Creole markup tools written in Python.
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python-creole is a OpenSource (GPL) Python lib for converting markups. python-creole is pure python. No external libs needed.

Compatible Python Versions (see also .travis.yml):

  • 2.7.x, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6
  • PyPy (Python v2 and v3)

Existing converters:

  • creole -> html
  • html -> creole markup
  • reSt -> html (for clean html code)
  • html -> reStructuredText markup (only a subset of reSt supported)
  • html -> textile markup (not completed yet)

The creole2html part based on the creole markup parser and emitter from the MoinMoin project by Radomir Dopieralski and Thomas Waldmann.

Build Status on
Coverage Status on
Status on


Python packages available on:

~$ pip install python-creole


For the most parts (creole2html and html2creole) no external libraries are needed.

For all functionality (and running the unittests) these modules are needed:



Convert creole markup to html code:

>>> from creole import creole2html
>>> creole2html("This is **creole //markup//**")
u'<p>This is <strong>creole <i>markup</i></strong></p>\n'


Convert html code back into creole markup:

>>> from creole import html2creole
>>> html2creole(u'<p>This is <strong>creole <i>markup</i></strong></p>\n')
u'This is **creole //markup//**'


Convert ReStructuredText into clean html code (needs docutils):

>>> from creole.rest2html.clean_writer import rest2html
>>> rest2html(u"A ReSt link to `PyLucid CMS <>`_ :)")
u'<p>A ReSt link to <a href="">PyLucid CMS</a> :)</p>\\n'

(more information: rest2html wiki page)


Convert html code into ReStructuredText markup:

>>> from creole import html2rest
>>> html2rest(u'<p>This is <strong>ReStructuredText</strong> <em>markup</em>!</p>')
u'This is **ReStructuredText** *markup*!'


Convert html code into textile markup

>>> from creole import html2textile
>>> html2textile(u'<p>This is <strong>textile <i>markup</i></strong>!</p>')
u'This is *textile __markup__*!'

See also:

Image size additional

You can pass image width/height in image tags, e.g.:

>>> from creole import creole2html
>>> creole_markup="""{{foobar.jpg|image title|90x160}}"""
>>> creole2html(creole_markup)
'<p><img src="foobar.jpg" title="image title" alt="image title" width="90" height="160" /></p>'

The third part (90x160) is not in creole standard, you can force a strict mode, e.g.:

>>> creole2html(creole_markup, strict=True)
'<p><img src="foobar.jpg" title="image title|90x160" alt="image title|90x160" /></p>'

Source code highlighting support

You can find a example macro which highlight source code thanks to the pygments library. It is located here: /creole/shared/ Here is how to use it:

>>> from creole import creole2html
>>> from creole.shared.example_macros import code
>>> creole_markup="""<<code ext=".py">>#some code\nprint('coucou')\n<</code>>"""
>>> creole2html(creole_markup, macros={'code': code})

commandline interface

If you have python-creole installed, you will get these simple CLI scripts:

  • creole2html
  • html2creole
  • html2rest
  • html2textile

Here the --help output from html2creole:

$ html2creole --help
usage: html2creole [-h] [-v] [--encoding ENCODING] sourcefile destination

python-creole is an open-source (GPL) markup converter in pure Python for:
creole2html, html2creole, html2ReSt, html2textile

positional arguments:
  sourcefile           source file to convert
  destination          Output filename

optional arguments:
  -h, --help           show this help message and exit
  -v, --version        show program's version number and exit
  --encoding ENCODING  Codec for read/write file (default encoding: utf-8)

Example to convert a html file into a creole file:

$ html2creole foobar.html foobar.creole


We store documentation/examples into the project wiki:

How to handle unknown html tags in html2creole:

Contributers should take a look at this page:

Creole Markup Cheat Sheet can be found here:

Creole Markup Cheat Sheet


We use nose for running unittests (with DocTests). Please install it, e.g.:

.../your/env/$ source bin/activate
.../your/env/$ pip install nose

To run the unittests:

.../path/to/python-creole$ python nosetests

Use creole in README

With python-creole you can convert a README on-the-fly from creole into ReStructuredText in How to do this, read:

Note: In this case you must install docutils! See above.


  • v1.3.2 - 2018-02-27 - compare v1.3.1...v1.3.2
    • Adding optional img size to creole2html and html2creole contributed by John Dupuy
    • run tests also with python 3.5 and 3.6
  • v1.3.1 - 2015-08-15 - compare v1.3.0...v1.3.1
    • Bugfix for "Failed building wheel for python-creole"
  • v1.3.0 - 2015-06-02 - compare v1.2.2...v1.3.0
    • Refactory internal file structure
    • run unittests and doctests with nose
    • Refactor CLI tests
    • skip official support for Python 2.6
    • small code cleanups and fixes.
    • use json.dumps() instead of repr() in some cases
  • v1.2.2 - 2015-04-05 - compare v1.2.1...v1.2.2
    • Bugfix textile unittests if url scheme is unknown
    • migrate google-code Wiki to github and remove google-code links
  • v1.2.1 - 2014-09-14 - compare v1.2.0...v1.2.1
    • Use origin PyPi code to check generated reStructuredText in
    • Update unitest for textile v2.1.8
  • v1.2.0 - 2014-05-15 - compare v1.1.1...v1.2.0
    • NEW: Add <<code>> example macro (Source code highlighting with pygments) - implemented by Julien Enselme
    • NEW: Add <<toc>> macro to create a table of contents list
    • Bugfix for: AttributeError: 'CreoleParser' object has no attribute '_escaped_char_repl'
    • Bugfix for: AttributeError: 'CreoleParser' object has no attribute '_escaped_url_repl'
    • API Change: Callable macros will raise a TypeError instead of create a DeprecationWarning (Was removed in v0.5)
  • v1.1.1 - 2013-11-08
    • Bugfix: Setup script exited with error: can't copy 'README.creole': doesn't exist or not a regular file
  • v1.1.0 - 2013-10-28
    • NEW: Simple commandline interface added.
  • v1.0.7 - 2013-08-07
    • Bugfix in 'clean reStructuredText html writer' if docutils => v0.11 used.
    • Bugfix for PyPy 2.1 usage
  • v1.0.6 - 2012-10-15
    • Security fix in rest2html: Disable "file_insertion_enabled" and "raw_enabled" as default.
  • v1.0.5 - 2012-09-03
    • made automatic protocol links more strict: Only whitespace before and at the end are allowed.
    • Bugfix: Don't allow ftp:/broken (Only one slash) to be a link.
  • v1.0.4 - 2012-06-11
    • html2rest: Handle double link/image substitution and raise better error messages
    • Bugfix in unittests (include test README file in python package). Thanks to Wen Heping for reporting this.
  • v1.0.3 - 2012-06-11
    • Bugfix: AttributeError: 'module' object has no attribute 'interesting_cdata' from HTMLParser patch. Thanks to Wen Heping for reporting this.
    • Fix a bug in get_long_description() ReSt test for Py3k and his unittests.
    • Use Travis CI, too.
  • v1.0.2 - 2012-04-04
  • v1.0.1 - 2011-11-16
  • v1.0.0 - 2011-10-20
    • Change API: Replace 'parser_kwargs' and 'emitter_kwargs' with separate arguments. (More information on API Wiki Page)
  • v0.9.2
    • Turn zip_safe in on and change unittests API.
  • v0.9.1
    • Many Bugfixes, tested with CPython 2.6, 2.7, 3.2 and PyPy v1.6
  • v0.9.0
  • v0.8.5
    • Bugfix in html2creole: ignore links without href
  • v0.8.4
  • v0.8.3
  • v0.8.2
    • Bugfix in get_long_description() error handling (local variable 'long_description_origin' referenced before assignment)
  • v0.8.1
    • Bugfix for installation under python 2.5
    • Note: setup helper changed: rename GetLongDescription(...) to get_long_description(...)
  • v0.8
  • v0.7.3
    • Bugfix in html2rest:
      • table without <th> header
      • new line after table
      • create reference hyperlinks in table cells intead of embedded urls.
      • Don't always use raise_unknown_node()
    • Add child content to raise_unknown_node()
  • v0.7.2
    • Activate ---- to <hr> in html2rest
    • Update
  • v0.7.1
    • Bugfix if docutils are not installed
    • API change: rest2html is now here: from creole.rest2html.clean_writer import rest2html
  • v0.7.0
    • NEW: Add a html2reStructuredText converter (only a subset of reSt supported)
  • v0.6.1
    • Bugfix: separate lines with one space in "wiki style line breaks" mode
  • v0.6
    • NEW: html2textile converter
    • some API changed!
  • v0.5
    • API changed:
      • Html2CreoleEmitter optional argument 'unknown_emit' takes now a callable for handle unknown html tags.
      • No macros used as default in creole2html converting.
      • We remove the support for callable macros. Only dict and modules are allowed.
    • remove unknown html tags is default behaviour in html2creole converting.
    • restructure and cleanup sourcecode files.
  • v0.4
    • only emit children of empty tags like div and span (contributed by Eric O'Connell)
    • remove inter wiki links and doesn't check the protocol
  • v0.3.3
    • Use <tt> when {{{ ... }}} is inline and not <pre>, see: PyLucid Forum Thread
    • Bugfix in html2creole: insert newline before new list. TODO: apply to all block tags: issues 16
  • v0.3.2
  • v0.3.1
    • Make argument 'block_rules' in Parser() optional
  • v0.3.0
    • creole2html() has the optional parameter 'blog_line_breaks' to switch from default blog to wiki line breaks
  • v0.2.8
    • bugfix in
  • v0.2.7
    • handle obsolete non-closed <br> tag
  • v0.2.6
    • bugfix in
    • Cleanup DocStrings
    • add unittests
  • v0.2.5
    • creole2html: Bugfix if "--", "//" etc. stands alone, see also: issues 12
    • Note: bold, italic etc. can't cross line any more.
  • v0.2.4
    • creole2html: ignore file extensions in image tag
  • v0.2.3
    • html2creole bugfix/enhanced: convert image tag without alt attribute:
      • see also: issues 6
      • Thanks Betz Stefan alias 'encbladexp'
  • v0.2.2
    • html2creole bugfix: convert <a href="/url/">Search & Destroy</a>
  • v0.2.1
    • html2creole bugfixes in:
      • converting tables: ignore tbody tag and better handling p and a tags in td
      • converting named entity
  • v0.2
    • remove all django template tag stuff: issues 3
    • html code always escaped
  • v0.1.1
    • improve macros stuff, patch by Vitja Makarov: issues 2
  • v0.1.0

first source code was written 27.11.2008: Forum thread (de)

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