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Merge pull request #802 from jglick/patch-1

[JENKINS-41745] Updating CLI documentation for non-Remoting modes
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daniel-beck committed Apr 11, 2017
2 parents 3359e99 + 66163cd commit b1b7dd91e4243efde4906333c9707696607244f3
Showing with 87 additions and 31 deletions.
  1. +87 −31 content/doc/book/managing/cli.adoc
@@ -27,24 +27,28 @@ be convenient for scripting of routine tasks, bulk updates, troubleshooting,
and more.

The command line interface can be accessed over SSH or with the Jenkins CLI
client, a `.jar` file distributed with Jenkins. The SSH approach is preferred
over the CLI client as it is considered more secure.

////
Background:
23:19 <@rtyler> danielbeck: I'm writing CLI documentation, should I just encourage people to use SSH or stick with the default of jenkins-clir.jar?
23:20 <@rtyler> we've told enough people to turn off the CLI over the past year...
23:20 <@rtyler> :/
23:21 <@danielbeck> it's probably better in general, but e.g. firewalls rules may require regular CLI use
23:21 <@danielbeck> in any case, auth needs to use SSH keys
////
client, a `.jar` file distributed with Jenkins.

[WARNING]
====
Use of the CLI client distributed with Jenkins 2.53 and older
is **not recommended** for security reasons:
while there are no currently known vulnerabilities,
several have been reported and patched in the past,
and the Jenkins Remoting protocol it uses is inherently vulnerable to remote code execution bugs,
even “preauthentication” exploits (by anonymous users able to physically access the Jenkins network).
The client distributed with Jenkins 2.54 and newer
is considered secure in its default (`-http`) or `-ssh` modes,
as is using the standard `ssh` command.
====

== Using the CLI
== Using the CLI over SSH

By default Jenkins will boot with a randomly assigned SSH port, which
administrators may choose to override in the <<system-configuration#ssh-server,
Configure System>> page. In order to determine the randomly assigned SSH port,
In a new Jenkins installation, the SSH service is disabled by default.
Administrators may choose to set a specific port or ask Jenkins to pick a random port
in the <<security#ssh-server, Configure Global Security>> page.
In order to determine the randomly assigned SSH port,
inspect the headers returned on a Jenkins URL, for example:

[source]
@@ -63,7 +67,7 @@ Whichever user used for authentication with the Jenkins master must have the
`Overall/Read` permission in order to _access_ the CLI. The user may require
additional permissions depending on the commands executed.

Whether using the CLI via SSH, or with the CLI client, both rely primarily on
Authentication relies on
SSH-based public/private key authentication. In order to add an SSH public key
for the appropriate user, navigate to
`https://JENKINS_URL/user/USERNAME/configure` and paste an SSH public key
@@ -182,13 +186,11 @@ Authorities:

== Using the CLI client


While the SSH-based CLI is preferred, there may be situations where the CLI
client is a better fit. For example, the default transport for the CLI client
While the SSH-based CLI is fast and covers most needs, there may be situations where the CLI
client distributed with Jenkins is a better fit. For example, the default transport for the CLI client
is HTTP which means no additional ports need to be opened in a firewall for its
use.


=== Downloading the client

The CLI client can be downloaded directly from a Jenkins master at the URL
@@ -204,27 +206,81 @@ The general syntax for invoking the client is as follows:

[source]
----
java -jar jenkins-cli.jar [-s JENKINS_URL] command [options...] [arguments...]
java -jar jenkins-cli.jar [-s JENKINS_URL] [global options...] command [command options...] [arguments...]
----

The `JENKINS_URL` can be specified via the environment variable `$JENKINS_URL`.
Summaries of other general options can be displayed by running the client with no arguments at all.

[TIP]
====
The `JENKINS_URL` environment variable is automatically set when Jenkins forks a process
during builds or Pipelines, allowing the use of the Jenkins CLI from inside a
project without explicit configuration of the Jenkins URL.
====
=== Client connection modes

There are three basic modes in which the 2.54+ client may be used, selectable by global option:
`-http`; `-ssh`; and `-remoting`.

==== HTTP connection mode

This is the default mode as of 2.54, though you may pass the `-http` option explicitly for clarity.

Authentication is preferably with an `-auth` option, which takes a `username:apitoken` argument.
Get your API token from `/me/configure`:

[source]
----
java -jar jenkins-cli.jar [-s JENKINS_URL] -auth kohsuke:abc1234ffe4a command ...
----

(Actual passwords are also accepted, but this is discouraged.)

You can also precede the argument with `@` to load the same content from a file:

[source]
----
java -jar jenkins-cli.jar [-s JENKINS_URL] -auth @/home/kohsuke/.jenkins-cli command ...
----

==== SSH connection mode

Authentication is via SSH keypair.
You must select the Jenkins user ID as well:

[source]
----
java -jar jenkins-cli.jar [-s JENKINS_URL] -ssh -user kohsuke command ...
----

In this mode, the client acts essentially like a native `ssh` command.

==== Remoting connection mode

This was the only mode supported by clients downloaded from a pre-2.54 Jenkins server
(prior to the introduction of the `-remoting` option).
Its use is deprecated for security and performance reasons.
That said, certain commands or command modes can _only_ run in Remoting mode,
typically because the command functionality involves running server-supplied code on the client machine.

This mode is disabled on the server side for new installations of 2.54+.
If you must use it, and accept the risks, it may be enabled in <<security, Configure Global Security>>.

Authentication is preferably via SSH keypair.
A `login` command and `--username` / `--password` command (note: *not global*) options are also available;
these are discouraged since they cannot work with a non-password-based security realm,
certain command arguments will not be properly parsed if anonymous users lack overall or job read access,
and saving human-chosen passwords for use in scripts is considered insecure.

Note that there are two transports available for this mode: over HTTP, or over a dedicated TCP socket.
If the <<security#jnlp-tcp-port, TCP port is enabled>> and seems to work, the client will use this transport.
If the TCP port is disabled, or such a port is advertised but does not accept connections
(for example because you are using an HTTP reverse proxy with a firewall),
the client will automatically fall back to the less efficient HTTP transport.

=== Common Problems
===== Common Problems with the Remoting-based client

There are a number of common problems that may be experienced when running the
CLI client.

==== Operation timed out
====== Operation timed out

Check that the HTTP or JNLP port is opened if you are using a firewall on your
Check that the HTTP or TCP port is opened if you are using a firewall on your
server. You can configure its value in Jenkins configuration. By default it is
set to use a random port.

@@ -247,7 +303,7 @@ Exception in thread "main" java.net.ConnectException: Operation timed out
at hudson.cli.CLI.main(CLI.java:199)
----

==== No X-Jenkins-CLI2-Port
====== No X-Jenkins-CLI2-Port

Go to *Manage Jenkins* > *Configure Global Security* and choose "Fixed" or
"Random" under *TCP port for JNLP agents*.

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