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1 @c -*-texinfo-*-
2 @center Version 1.2, November 2002
3
4 @display
5 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
6 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
7
8 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
9 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
10 @end display
11 @sp 1
12 @enumerate 0
13 @item
14 PREAMBLE
15
16 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
17 functional and useful document ``free'' in the sense of freedom: to
18 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
19 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
20 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
21 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
22 for modifications made by others.
23
24 This License is a kind of ``copyleft,'' which means that derivative
25 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
26 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
27 license designed for free software.
28
29 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
30 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
31 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
32 software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
33 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
34 whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
35 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
36
37 @sp 1
38 @item
39 APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
40
41 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
42 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
43 distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
44 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
45 work under the conditions stated herein. The ``Document,'' below,
46 refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
47 licensee, and is addressed as ``you.'' You accept the license if you
48 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
49 under copyright law.
50
51 A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
52 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
53 modifications and/or translated into another language.
54
55 A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
56 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
57 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
58 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
59 within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
60 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
61 mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
62 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
63 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
64 them.
65
66 The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
67 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
68 that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
69 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
70 allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
71 Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
72 Sections then there are none.
73
74 The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
75 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
76 the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
77 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
78
79 A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
80 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
81 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
82 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
83 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
84 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
85 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
86 to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
87 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
88 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
89 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
90 of text. A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque.''
91
92
93 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
94 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
95 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
96 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
97 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
98 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
99 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
100 processing tools are not generally available, and the
101 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
102 processors for output purposes only.
103
104 The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
105 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
106 this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
107 formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
108 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
109 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
110
111 A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose
112 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
113 text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
114 specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Acknowledgements,''
115 ``Dedications,'' ``Endorsements,'' or ``History.'') To ``Preserve the Title''
116 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
117 section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.
118
119 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
120 states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
121 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
122 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
123 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
124 no effect on the meaning of this License.
125 @sp 1
126 @item
127 VERBATIM COPYING
128
129 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
130 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
131 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
132 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
133 conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
134 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
135 copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
136 compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
137 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
138
139 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
140 you may publicly display copies.
141 @sp 1
142 @item
143 COPYING IN QUANTITY
144
145 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
146 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
147 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
148 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
149 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
150 the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
151 you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
152 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
153 visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
154 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
155 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
156 as verbatim copying in other respects.
157
158 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
159 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
160 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
161 pages.
162
163 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
164 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
165 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
166 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
167 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
168 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
169 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
170 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
171 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
172 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
173 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
174 edition to the public.
175
176 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
177 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
178 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
179 @sp 1
180 @item
181 MODIFICATIONS
182
183 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
184 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
185 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
186 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
187 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
188 of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
189
190 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
191 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
192 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
193 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
194 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.@*
195 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
196 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
197 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
198 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
199 unless they release you from this requirement.@*
200 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
201 Modified Version, as the publisher.@*
202 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.@*
203 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
204 adjacent to the other copyright notices.@*
205 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
206 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
207 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.@*
208 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
209 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.@*
210 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.@*
211 I. Preserve the section Entitled ``History,'' Preserve its Title, and add
212 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
213 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
214 there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
215 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
216 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
217 Version as stated in the previous sentence.@*
218 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
219 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
220 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
221 it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
222 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
223 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
224 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.@*
225 K. For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications,''
226 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
227 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
228 and/or dedications given therein.@*
229 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
230 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
231 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.@*
232 M. Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements.'' Such a section
233 may not be included in the Modified Version.@*
234 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements''
235 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.@*
236 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.@*
237 @sp 1
238 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
239 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
240 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
241 of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
242 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
243 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
244
245 You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements,'' provided it contains
246 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
247 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
248 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
249 standard.
250
251 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
252 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
253 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
254 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
255 through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
256 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
257 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
258 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
259 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
260
261 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
262 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
263 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
264 @sp 1
265 @item
266 COMBINING DOCUMENTS
267
268 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
269 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
270 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
271 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
272 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
273 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
274
275 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
276 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
277 copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
278 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
279 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
280 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
281 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
282 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
283
284 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
285 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
286 ``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements,''
287 and any sections Entitled ``Dedications.'' You must delete all sections
288 Entitled ``Endorsements.''
289 @sp 1
290 @item
291 COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
292
293 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
294 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
295 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
296 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
297 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
298
299 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
300 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
301 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
302 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
303 @sp 1
304 @item
305 AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
306
307 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
308 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
309 distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
310 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
311 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
312 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
313 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
314 derivative works of the Document.
315
316 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
317 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
318 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
319 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
320 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
321 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
322 aggregate.
323 @sp 1
324 @item
325 TRANSLATION
326
327 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
328 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
329 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
330 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
331 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
332 original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
333 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
334 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
335 the original English version of this License and the original versions
336 of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
337 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
338 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
339
340 If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements,''
341 ``Dedications,'' or ``History,'' the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
342 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
343 title.
344 @sp 1
345 @item
346 TERMINATION
347
348 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
349 as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
350 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
351 automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
352 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
353 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
354 parties remain in full compliance.
355 @sp 1
356 @item
357 FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
358
359 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
360 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
361 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
362 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
363 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
364
365 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
366 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
367 License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
368 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
369 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
370 Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
371 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
372 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
373
374 @end enumerate
375
376 @unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
377
378 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
379 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
380 license notices just after the title page:
381
382 @smallexample
383 @group
384 Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{your name}.
385 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
386 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
387 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
388 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
389 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
390 Free Documentation License.''
391 @end group
392 @end smallexample
393
394 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
395 replace the ``with...Texts.'' line with this:
396
397 @smallexample
398 @group
399 with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with the
400 Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
401 @var{list}.
402 @end group
403 @end smallexample
404
405 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
406 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
407 situation.
408
409 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
410 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
411 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
412 to permit their use in free software.
413
414 @ignore
415 arch-tag: c1679162-1d8a-4f02-bc52-2e71765f0165
416 @end ignore
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