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README.md

Polygott

Overview

Repl.it allows you to quickly get started with any programming language online. In order to provide this capability, our evaluation server uses Docker to ensure that all these languages are installed with the appropriate environment set up.

We previously used a separate Docker image for each language, but concluded that it was both simpler and more efficient to use a single image which contains all supported languages simultaneously. The code necessary to build this combined image, Polygott, resides in this repository.

Build and run

You can build either the entire image, or a version that is limited to a single language. The latter is recommended when you are adding or modifying support for a particular language, since building the entire image takes an extremely long time. Makefile targets are provided for each of these cases:

% make help
usage:
  make image         Build Docker image with all languages
  make image-LANG    Build Docker image with single language LANG
  make run           Build and run image with all languages
  make run-LANG      Build and run image with single language LANG
  make test          Build and test all languages
  make test-LANG     Build and test single language LANG
  make changed-test  Build and test only changed/added languages
  make help          Show this message

As you can see, there is a facility for testing that languages have been installed and configured correctly. This involves running commands which are specified in the languages' configuration files, and checking that the output is as expected. To debug, you can also use the make run and make run-LANG targets to launch shells within the images.

You may want to bypass Docker's cache temporarily, for example to debug an intermittent network error while building one of the languages. To do this, identify the docker build command which is run by the Makefile, and run it yourself with the --no-cache flag.

Language configuration

Each supported language has a TOML file in the languages subdirectory. The meaningful keys are as follows:

Mandatory

  • entrypoint: The name of the file which will be executed on Repl.it when you press the Run button. This is used in the detect-language script built into the Polygott image: if a file exists with this name, then the project is detected to have this language. (Ties are resolved by popularity.) It is also used by the run-project script in order to identify the main file of the projecy.
  • extensions: List of file extensions (use "py", not ".py") which files of this language may have. This is used in the detect-language script built into the Polygott image: if a file exists with one of these extensions, then the project is detected to have this language. (Ties are resolved by popularity.)
  • name: The name of the language. The TOML file should then be named <name>.toml. This is also what you pass to the Makefile's image-LANG and test-LANG targets.

Optional

  • aliases: List of strings indicating alternate names for the language, in addition to name. This is used to allow the run-language-server script to accept -l c++ in addition to -l cpp, among other things.
  • aptKeys: List of PGP key IDs that must be passed to apt-key in order for the custom aptRepos configured to be trusted. For example, "09617FD37CC06B54".
  • aptRepos: List of repository strings that must be passed to add-apt-repository in order for the custom packages configured to be available. For example, "deb https://dist.crystal-lang.org/apt crystal main".
  • compile
    • command: The full command to compile the entrypoint file, as a list, including the filename. This is run before the run command.
  • languageServer
    • command: Command to start an LSP language server, as a list. This is used in the run-language-server script built into the Polygott image.
  • packages: List of additional Ubuntu packages to install for this language. (Packages which are required by all or many languages should be placed instead in packages.txt.) Check the Ubuntu Bionic package listing to see what your options are.
  • popularity: Floating-point number indicating how popular the language is. Defaults to 2.0. This is used in the detect-language script built into the Polygott image: if a project is detected as more than one language, the winner is chosen by comparing popularity scores.
  • run: Required, unless you provide no tests or you have asked to skip all of them.
    • command: The full command to run the entrypoint file, as a list, including the filename. It is run after the compile command, if one is provided. This is used to run tests.
  • runtimeSetup: List of shell commands to be run by the polygott-lang-setup script built into the Polygott image.
  • setup: List of shell commands to be run in phase 2 of the build process, as post-install steps.
  • tests
    • TESTNAME
      • code: String to write to the entrypoint file before invoking the run command.
      • output: String expected to be written to stdout (not stderr) by running the code.
      • skip: Boolean, optional. If true, then the test is skipped. This allows you to easily "comment out" a test if there is something wrong with the infrastructure.
  • versionCommand: A command to output the version of the language, as a list of strings. For example, ["kotlin", "-version"]. This is used in the polygott-survey command built into the Polygott image. (If versionCommand is omitted, some heuristics are used to guess it.)

Build process

Usage

Aside from all the language executables (python3, ruby, rust, etc.), there are several additional scripts available within the Docker image. They are documented below.

polygott-self-test

Run the tests defined in each language's configuration file, as in make test or make test-LANG. Always run all the tests, but if one of them fails, exit with a non-zero return code.

polygott-survey

Run the versionCommand specified for every language, and output the results in tabular format to stdout.

polygott-lang-setup [-l LANG]

Copy the contents of /opt/homes/LANG/ to /home/runner/, and run the runtimeSetup commands for it, if any were provided. LANG defaults to the output of detect-language.

detect-language

Try to identify the language used by the project in the current directory. This first checks if the entrypoint file exists for any language, and then checks if a file with any of the registered extensions exists for a language. If multiple languages match in either of those two phases, then the popularity of the two languages is used to resolve ties.

Output the language name to stdout if one is detected, otherwise do nothing.

run-project [-s] [-b] [-l LANG]

Execute the compile and run commands on the entrypoint file in the current directory. LANG defaults to the output of detect-language. If -s is passed, then the entrypoint file is written with the contents of stdin. If -s is passed, then some special logic is used instead of the compile and run commands; see the source for details.

run-language-server [-l LANG]

Run the languageServer command configured in the language's configuration file. LANG defaults to the output of detect-language.

polygott-x11-vnc

Start VNC forwarding for X11. Fork into the background and return. This script does not interact with language configuration at all.

Deployment

When a commit is merged to master, CircleCI automatically builds Polygott and pushes the image to Docker Hub, whence our evaluation server pulls it.

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