then press Q at the diagnostic menu to restart the
Mailstation. It prompts you at this point whether you want to clear the
dataflash (much like when you remove power while the device is on), but just
skip past that unless you really want to clear everything for some reason.
APP RECORDS
-----------
First of all, we need to find out how many apps are already installed on your
device, to know which area to place our own. So while in the hex editor, press
G to bring up the Goto prompt, and type in "020000", followed by pressing
Enter. This takes you to the location which stores info about how many
apps are installed/where their code is stored/etc. You may see nothing
but zeroes along the top row, but this just means you have no apps (much like
mine did). Then again, you might have some stuff listed, which means you
probably do have a couple. Here's the known structure of the data starting at
0x020000:
nn ?? ?? ?? <-- number of apps
xx 00 xx xx xx 18 <-- data for 1st app
xx 01 xx xx xx 19 <-- data for 2nd app
xx 02 xx xx xx 1a <-- data for 3rd app
xx 03 xx xx xx 1b <-- data for 4th app
xx 04 xx xx xx 1c <-- data for 5th app
The first four bytes are header info, with only the first byte being known. It
holds the number of apps you have. Immediately following that, you have
records of six bytes each for each app. It's believed that you can have five
apps at most. Most of these bytes are also unknown, but the second in each is
the dataflash page number it resides on (out of 32 pages, 16KB each = 512KB),
and the sixth byte is the app number. The values for each app must be left as-
is unless you know what you're doing. You'll mostly only be changing the
number of apps.
HEX VIEWER TO HEX EDITOR
------------------------
Changing anything requires using the hex editor to actually edit, which,
believe it or not, it can't do by default! It's actually more of just a hex
viewer upon startup. But luckily they included a back door of sorts, which
turns it into a true hex editor.
To get into actual hex editor mode, press G for the Goto command, then type in
this address: "710304x", minus quotes of course. And don't forget the x at the
end, even though you won't see it being typed. Once you put this in, you don't
have to press enter. If you do, you'll lose your place. Hit the Back button
on the keyboard instead to return the editor, and you should still be at the
0x020000 location. And now you'll be in actual hex editor mode.
To edit the current screen of data, you hit the "s" key on your keyboard. The
original instructions say control-s, or function-s, but just "s" worked for me.
You can use the arrow keys to move around in the data, and type in new values
in hex. Pressing the "s" key again will save the current changes back to the
dataflash. You must do this before leaving the current screen of data, or
you'll lose any changes. Hitting the Back button will also result in losing
changes.
So now I'll break the instructions up:
- Method A will be if you have Yahoo apps installed but wish to just overwrite
one of them.
- Method B will be if you have Yahoo apps but want to add a new one.
- Method C will be if you have no apps at all and want to add one.
METHOD A
--------
So you already have some apps installed, but don't care about those, and just
want to take the easy route and overwrite one of them. That's probably the
easiest method. It means you don't have to edit anything here at 0x020000, as
long as you see data to at least indiciate one or more apps. I expect you
wouldn't have chosen method A if not. But if this is your method, we'll
replace the first app, so for future reference, you need to remember that
you'll be using dataflash page 0 to put your actual app in. All you need to do
now is go to the LOADER APP section.
If you plan to add more apps in the future though, I suggest reading METHOD B
as well.
METHOD B
--------
This section will be slightly tricky, but mostly just because it might mean
some counting. You probably already have two apps installed (which is what
will be assumed for most of this section), and while you might think it's a
simple matter of changing that "2" to a "3" at the beginning of the apps
header, it's not quite. If you did think that though, you were partially
right, because you certainly will need to increment that first value at
0x020000. Go ahead and do so. Use the instructions from earlier to make sure
you're in actual hex editor mode if necessary, then just type over that value
with your new one. If you had two apps, it should now show that you have
three.
In fact, at this point, if you saved the data (pressing "s") and went back and
looked in the Extras section on the Mailstation, you'd likely see a third extra
app over on the second page of apps, just minus an icon or name. It would be
selectable though, which would indiciate what you've done so far worked. If
you do go check this out though, make sure you follow all the previous
instructions again to make it back to this point in the hex editor at 0x020000.
Now is the counting part I mentioned. The problem with preinstalled apps is
that there's only an app record for just the apps installed. That means we
need to add a new one at the end of that, so that it'll know what page of
dataflash the code is in and such when you run the third app. If you run the
third app without this data specified, it'll almost always run the first Yahoo
app (or whatever app you have in that location).
So we're going to assume you have two apps already installed, and are wanting
to add a third. This means counting over past the six-byte app records for the
two apps already installed in order to add the bytes for the third. Remember
that the app info area is formatted like this:
[4 bytes header][6 bytes of app record 1][6 bytes of app record 2]
The very first byte in the first four of course being the number of apps
installed, which you should have already changed. We need to add another six
bytes at the end of all of this. If you only had one app installed, you'd have
to count over until past the last byte of the first app record, but luckily,
having two apps installed means 16 bytes total (4 + 6 + 6). The hex editor
shows 16 bytes per line. This means that instead of counting, you can simply
go to the second line on the screen, aka address 0x020010. If you only had one
app already, you'd have to count over to 0x02000A.
Now, what you put at this location is dependant on the app number you're about
to install. From earlier, this is the known structure of the app records:
xx 00 xx xx xx 18 <-- data for 1st app
xx 01 xx xx xx 19 <-- data for 2nd app
xx 02 xx xx xx 1a <-- data for 3rd app
xx 03 xx xx xx 1b <-- data for 4th app
xx 04 xx xx xx 1c <-- data for 5th app
If you have two apps installed already, then it's the data for the third app
you need to put in. Since we don't know what the "xx" values are for, use
"00". It works fine for me. So, for example, if you're adding in app three,
you'd go to the second line on the screen when at 0x020000(aka address
0x020010 now), and put in the following bytes: "00 02 00 00 00 1a". These
bytes tell it to go to dataflash page 2 to run the app, and that the internal
app number is 1a. The latter isn't important to us (but is important to
include).
What is important though is that you remember the dataflash page number from
the line you add. This is because you have to know which page your app will
run in, in order to know which page to put the code, later in the LOADER APP
section. If you put it in the wrong page, it naturally won't run.
While you're here, you might want to go ahead and add in the remaining bytes
necessary to identify the rest of the five total apps. This will be useful if
you want to add in more apps in the future, and would later require you to only
change the first byte in this area, aka the number of apps, when adding
another. So for example, if you just added in app three using the previous
instructions, then all you need to do is type in the data for apps four and
five right afterward.
Don't forget to press "s" again to save your changes! Now, with your proper
dataflash page number in mind, go on to the LOADER APP section.
METHOD C
--------
This method is probably the second easiest aside from A, because it just means
typing in bytes. You're probably here if you have no apps installed, or if you
just don't care enough about the Yahoo apps to worry about them being there at
all.
So, make sure you're in actual hex editor mode, and that you're at location
0x020000. We're going to add in the app header, and all five app records.
This means that if you decide to add more apps in the future, all you have
to do is increment the first byte, since all the proper app records will
already be in place.
So, at 0x20000, we want to put in the following bytes:
01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 00 00 00 00 00 18
00 01 00 00 00 19 00 02 00 00 00 1a 00 03 00 00
00 1b 00 04 00 00 00 1c
The first byte obviously indicates we should now have one app. Make sure to
hit "s" to save all this! It couldn't hurt to verify you typed in the proper
bytes, as well. If you want to see if it worked, exit out of the hex editor,
and go to the Extras area on your Mailstation. On the right, you should now
have a new app, with no icon or label, but it should be selectable. Running it
at the moment will probably crash your Mailstation though.
Since this will be your first app, you'll be installing the code into dataflash
page 0. Remember this value, then head on to the next section, LOADER APP.
LOADER APP
----------
Okay, if you used methods B or C, you should have modified the apps header to
specify the new number of apps, and added any necessary app records to be able
to have your own apps.
And no matter what method you used, you should know your dataflash page number to
put the actual app at.
This is where we're going to put the actual code! It also holds icon and icon
label data, but we're not going to put an icon, just for the sake of typing
less bytes in. Yes, you have to type in every byte of code for this manually,
like in the old days. This is why the code is going to be as brief and to the
point as possible. Its sole purpose will be loading code from your PC to the
Mailstation, and running it. In fact, it won't even display anything on the
screen while it's doing it! But we'll know it if it's loading, because the
host loader app on the PC side will show us.
In any case, let's put in some code. The first step is determining the
location in the hex editor to go in order to do it. See, when you launch the
app via the Mailstation, it looks in the app record and determines the
dataflash page to load into slot4000 (16KB from 0x4000-0x7FFF in the
Mailstation address space). As mentioned earlier, the dataflash is 512KB,
resulting in 32 "pages" of flash that can be put into slot4000 (or slot8000 for
that matter). Some of the later pages though are used for storing email and
all that, so we wouldn't want to mess with those. You've already told
it what page numbers each app uses anyway when you put in the app records
earlier, and the Mailstation knows not to store anything important in those
pages apparently.
So this just takes a little math to determine the actual starting address in
the dataflash that you need to put your code in. You basically just multiply
your page number by 0x4000. So page 0 would be address 0x0000, page 1 would be
0x4000, page 2 would be 0x8000, etc.
I'll make it easy for you actually. If you're using method A or C, your
address will be 0x0000. If you're using Method B, it's PROBABLY going to be
0x8000, if you already had two apps installed. If you had some odd amount of
apps installed, calculate accordingly.
Now that you know your starting address in the dataflash, that's where we need
to go. Using the Goto command in the hex editor, just punch in your address.
Make sure you add enough zeroes into the blank, since it holds six characters.
0x4000 would be "004000", for example.
Now you're at the starting address of where your app should be! It's probably
a bunch of zeroes. If you're overwriting a pre-existing Yahoo app, then it's
probably a bunch of gibberish. Either way, we're overwriting it at this point.
Make sure you put in the backdoor code mentioned earlier, hit "s" to enter edit
mode, and type in these bytes:
C3 2D 40 1A 40 0E 40 09 40 00 00 00 00 00 01 00
06 00 06 00 4C 6F 61 64 65 72 C5 E5 AF D3 08 3C
D3 07 CD 27 80 B7 CA 22 40 7D E1 C1 C9 CD 1A 40
6F CD 1A 40 67 01 00 80 CD 1A 40 57 3E 01 D3 08
D3 07 7A 02 03 2B AF B4 C2 38 40 AF B5 C2 38 40
C3 00 80
This is the code from loaderapp.bin, if you're curious. If you want to see the
source to have some idea what it's doing, look at loaderapp.asm.
You might want to visually verify your bytes, because it's extremely easy to
make a mistake. One wrong letter or number could mess up the entire program.
That's it! If you haven't already, hit "s" to save. Now you can go back out
of the hex editor and into the Mailstation, look in the Extras area, and you
should see the "Loader" app. If this is your first app, it'll be on the first
page. If you already had some apps, it'll be on the second page.
Keep in mind that running this won't do anything until you actually try to send
code to it. It'll actually seem like it's frozen up (since it's constantly
waiting for a byte from the parallel port). And if something ever goes wrong
during a transfer (which can happen occasionally), you'll have to reset the
Mailstation either with the reset button on back, or cycling the power.
Now to send your own code to it!
MAILSEND
--------
Mailsend is the other side of the transfer process that I wrote, which you run
on your PC. It's a command-line Windows app.
That said, open up a command prompt window, and navigate to where you put all
the files. Sometimes it's easiest to just put it all in c:\mailstation, which
is what I do.
Mailsend assumes your PC's parallel port runs on the fairly standard port
0x378. If not, you're going to have some problems. I have no idea if this is
compatible with those USB->Parallel dongles out there, either. But almost
every computer still made has a parallel port built into it, which should work
with this just fine.
To try it out, run "mailsend fyos_bin.bin" on the PC. It'll prompt you to
press enter to continue. At this point, you need to run Loader on the
Mailstation. Doing so won't give you any sort of visual indication, but you'll
know it's working here in a second. Once Loader is running, hit return on the
PC. You should start to see a byte counter as it transfers data to the
Mailstation. When it's done, it'll return to the command prompt, and your
Mailstation should be running whatever you just send to it. In this case,
FyOS. If so, then congratulations, you can now transfer any binary file to the
Mailstation!
THE END?
--------
It's important to remember that your code is loaded into slot8000 (16KB from
0x8000 to 0xBFFF), in ram page 1. 0xC000 to 0xFFFF is ram page 0, which is
fixed and can't be swapped (as far as we know). The Mailstation uses page
0 to store variables and such for its own code. This means you should keep
the binaries you send less than 16KB, or you'll overwrite that stuff. If
that's your intention, then fine, but keep in mind that interrupts are not
disabled in the Loader app, meaning parts of the code you send that span
past 0xC000 could get overwritten before it even gets a chance to execute. You
could modify Loader to disable them however (then reassemble it, and type in
the bytes again of course), but you should know what you're doing in such a
case. No interrupts means no keyboard support via the firmware routines, for
example.
That's about it for this tutorial. If you have any questions/comments, feel
free to let me know at fyberoptic@gmail.com. As mentioned in the readme, I
also frequent the Yahoo group, where others might be able to help you as well:
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/mailstation/
Have fun!
- FyberOptic
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