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Pointless is a library for working with values, arrays, objects, functions, and promises all with a uniform interface and in a point-free style.

It works in the browser (with or without AMD) and as a Node.js module.

Pointless is inspired by:


P is the main function. It returns a Pointless object.

Pointless objects wrap values. The original value is accessible via the _ property:

P(42)._ // 42

That example may seem pointless (it is!), but you would normally use one or more methods on the Pointless object before accessing its value.

Pointless objects provide many methods for manipulating their values and returning new Pointless objects. Here's a more interesting example:

P(document.querySelectorAll('#form input'))
.then(function(qs) {
    // Do Ajax with query string...

When you're done chaining method calls, you can use the _ property to access the final result or the .then() method (which is supposed to be reminiscient of the Promises/A specification) as in the above example.

Many of the methods available on Pointless objects are also available as "static" methods on the P function. You can see two of them in the previous example. These methods take in an unwrapped value and return an unwrapped value. They are meant for quick application of a single Pointless method. To apply more than one Pointless method to a value, consider chaining off a Pointless object instead.

Many of the static methods also support automatic partial application. For example, the calls to P.get() and P.format() with just one argument in the previous example returned new functions that takes the value to read from or to format. The more traditional way to write that might look like this:

P(document.querySelectorAll('#form input'))
.filter(function(input) {
.map(function(input) {
    return P.format('{name}={value}', input);
.then(function(qs) {
    // Do Ajax with query string...

The point of Pointless is to enable programming in a point-free style. If you find yourself writing function expressions as above, you may be able to discover a way to remove them by exploring the API.

Pointless may seem familiar to the popular Underscore and Lo-Dash libraries and it is, but be careful. Many of the functions in Pointless accept their arguments in reverse compared to their closest counterparts in Underscore. This is done on purpose to make automatic partial application more convenient.


For each of the following methods, an examples are shown using Pointless object methods and "static" methods, when available. If the static method can be partially applied, that will be indicated with an example, too.

Comments at the end of lines in the following examples indicate the results. Results that look like [ 1, 2 ] are normal arrays. Results that look like P([ 1, 2 ]) are Pointless objects wrapping an array. You can invoke more methods on those objects or access their values with either the _ property or .then() method.


Maps (tranforms) each value into new values. The callback function does not receive an index argument.

P([ 1, 2 ]).map(add1) // P([ 2, 3 ]), [ 1, 2 ]) // [ 2, 3 ][ 1, 2 ]) // [ 2, 3 ]


Reduces values to a single value. The callback function receives the previous and current values, but does not receive an index argument. Empty arrays result in a TypeError.

P([ 1, 2 ]).reduce(add) // P(3)

P.reduce(add, [ 1, 2 ]) // 3

P.reduce(add)([ 1, 2 ]) // 3


Folds a value to a single value, starting with a seed value. The callback function receives the previous and current values, but does not receive an index argument.

P([ 1, 2 ]).fold(3, add) // P(6)

P.fold(3, add, [ 1, 2 ]) // 6

P.fold(3)(add, [ 1, 2 ]) // 6

P.fold(3)(add)([ 1, 2 ]) // 6


Removes values that don't result in true when applied to the callback function.

P([ 1, 2, 3 ]).filter(isOdd) // P([ 1, 3 ])

P.filter(isOdd, [ 1, 2, 3 ]) // [ 1, 3 ]

P.filter(isOdd)([ 1, 2, 3 ]) // [ 1, 3 ]


Iterates over each value and passes it into the callback function. The callback function does not receive an index argument.

P([ 1, 2 ]).each(log) // P([ 1, 2 ]) and logs each value

P.each(log, [ 1, 2 ]) // [ 1, 2 ] and logs each value

P.each(log)([ 1, 2 ]) // [ 1, 2 ] and logs each value


Like Array.prototype.slice, but works with array-like objects. Both start and end arguments are required, but you can pass in undefined for end to slice from start to the end of the array. If that bothers you, use P.skip.

P([ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]).slice(1, 2) // P([ 2, 3 ])

P.slice(1, 2, [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]) // [ 2, 3 ]

P.slice(1, undefined, [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]) // [ 2, 3, 4 ]


Skips the first count items and returns the rest.

P([ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]).skip(2) // P([ 3, 4 ])

P.skip(2, [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]) // [ 3, 4 ]


Takes the first count items and ignores the rest.

P([ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]).take(2) // P([ 1, 2 ])

P.take(2, [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ]) // [ 1, 2 ]


Like Array.prototype.join, but works with array-like objects.

P([ 1, 2 ]).join(',') // P('1, 2')

P.join(',', [ 1, 2 ]) // '1, 2'


Like Object.keys(), but works even when Object.keys isn't defined.

P({ a: 1, b: 2 }).keys() // P([ 'a', 'b' ]) or P([ 'b', 'a' ])

P.keys({ a: 1, b: 2 }) // [ 'a', 'b' ] or [ 'b', 'a' ]

The JavaScript language does not guarantee the order in which an object's keys are returned so try not to rely on it.


Copies properties from source object to target object.

P.extend({ a: 1 }, { a: 2, b: 3 }) // { a: 2, b: 3 }


Copies properties from source object to target object unless already defined in target object.

P.defaults({ a: 1 }, { a: 2, b: 3 }) // { a: 1, b: 3 }


Invokes the callback function with the current value and then returns the current Pointless object. This is meant mostly for debugging purposes.

P([ 1, 2 ]).tap(log) // P([ 1, 2 ]) and logs the array

Unfortunately, not all browsers allow console.log to be invoked as an unbound function. Use the .console, .log, or similar methods for that.


Invokes the specified method on console with the current value. If label is defined, ': ' is appended to it, and then that's used as a prefix.

P([ 1, 2 ]).console('log', 'foo') // P([ 1, 2 ]) and logs "foo: 1, 2"

For convenience, log, info, warn, and error methods also exist:

P([ 1, 2 ]).log('foo') // P([ 1, 2 ]) and logs "foo: 1, 2"


Tests the current value and then executes one of the two functions. The return value of the function that executes becomes the new value.

The test can be a function, in which case the current value is applied to that function.

The test can also be a non-function. In this case, the current value is compared (with ===) to that value.

P(1).when(isOdd, add1) // P(2)

P(2).when(isOdd, null, add1) // P(3)

P(3).when(3, add1) // P(4)

Conditional Functions

The following functions take in a value and return a boolean:

  • P.truthy(val) - true when truthy
  • P.falsy(val) - true when falsy
  • P.defined(val) - true when not undefined (even null)
  • P.undefined(val) - true when undefined
  • P.exists(val) - true when not null or undefined
  • P.nothing(val) - true when null or undefined
  • P.any(val) - true when non-empty array or truthy non-array
  • P.empty(val) - true when empty array or falsy non-array

Conditional Methods

These common tests have their own Pointless object methods that invoke .when() for you:

  • .truthy(then, else) // tests if value is truthy
  • .falsy(then, else) // value is falsy
  • .defined(then, else) // value is not undefined (null is OK)
  • .undefined(then, else) // value is undefined (null is not undefined)
  • .exists(then, else) // value is not null or undefined
  • .nothing(then, else) // value is null or undefined
  • .any(then, else) // value has length > 0 or is truthy
  • .empty(then, else) // value has length === 0 or is falsy

If the test passes, the then argument is invoked with the current value. Otherwise, the else argument is invoked with the current value. Both the then and else arguments are optional.


P.partial() returns a function that applies its arguments to the right of the original arguments.

var pf = P.partial(f, 1, 2);
pf(3, 4); // Calls f with 1, 2, 3, and 4


P.partialRight() returns a function that applies its arguments to the left of the original arguments.

var pf = P.partialRight(f, 3, 4);
pf(1, 2); // Calls f with 1, 2, 3, and 4


P.chain() accepts any number of functions and returns a new function that passes its argument through those function arguments. It's like reverse function composition.

var squareThenIncrement = P.chain(square, increment);
squareThenIncrement(2); // Equivalent to increment(square(2)) so returns 5


Use P.format() like you would use C#'s string.Format():

var greeting = P.format('Hello, {0}!',;

It also accepts named placeholders when the second argument is an object:

var greeting = P.format('Hello, {name}!', person);

The second argument can be an array:

var greeting = P.format('Hello, {0} and {1}!', [, ]);

If only one argument is specified, a partially applied function is returned:

var greeter = P.format('Hello, {name}!');
var greeting = greeter(person);

When used as a method on Pointless objects, the current value is the data:

var greeting = P(person).format('Hello, {name}!');


Pointless objects have a .then() method that takes in a function and invokes that function with the current value:

P(42).then(function(val) { equal( val, 42 ); });

.then() returns a Pointless object wrapping the return value of its callback:

equal( P(42).then(add1)._, 43 );

function add1(val) { return val + 1; }

This method is supposed to resemble the .then() method from Promises/A.


Pointless objects work well with promises. Invoke .eventually() to get a Pointless object with a .then() method that is Promises/A compliant.

All of the usual Pointless methods are still available but they all implicitly call .then() so that they can be applied to the resolved values.

Code to map the results of a promise for an array that looks like this:

getPromiseForArray().then(function(arr) {

can become this:


The value of that Pointless object will be a promise. To use the fulfilled value of that promise, pass a callback function to .then() just like you would do with the result of the previous example:

.then(function(values) {
    // values and everything in it has been fulfilled.

Pointless relies on Q for its promise implementation. If you need support for promises, be sure to include Q (or install it in node_modules). If you never call .eventually(), you don't need to bother with Q.