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Fastify plugin to expose API for Mongoose MongoDB models

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If you are using Fastify as your server and Mongoose as your ODM, fastify-mongoose-api is the easiest solution to run API server for your models. fastify-mongoose-api generates REST routes with refs subroutes like /api/author/AUTHORID/books and /api/books/BOOKID/author based on MongoDB Mongoose models definitions with few lines of code.

As simple as:

const fastify = Fastify();
fastify.register(fastifyFormbody); /// need form body to accept API parameters
fastify.register(fastifyMongooseAPI, {  /// here we are registering our plugin
    models: mongooseConnection.models,  /// Mongoose connection models
    prefix: '/api/',                    /// URL prefix. e.g. http://localhost/api/...
    setDefaults: true,                  /// you can specify your own api methods on models, our trust our default ones, check em [here](
    methods: ['list', 'get', 'post', 'patch', 'put', 'delete', 'options'] /// HTTP methods

await fastify.ready(); /// waiting for plugins registration
await fastify.listen(8080); /// running the server
//// yep, right here we already have API server running on port 8080 with methods for all MongoDB models of your mongoose instance.


npm i fastify-mongoose-api -s


Register plugin on fastify instance:

const fastify = Fastify();
fastify.register(fastifyMongooseAPI, options);

with following options:

.models : array of mongoose models

Required. Array of mongoose models. Usually you can get them from mongoose connection object like:

let connection = await mongoose.createConnection(this.config.database.database, options);
/// ... register mongoose models
connection.model('Author', schema);
connection.model('Book', schema);
/// ... connection models is ready for fastify-mongoose-api

.prefix : string (default: '/api/')

Path prefix. Default is /api/.

.setDefaults : boolean (default: true)

Initialize api with default REST methods

.methods : array of strings

Methods to initialize, ['list', 'get', 'post', 'patch', 'put', 'delete', 'options'] is available.

.checkAuth : function

Function to run before any API request to check authorization permissions in. Just throw an error in it if user is now allowed to perform an action.

fastify.register(fastifyMongooseAPI, {
        models: this.db.connection.models,
        checkAuth: async (req, reply)=>{
          let ac = await this.db.AuthCode.findOne({authCode: req.cookies.authCode}).populate('user').exec(); /// fastify-cookie plugin for req.cookie
          if (!ac || !ac.user) {
            throw new Error('You are not authorized to be here');

Sample Application

Sample application (Source code, Live demo) with Vue.js UI, simple Auth integration, ready to run on Heroku.

You can also check plugin's unit test file.

Sample models

We are defining two classic models. Books and author with one to many relation between them.

const mongoose = require('mongoose');
const mongooseConnection = await mongoose.createConnection(MONGODB_URL, { useNewUrlParser: true });

const authorSchema = mongoose.Schema({
    firstName: String,
    lastName: String,
    biography: String,
    created: { type: Date, default: }

const Author = mongooseConnection.model('Author', authorSchema);

const bookSchema = mongoose.Schema({
    title: String,
    isbn: String,
    author: {  type: mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId,  ref: 'Author' },
    created: {  type: Date, default: }

const Book = mongooseConnection.model('Book', bookSchema);

Sample application server

Should be easy here

const Fastify = require('fastify');
const fastifyMongooseAPI = require('fastify-mongoose-api');
const fastifyFormbody = require('fastify-formbody');

const fastify = Fastify();
fastify.register(fastifyMongooseAPI, {
    models: mongooseConnection.models,
    prefix: '/api/',
    setDefaults: true,
    methods: ['list', 'get', 'post', 'patch', 'put', 'delete', 'options']

await fastify.ready();
await fastify.listen(8080);

Sample application generated API routes

Method URL
List all authors GET /api/authors Pagination, sorting, search and filtering are ready
List all books GET /api/books Want to get populated refs in response? You can
Create new author POST /api/authors Send properties with post body sample
Create new book POST /api/books
Get single author GET /api/authors/AUTHORID
Get author books GET /api/authors/AUTHORID/books Plugin builds relations based on models definition
Get book author GET /api/books/BOOKID/author Same in reverse way
Update author PUT /api/authors/AUTHORID Send properties using post body
Update book PUT /api/books/BOOKID
Delete book DELETE /api/books/BOOKID Be careful
Delete author DELETE /api/authors/AUTHORID

Post/Put sample on frontend

await'/api/books', {title: 'The Book'});
await axios.put('/api/books/xxxxx', {title: 'The Book Updated'});
await axios.put('/api/books/xxxxx', {title: 'The Book Updated'}, {params: {populate: 'author'}});

List method response sample

Sample API response for List all authors method:

{ total: 2,
   [ { _id: '5d2620aff4df8b3c4f4f03d6',
       created: '2019-07-10T17:30:23.486Z',
       firstName: 'Jay',
       lastName: 'Kay',
       biography: 'Lived. Died.',
       __v: 0 },
     { _id: '5d2620aff4df8b3c4f4f03d8',
       created: '2019-07-10T17:30:23.566Z',
       firstName: 'Hutin',
       lastName: 'Puylo',
       biography: 'The Little One',
       __v: 0 } ] }

List method options

Pass all options as URL GET parameters, e.g. /api/books?option=some&option2=better Works very same for other LIST routes, /api/authors/AUTHORID/books etc.


Option Name Default Value
Offset offset 0
Limit limit 100


Pass sort option string as described in Mongoose docs, e.g. 'name' for sorting by name field or '-name' for descending sort by it.

Option Name Default Value
Sort sort null


Simple filtering by field value is available. /api/books?filter=isbn%3Dsomeisbnval will return all books with isbn equals to 'someisbnval'. %3D here is urlencoded '=' symbol, so actual option value is 'isbn=someisbnval'

Option Name Default Value
Filter filter null

Filtering by Boolean property

Though you pass property value directly as boolean to create new entity or update one:

await'/api/books', {title: 'Some Book', isGood: false});

Filtering by that value may be implemented using number representation of boolean (0/1):

await axios.get('/api/books', {params: {filter: 'isGood=0'}});

See test case

Regex match

Use it for pattern matching. Useful for things like autocomplete etc. Check mongodb docs how to pass regex options in pattern string, e.g. (?i)pattern to turn case-insensitivity on. Pass param in the same way as for filtering, /api/authors?match=lastName%3D(?i)vonnegut

Option Name Default Value
Regex match null


Performs search by full text mongodb indexes. First you have to specify one or few text indexes in your model schema. You don't have to specify field name for this parameter, mongo will perform full text search on all available indexes.

Option Name Default Value
Search search null


Projects the first element in an array that matches the field. /api/authors?fields=firstName,lastName will only return _id, firstName, lastName. You can also exclude fields by using -, i.e. ?fields=-firstName which will return everything except the firstName field.

Option Name Default Value
Projection fields null


If you want API response to include nested objects, just pass populate string in parameter, it will run populate(param) before sending response to client. To populate few fields, pass them as array, ?populate[]=author&populate[]=shop

Option Name Default Value
Populate populate null

Populate on POST, PUT and single item GET methods

Works very same, just send your form(object) data in formBody and populate parameter in query string:

  $.post('/api/books?populate=author', {
      title: 'The best book',
      isbn: '1482663775',
      author: '5d62e5e4dab2ce6a1b958461'

and get a response of:

  "title":"The best book",

works very same, you can also pass populate[] array to populate few fields.

Subroutes when there're few refs to the same model

By default, fastify-mongoose-api creates subroutes for external refs to your models, sample. But what if there're few refs to the same model in your schema? Like:

  const bookSchema = mongoose.Schema({
    title: String,
    isbn: String,
    author: {
          type: mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId,
          ref: 'Author'
    coauthor: {
          type: mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId,
          ref: 'Author'
    created: {
      type: Date,
  const Book = mongooseConnection.model('Book', bookSchema);

In this special case, it will create extra routes:

/api/author/AUTHORID/books - to list books where AUTHORID is the author (the first ref defined) and /api/author/AUTHORID/books_as_coauthor - to list books where AUHTORID is the co-author (next ref to the same model)

while keeping expected internal refs GET routes of /api/books/BOOKID/author and /api/books/BOOKID/coauthor


How to enable CORS for cross-domain requests? fastify-cors works just fine:

  const fastify = Fastify();
  fastify.register(require('fastify-cors'), {
      // put your options here

  fastify.register(fastifyMongooseAPI, {
          models: this.db.connection.models,
          prefix: '/api/',
          setDefaults: true,
          methods: ['list', 'get', 'post', 'patch', 'put', 'delete', 'options']

  await fastify.ready();
  await fastify.listen(args.port);


Clone fastify-mongoose-api, run npm install in its directory and run grunt or npm test to run unit tests, or grunt watchtests to run unit tests on each file change (development mode).

Coverage report

Simply run npm test with the COVERALLS_REPO_TOKEN environment variable set and tap will automatically use nyc to report coverage to coveralls.


Licensed under MIT


Fastify plugin to expose API for Mongoose MongoDB models




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