# publicjgm/pandoc

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2622 2623 2624 2625 2626 2627 2628 2629 2630 2631 2632 2633 2634 2635 2636 2637 2638 2639 2640 2641 2642 2643 2644 2645 2646 2647 2648 2649 2650 2651 % Pandoc User's Guide% John MacFarlane% January 19, 2013Synopsis========pandoc [*options*] [*input-file*]...Description===========Pandoc is a [Haskell] library for converting from one markup format toanother, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read[markdown] and (subsets of) [Textile], [reStructuredText], [HTML],[LaTeX], [MediaWiki markup], [OPML], and [DocBook]; and it can writeplain text, [markdown], [reStructuredText], [XHTML], [HTML 5], [LaTeX](including [beamer] slide shows), [ConTeXt], [RTF], [OPML], [DocBook],[OpenDocument], [ODT], [Word docx], [GNU Texinfo], [MediaWiki markup],[EPUB] (v2 or v3), [FictionBook2], [Textile], [groff man] pages, [EmacsOrg-Mode], [AsciiDoc], and [Slidy], [Slideous], [DZSlides], [reveal.js]or [S5] HTML slide shows. It can also produce [PDF] output on systemswhere LaTeX is installed.Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes,tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, fenced code blocks,superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables ofcontents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and markdown inside HTML blockelements. (These enhancements, described below under[Pandoc's markdown](#pandocs-markdown), can be disabled using themarkdown_strict input or output format.)In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, whichuse regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of aset of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a nativerepresentation of the document, and a set of writers, which convertthis native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an inputor output format requires only adding a reader or writer.Using pandoc--------------If no *input-file* is specified, input is read from *stdin*.Otherwise, the *input-files* are concatenated (with a blankline between each) and used as input. Output goes to *stdout* bydefault (though output to *stdout* is disabled for the odt, docx,epub, and epub3 output formats). For output to a file, use the-o option:    pandoc -o output.html input.txtInstead of a file, an absolute URI may be given. In this casepandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:    pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.orgIf multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (withblank lines between them) before parsing.The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly usingcommand-line options. The input format can be specified using the-r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the-w/--write or -t/--to options. Thus, to convert hello.txt frommarkdown to LaTeX, you could type:    pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txtTo convert hello.html from html to markdown:    pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.htmlSupported output formats are listed below under the -t/--to option.Supported input formats are listed below under the -f/--from option. Notethat the rst, textile, latex, and html readers are not complete;there are some constructs that they do not parse.If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandocwill attempt to guess it from the extensions ofthe input and output filenames. Thus, for example,    pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txtwill convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX. If no output fileis specified (so that output goes to *stdout*), or if the output file'sextension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML.If no input file is specified (so that input comes from *stdin*), orif the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format willbe assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified.Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output.If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, youshould pipe input and output through iconv:    iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8Creating a PDF--------------Earlier versions of pandoc came with a program, markdown2pdf, thatused pandoc and pdflatex to produce a PDF. This is no longer needed,since pandoc can now produce pdf output itself. To produce a PDF, simplyspecify an output file with a .pdf extension. Pandoc will create a latexfile and use pdflatex (or another engine, see --latex-engine) to convert itto PDF:    pandoc test.txt -o test.pdfProduction of a PDF requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see--latex-engine, below), and assumes that the following LaTeX packages areavailable: amssymb, amsmath, ifxetex, ifluatex, listings (if the--listings option is used), fancyvrb, longtable, url,graphicx, hyperref, ulem, babel (if the lang variable is set),fontspec (if xelatex or lualatex is used as the LaTeX engine), xltxtraand xunicode (if xelatex is used).hsmarkdown------------A user who wants a drop-in replacement for Markdown.pl may createa symbolic link to the pandoc executable called hsmarkdown. Wheninvoked under the name hsmarkdown, pandoc will behave as ifinvoked with -f markdown_strict --email-obfuscation=references,and all command-line options will be treated as regular arguments.However, this approach does not work under Cygwin, due to problems withits simulation of symbolic links.[Cygwin]: http://www.cygwin.com/[iconv]: http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/[CTAN]: http://www.ctan.org "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network"[TeX Live]: http://www.tug.org/texlive/[MacTeX]: http://www.tug.org/mactex/Options=======General options----------------f *FORMAT*, -r *FORMAT*, --from=*FORMAT*, --read=*FORMAT*: Specify input format. *FORMAT* can be native (native Haskell),    json (JSON version of native AST), markdown (pandoc's    extended markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended markdown),    markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra extended markdown),    markdown_github (github extended markdown),    textile (Textile), rst (reStructuredText), html (HTML),    docbook (DocBook), opml (OPML), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup),    or latex (LaTeX). If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst,    latex, the input will be treated as literate Haskell source:    see [Literate Haskell support](#literate-haskell-support), below.    Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled    by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name.    So, for example, markdown_strict+footnotes+definition_lists    is strict markdown with footnotes and definition lists enabled,    and markdown-pipe_tables+hard_line_breaks is pandoc's markdown    without pipe tables and with hard line breaks. See [Pandoc's    markdown](#pandocs-markdown), below, for a list of extensions and    their names.-t *FORMAT*, -w *FORMAT*, --to=*FORMAT*, --write=*FORMAT*: Specify output format. *FORMAT* can be native (native Haskell),    json (JSON version of native AST), plain (plain text),    markdown (pandoc's extended markdown), markdown_strict (original    unextended markdown), markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown extra    extended markdown), markdown_github (github extended markdown),    rst (reStructuredText), html (XHTML 1), html5 (HTML 5),    latex (LaTeX), beamer (LaTeX beamer slide show),    context (ConTeXt), man (groff man), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup),    textile (Textile), org (Emacs Org-Mode), texinfo (GNU Texinfo),    opml (OPML), docbook (DocBook), opendocument (OpenDocument), odt    (OpenOffice text document), docx (Word docx),    rtf (rich text format), epub (EPUB v2 book), epub3    (EPUB v3), fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book), asciidoc (AsciiDoc), slidy    (Slidy HTML and javascript slide show), slideous (Slideous HTML and    javascript slide show), dzslides (DZSlides HTML5 + javascript slide    show), revealjs (reveal.js HTML5 + javascript slide show), s5    (S5 HTML and javascript slide show). Note that odt, epub, and    epub3 output will not be directed to *stdout*; an output    filename must be specified using the -o/--output option. If +lhs is    appended to markdown, rst, latex, beamer, html, or html5, the    output will be rendered as literate Haskell source: see [Literate Haskell    support](#literate-haskell-support), below. Markdown syntax extensions can    be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or    -EXTENSION to the format name, as described above under -f.-o *FILE*, --output=*FILE*: Write output to *FILE* instead of *stdout*. If *FILE* is    -, output will go to *stdout*. (Exception: if the output    format is odt, docx, epub, or epub3, output to stdout is disabled.)--data-dir=*DIRECTORY*: Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files.    If this option is not specified, the default user data directory    will be used. This is        $HOME/.pandoc in unix, C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc in Windows XP, and C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\pandoc in Windows 7. (You can find the default user data directory on your system by looking at the output of pandoc --version.) A reference.odt, reference.docx, default.csl, epub.css, templates, slidy, slideous, or s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc's normal defaults.-v, --version: Print version.-h, --help: Show usage message.Reader options---------------R, --parse-raw: Parse untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments as raw HTML or LaTeX, instead of ignoring them. Affects only HTML and LaTeX input. Raw HTML can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js, and S5 output; raw LaTeX can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader does pass through untranslatable LaTeX *commands*, even if -R is not specified.)-S, --smart: Produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr." (Note: This option is significant only when the input format is markdown, markdown_strict, or textile. It is selected automatically when the input format is textile or the output format is latex or context, unless --no-tex-ligatures is used.)--old-dashes: Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - before a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option is selected automatically for textile input.--base-header-level=*NUMBER*: Specify the base level for headers (defaults to 1).--indented-code-classes=*CLASSES*: Specify classes to use for indented code blocks--for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas.--default-image-extension=*EXTENSION*: Specify a default extension to use when image paths/URLs have no extension. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images. Currently this option only affects the markdown and LaTeX readers.--normalize: Normalize the document after reading: merge adjacent Str or Emph elements, for example, and remove repeated Spaces.-p, --preserve-tabs: Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default). Note that this will only affect tabs in literal code spans and code blocks; tabs in regular text will be treated as spaces.--tab-stop=*NUMBER*: Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).General writer options-----------------------s, --standalone: Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a standalone HTML, LaTeX, or RTF file, not a fragment). This option is set automatically for pdf, epub, epub3, fb2, docx, and odt output.--template=*FILE*: Use *FILE* as a custom template for the generated document. Implies --standalone. See [Templates](#templates) below for a description of template syntax. If no extension is specified, an extension corresponding to the writer will be added, so that --template=special looks for special.html for HTML output. If the template is not found, pandoc will search for it in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this option is not used, a default template appropriate for the output format will be used (see -D/--print-default-template).-V *KEY[=VAL]*, --variable=*KEY[:VAL]*: Set the template variable *KEY* to the value *VAL* when rendering the document in standalone mode. This is generally only useful when the --template option is used to specify a custom template, since pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default templates. If no *VAL* is specified, the key will be given the value true.-D *FORMAT*, --print-default-template=*FORMAT*: Print the default template for an output *FORMAT*. (See -t for a list of possible *FORMAT*s.)--no-wrap: Disable text wrapping in output. By default, text is wrapped appropriately for the output format.--columns=*NUMBER*: Specify length of lines in characters (for text wrapping).--toc, --table-of-contents: Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in the case of latex, context, and rst, an instruction to create one) in the output document. This option has no effect on man, docbook, slidy, slideous, or s5 output.--toc-depth=*NUMBER*: Specify the number of section levels to include in the table of contents. The default is 3 (which means that level 1, 2, and 3 headers will be listed in the contents). Implies --toc.--no-highlight: Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and inlines, even when a language attribute is given.--highlight-style=*STYLE*: Specifies the coloring style to be used in highlighted source code. Options are pygments (the default), kate, monochrome, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango.-H *FILE*, --include-in-header=*FILE*: Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the header. This can be used, for example, to include special CSS or javascript in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.-B *FILE*, --include-before-body=*FILE*: Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the beginning of the document body (e.g. after the  tag in HTML, or the \begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.-A *FILE*, --include-after-body=*FILE*: Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the document body (before the  tag in HTML, or the \end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.Options affecting specific writers------------------------------------self-contained: Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. The resulting file should be "self-contained," in the sense that it needs no external files and no net access to be displayed properly by a browser. This option works only with HTML output formats, including html, html5, html+lhs, html5+lhs, s5, slidy, slideous, and dzslides. Scripts, images, and stylesheets at absolute URLs will be downloaded; those at relative URLs will be sought first relative to the working directory, then relative to the user data directory (see --data-dir), and finally relative to pandoc's default data directory.--offline: Deprecated synonym for --self-contained.-5, --html5: Produce HTML5 instead of HTML4. This option has no effect for writers other than html. (*Deprecated:* Use the html5 output format instead.)--html-q-tags: Use  tags for quotes in HTML.--ascii: Use only ascii characters in output. Currently supported only for HTML output (which uses numerical entities instead of UTF-8 when this option is selected).--reference-links: Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing markdown or reStructuredText. By default inline links are used.--atx-headers: Use ATX style headers in markdown output. The default is to use setext-style headers for levels 1-2, and then ATX headers.--chapters: Treat top-level headers as chapters in LaTeX, ConTeXt, and DocBook output. When the LaTeX template uses the report, book, or memoir class, this option is implied. If --beamer is used, top-level headers will become \part{..}.-N, --number-sections: Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, HTML, or EPUB output. By default, sections are not numbered. Sections with class unnumbered will never be numbered, even if --number-sections is specified.--number-offset=*NUMBER[,NUMBER,...]*,: Offset for section headings in HTML output (ignored in other output formats). The first number is added to the section number for top-level headers, the second for second-level headers, and so on. So, for example, if you want the first top-level header in your document to be numbered "6", specify --number-offset=5. If your document starts with a level-2 header which you want to be numbered "1.5", specify --number-offset=1,4. Offsets are 0 by default. Implies --number-sections.--no-tex-ligatures: Do not convert quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes to the TeX ligatures when writing LaTeX or ConTeXt. Instead, just use literal unicode characters. This is needed for using advanced OpenType features with XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX. Note: normally --smart is selected automatically for LaTeX and ConTeXt output, but it must be specified explicitly if --no-tex-ligatures is selected. If you use literal curly quotes, dashes, and ellipses in your source, then you may want to use --no-tex-ligatures without --smart.--listings: Use listings package for LaTeX code blocks-i, --incremental: Make list items in slide shows display incrementally (one by one). The default is for lists to be displayed all at once.--slide-level=*NUMBER*: Specifies that headers with the specified level create slides (for beamer, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides). Headers above this level in the hierarchy are used to divide the slide show into sections; headers below this level create subheads within a slide. The default is to set the slide level based on the contents of the document; see [Structuring the slide show](#structuring-the-slide-show), below.--section-divs: Wrap sections in   tags (or   tags in HTML5), and attach identifiers to the enclosing   (or  ) rather than the header itself. See [Section identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html-latex-and-context), below.--email-obfuscation=*none|javascript|references*: Specify a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents. *none* leaves mailto: links as they are. *javascript* obfuscates them using javascript. *references* obfuscates them by printing their letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references.--id-prefix=*STRING*: Specify a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers in HTML and DocBook output, and to footnote numbers in markdown output. This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers when generating fragments to be included in other pages.-T *STRING*, --title-prefix=*STRING*: Specify *STRING* as a prefix at the beginning of the title that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at the beginning of the HTML body). Implies --standalone.-c *URL*, --css=*URL*: Link to a CSS style sheet. This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. --reference-odt=*FILE*: Use the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT. For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.--reference-docx=*FILE*: Use the specified file as a style reference in producing a docx file. For best results, the reference docx should be a modified version of a docx file produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference docx are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new docx. If no reference docx is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.docx in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used. The following styles are used by pandoc: [paragraph] Normal, Title, Authors, Date, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, Heading 4, Heading 5, Block Quote, Definition Term, Definition, Body Text, Table Caption, Image Caption; [character] Default Paragraph Font, Body Text Char, Verbatim Char, Footnote Ref, Link.--epub-stylesheet=*FILE*: Use the specified CSS file to style the EPUB. If no stylesheet is specified, pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used.--epub-cover-image=*FILE*: Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than 1000px in width and height.--epub-metadata=*FILE*: Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements, as documented at . For example: Creative Commons es-AR By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements:  (from the document title),  (from the document authors),  (from the document date, which should be in [ISO 8601 format]),  (from the lang variable, or, if is not set, the locale), and  (a randomly generated UUID). Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.--epub-embed-font=*FILE*: Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts. To use embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS (see --epub-stylesheet): @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: normal; font-weight: bold; src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: italic; font-weight: normal; src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf"); } body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; }--epub-chapter-level=*NUMBER*: Specify the header level at which to split the EPUB into separate "chapter" files. The default is to split into chapters at level 1 headers. This option only affects the internal composition of the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections are displayed to users. Some readers may be slow if the chapter files are too large, so for large documents with few level 1 headers, one might want to use a chapter level of 2 or 3.--latex-engine=*pdflatex|lualatex|xelatex*: Use the specified LaTeX engine when producing PDF output. The default is pdflatex. If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here.Citation rendering--------------------bibliography=*FILE*: Specify bibliography database to be used in resolving citations. The database type will be determined from the extension of *FILE*, which may be .mods (MODS format), .bib (BibLaTeX format, which will normally work for BibTeX files as well), .bibtex (BibTeX format), .ris (RIS format), .enl (EndNote format), .xml (EndNote XML format), .wos (ISI format), .medline (MEDLINE format), .copac (Copac format), or .json (citeproc JSON). If you want to use multiple bibliographies, just use this option repeatedly.--csl=*FILE*: Specify [CSL] style to be used in formatting citations and the bibliography. If *FILE* is not found, pandoc will look for it in$HOME/.csl    in unix,        C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\csl    in Windows XP, and        C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\csl    in Windows 7. If the --csl option is not specified, pandoc    will use a default style: either default.csl in the    user data directory (see --data-dir), or, if that is    not present, the Chicago author-date style.--citation-abbreviations=*FILE*: Specify a file containing abbreviations for journal titles and    other bibliographic fields (indicated by setting form="short"    in the CSL node for the field). The format is described at    .    Here is a short example:        { "default": {            "container-title": {                    "Lloyd's Law Reports": "Lloyd's Rep",                    "Estates Gazette": "EG",                    "Scots Law Times": "SLT"            }          }        }--natbib: Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output.--biblatex: Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output.Math rendering in HTML-----------------------m [*URL*], --latexmathml[=*URL*]: Use the [LaTeXMathML] script to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.    To insert a link to a local copy of the LaTeXMathML.js script,    provide a *URL*. If no *URL* is provided, the contents of the    script will be inserted directly into the HTML header, preserving    portability at the price of efficiency. If you plan to use math on    several pages, it is much better to link to a copy of the script,    so it can be cached.--mathml[=*URL*]: Convert TeX math to MathML (in docbook as well as html and html5).    In standalone html output, a small javascript (or a link to such a    script if a *URL* is supplied) will be inserted that allows the MathML to    be viewed on some browsers.--jsmath[=*URL*]: Use [jsMath] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.    The *URL* should point to the jsMath load script (e.g.    jsMath/easy/load.js); if provided, it will be linked to in    the header of standalone HTML documents. If a *URL* is not provided,    no link to the jsMath load script will be inserted; it is then    up to the author to provide such a link in the HTML template.--mathjax[=*URL*]: Use [MathJax] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.    The *URL* should point to the MathJax.js load script.    If a *URL* is not provided, a link to the MathJax CDN will    be inserted.--gladtex: Enclose TeX math in  tags in HTML output. These can then    be processed by [gladTeX] to produce links to images of the typeset    formulas.--mimetex[=*URL*]: Render TeX math using the [mimeTeX] CGI script. If *URL* is not    specified, it is assumed that the script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.--webtex[=*URL*]: Render TeX formulas using an external script that converts TeX    formulas to images. The formula will be concatenated with the URL    provided. If *URL* is not specified, the Google Chart API will be used.Options for wrapper scripts-----------------------------dump-args: Print information about command-line arguments to *stdout*, then exit.    This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts.    The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified    with the -o option, or - (for *stdout*) if no output file was    specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments,    one per line, in the order they appear. These do not include regular    Pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing    after a -- separator at the end of the line.--ignore-args: Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts).    Regular Pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example,        pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1    is equivalent to        pandoc -o foo.html -s[LaTeXMathML]: http://math.etsu.edu/LaTeXMathML/[jsMath]: http://www.math.union.edu/~dpvc/jsmath/[MathJax]: http://www.mathjax.org/[gladTeX]: http://ans.hsh.no/home/mgg/gladtex/[mimeTeX]: http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html[CSL]: http://CitationStyles.orgTemplates=========When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template toadd header and footer material that is needed for a self-standingdocument. To see the default template that is used, just type    pandoc -D FORMATwhere FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom templatecan be specified using the --template option. You can also overridethe system default templates for a given output format FORMATby putting a file templates/default.FORMAT in the user datadirectory (see --data-dir, above). *Exceptions:* For odt output,customize the default.opendocument template. For pdf output,customize the default.latex template.Templates may contain *variables*. Variable names are sequences ofalphanumerics, -, and _, starting with a letter. A variable namesurrounded by $ signs will be replaced by its value. For example,the string $title$ in$title$will be replaced by the document title.To write a literal $ in a template, use $$.Some variables are set automatically by pandoc. These vary somewhatdepending on the output format, but include:header-includes: contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values)toc: non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specifiedinclude-before: contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values)include-after: contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values)body: body of documenttitle: title of document, as specified in title blockauthor: author of document, as specified in title block (may have multiple values)date: date of document, as specified in title blocklang: language code for HTML or LaTeX documentsslidy-url: base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to http://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2)slideous-url: base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to default)s5-url: base URL for S5 documents (defaults to ui/default)revealjs-url: base URL for reveal.js documents (defaults to reveal.js)theme: reveal.js themetransition: reveal.js transitionfontsize: font size (10pt, 11pt, 12pt) for LaTeX documentsdocumentclass: document class for LaTeX documentsgeometry: options for LaTeX geometry class, e.g. margin=1in; may be repeated for multiple optionsmainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont: fonts for LaTeX documents (works only with xelatex and lualatex)theme: theme for LaTeX beamer documentscolortheme: colortheme for LaTeX beamer documentslinkcolor: color for internal links in LaTeX documents (red, green, magenta, cyan, blue, black)urlcolor: color for external links in LaTeX documentslinks-as-notes: causes links to be printed as footnotes in LaTeX documentsVariables may be set at the command line using the -V/--variableoption. This allows users to include custom variables in theirtemplates.Templates may contain conditionals. The syntax is as follows: if(variable) X else Y endifThis will include X in the template if variable has a non-nullvalue; otherwise it will include Y. X and Y are placeholders forany valid template text, and may include interpolated variables or otherconditionals. The else section may be omitted.When variables can have multiple values (for example, author ina multi-author document), you can use the for keyword: for(author) endforYou can optionally specify a separator to be used betweenconsecutive items: for(author)$$authorsep, endforIf you use custom templates, you may need to revise them as pandocchanges. We recommend tracking the changes in the default templates,and modifying your custom templates accordingly. An easy way to do thisis to fork the pandoc-templates repository() and merge in changes after eachpandoc release.Pandoc's markdown=================Pandoc understands an extended and slightly revised version ofJohn Gruber's [markdown] syntax. This document explains the syntax,noting differences from standard markdown. Except where noted, thesedifferences can be suppressed by using the markdown_strict format insteadof markdown. An extensions can be enabled by adding +EXTENSIONto the format name and disabled by adding -EXTENSION. For example,markdown_strict+footnotes is strict markdown with footnotesenabled, while markdown-footnotes-pipe_tables is pandoc'smarkdown without footnotes or pipe tables.Philosophy----------Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly,easy to read:> A Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain> text, without looking like it's been marked up with tags or formatting> instructions.> -- [John Gruber](http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax#philosophy)This principle has guided pandoc's decisions in finding syntax fortables, footnotes, and other extensions.There is, however, one respect in which pandoc's aims are differentfrom the original aims of markdown. Whereas markdown was originallydesigned with HTML generation in mind, pandoc is designed for multipleoutput formats. Thus, while pandoc allows the embedding of raw HTML,it discourages it, and provides other, non-HTMLish ways of representingimportant document elements like definition lists, tables, mathematics, andfootnotes.Paragraphs----------A paragraph is one or more lines of text followed by one or more blank line.Newlines are treated as spaces, so you can reflow your paragraphs as you like.If you need a hard line break, put two or more spaces at the end of a line.**Extension: escaped_line_breaks**A backslash followed by a newline is also a hard line break.Headers-------There are two kinds of headers, Setext and atx.### Setext-style headers ###A setext-style header is a line of text "underlined" with a row of = signs(for a level one header) of - signs (for a level two header): A level-one header ================== A level-two header ------------------The header text can contain inline formatting, such as emphasis (see[Inline formatting](#inline-formatting), below).### Atx-style headers ###An Atx-style header consists of one to six # signs and a line oftext, optionally followed by any number of # signs. The number of# signs at the beginning of the line is the header level: ## A level-two header ### A level-three header ###As with setext-style headers, the header text can contain formatting: # A level-one header with a [link](/url) and *emphasis***Extension: blank_before_header**Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a header.Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of thedocument). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a# to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through linewrapping). Consider, for example: I like several of their flavors of ice cream: #22, for example, and #5.### Header identifiers in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt ###**Extension: header_attributes**Headers can be assigned attributes using this syntax at the endof the line containing the header text: {#identifier .class .class key=value key=value}Although this syntax allows assignment of classes and key/value attributes,only identifiers currently have any affect in the writers (and only in somewriters: HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, Textile, AsciiDoc). Thus, for example,the following headers will all be assigned the identifier foo: # My header {#foo} ## My header ## {#foo} My other header {#foo} ---------------(This syntax is compatible with [PHP Markdown Extra].)Headers with the class unnumbered will not be numbered, even if--number-sections is specified. A single hyphen (-) in an attributecontext is equivalent to .unnumbered, and preferable in non-Englishdocuments. So, # My header {-}is just the same as # My header {.unnumbered}**Extension: auto_identifiers**A header without an explicitly specified identifier will beautomatically assigned a unique identifier based on the header text.To derive the identifier from the header text, - Remove all formatting, links, etc. - Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, and periods. - Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens. - Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase. - Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may not begin with a number or punctuation mark). - If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section.Thus, for example, Header Identifier ------------------------------- ---------------------------- Header identifiers in HTML header-identifiers-in-html *Dogs*?--in *my* house? dogs--in-my-house [HTML], [S5], or [RTF]? html-s5-or-rtf 3. Applications applications 33 sectionThese rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifierfrom the header text. The exception is when several headers have thesame text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as describedabove; the second will get the same identifier with -1 appended; thethird with -2; and so on.These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table ofcontents generated by the --toc|--table-of-contents option. Theyalso make it easy to provide links from one section of a document toanother. A link to this section, for example, might look like this: See the section on [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html-latex-and-context).Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections worksonly in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt formats.If the --section-divs option is specified, then each section willbe wrapped in a div (or a section, if --html5 was specified),and the identifier will be attached to the enclosing  (or  ) tag rather than the header itself. This allows entiresections to be manipulated using javascript or treated differently inCSS.**Extension: implicit_header_references**Pandoc behaves as if reference links have been defined for each header.So, instead of [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html)you can simply write [header identifiers]or [header identifiers][]or [the section on header identifiers][header identifiers]If there are multiple headers with identical text, the correspondingreference will link to the first one only, and you will need to use explicitlinks to link to the others, as described above.Unlike regular reference links, these references are case-sensitive.Note: if you have defined an explicit identifier for a header,then implicit references to it will not work.Block quotations----------------Markdown uses email conventions for quoting blocks of text.A block quotation is one or more paragraphs or other block elements(such as lists or headers), with each line preceded by a > characterand a space. (The > need not start at the left margin, but it shouldnot be indented more than three spaces.) > This is a block quote. This > paragraph has two lines. > > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. > 2. Second item.A "lazy" form, which requires the > character only on the firstline of each block, is also allowed: > This is a block quote. This paragraph has two lines. > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. 2. Second item.Among the block elements that can be contained in a block quote areother block quotes. That is, block quotes can be nested: > This is a block quote. > > > A block quote within a block quote.**Extension: blank_before_blockquote**Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a blockquote. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of thedocument). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a> to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through linewrapping). So, unless the markdown_strict format is used, the following doesnot produce a nested block quote in pandoc: > This is a block quote. >> Nested.Verbatim (code) blocks----------------------### Indented code blocks ###A block of text indented four spaces (or one tab) is treated as verbatimtext: that is, special characters do not trigger special formatting,and all spaces and line breaks are preserved. For example, if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); }The initial (four space or one tab) indentation is not considered partof the verbatim text, and is removed in the output.Note: blank lines in the verbatim text need not begin with four spaces.### Fenced code blocks ###**Extension: fenced_code_blocks**In addition to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports*fenced* code blocks. These begin with a row of three or moretildes (~) or backticks (  ) and end with a row of tildes orbackticks that must be at least as long as the starting row. Everythingbetween these lines is treated as code. No indentation is necessary: ~~~~~~~ if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); } ~~~~~~~Like regular code blocks, fenced code blocks must be separatedfrom surrounding text by blank lines.If the code itself contains a row of tildes or backticks, just use a longerrow of tildes or backticks at the start and end: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ code including tildes ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Optionally, you may attach attributes to the code block usingthis syntax: ~~~~ {#mycode .haskell .numberLines startFrom="100"} qsort [] = [] qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++ qsort (filter (>= x) xs) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Here mycode is an identifier, haskell and numberLines are classes, andstartFrom is an attribute with value 100. Some output formats can use thisinformation to do syntax highlighting. Currently, the only output formatsthat uses this information are HTML and LaTeX. If highlighting is supportedfor your output format and language, then the code block above will appearhighlighted, with numbered lines. (To see which languages are supported, dopandoc --version.) Otherwise, the code block above will appear as follows: ... A shortcut form can also be used for specifying the language ofthe code block: haskell qsort [] = [] This is equivalent to:  {.haskell} qsort [] = [] To prevent all highlighting, use the --no-highlight flag.To set the highlighting style, use --highlight-style.Line blocks-----------**Extension: line_blocks**A line block is a sequence of lines beginning with a vertical bar (|)followed by a space. The division into lines will be preserved inthe output, as will any leading spaces; otherwise, the lines willbe formatted as markdown. This is useful for verse and addresses: | The limerick packs laughs anatomical | In space that is quite economical. | But the good ones I've seen | So seldom are clean | And the clean ones so seldom are comical | 200 Main St. | Berkeley, CA 94718The lines can be hard-wrapped if needed, but the continuationline must begin with a space. | The Right Honorable Most Venerable and Righteous Samuel L. Constable, Jr. | 200 Main St. | Berkeley, CA 94718This syntax is borrowed from [reStructuredText].Lists-----### Bullet lists ###A bullet list is a list of bulleted list items. A bulleted listitem begins with a bullet (*, +, or -). Here is a simpleexample: * one * two * threeThis will produce a "compact" list. If you want a "loose" list, in whicheach item is formatted as a paragraph, put spaces between the items: * one * two * threeThe bullets need not be flush with the left margin; they may beindented one, two, or three spaces. The bullet must be followedby whitespace.List items look best if subsequent lines are flush with the firstline (after the bullet): * here is my first list item. * and my second.But markdown also allows a "lazy" format: * here is my first list item. * and my second.### The four-space rule ###A list item may contain multiple paragraphs and other block-levelcontent. However, subsequent paragraphs must be preceded by a blank lineand indented four spaces or a tab. The list will look better if the firstparagraph is aligned with the rest: * First paragraph. Continued. * Second paragraph. With a code block, which must be indented eight spaces: { code }List items may include other lists. In this case the preceding blankline is optional. The nested list must be indented four spaces orone tab: * fruits + apples - macintosh - red delicious + pears + peaches * vegetables + brocolli + chardAs noted above, markdown allows you to write list items "lazily," instead ofindenting continuation lines. However, if there are multiple paragraphs orother blocks in a list item, the first line of each must be indented. + A lazy, lazy, list item. + Another one; this looks bad but is legal. Second paragraph of second list item.**Note:** Although the four-space rule for continuation paragraphscomes from the official [markdown syntax guide], the reference implementation,Markdown.pl, does not follow it. So pandoc will give different results thanMarkdown.pl when authors have indented continuation paragraphs fewer thanfour spaces.The [markdown syntax guide] is not explicit whether the four-spacerule applies to *all* block-level content in a list item; it onlymentions paragraphs and code blocks. But it implies that the ruleapplies to all block-level content (including nested lists), andpandoc interprets it that way. [markdown syntax guide]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax#list### Ordered lists ###Ordered lists work just like bulleted lists, except that the itemsbegin with enumerators rather than bullets.In standard markdown, enumerators are decimal numbers followedby a period and a space. The numbers themselves are ignored, sothere is no difference between this list: 1. one 2. two 3. threeand this one: 5. one 7. two 1. three**Extension: fancy_lists**Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be markedwith uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition toarabic numerals. List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by asingle right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from thetext that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is acapital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[^2][^2]: The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs starting with people's initials, like B. Russell was an English philosopher. do not get treated as list items. This rule will not prevent (C) 2007 Joe Smith from being interpreted as a list item. In this case, a backslash escape can be used: (C\) 2007 Joe Smith**Extension: startnum**Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to thestarting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in theoutput format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followedby a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercaseroman numerals: 9) Ninth 10) Tenth 11) Eleventh i. subone ii. subtwo iii. subthreePandoc will start a new list each time a different type of listmarker is used. So, the following will create three lists: (2) Two (5) Three 1. Four * FiveIf default list markers are desired, use #.: #. one #. two #. three### Definition lists ###**Extension: definition_lists**Pandoc supports definition lists, using a syntax inspired by[PHP Markdown Extra] and [reStructuredText]:[^3] Term 1 : Definition 1 Term 2 with *inline markup* : Definition 2 { some code, part of Definition 2 } Third paragraph of definition 2.Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed bya blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions.A definition begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented oneor two spaces. The body of the definition (including the first line,aside from the colon or tilde) should be indented four spaces. A term may havemultiple definitions, and each definition may consist of one or more blockelements (paragraph, code block, list, etc.), each indented four spaces or onetab stop.If you leave space after the definition (as in the example above),the blocks of the definitions will be considered paragraphs. In someoutput formats, this will mean greater spacing between term/definitionpairs. For a compact definition list, do not leave space between thedefinition and the next term: Term 1 ~ Definition 1 Term 2 ~ Definition 2a ~ Definition 2b[^3]: I have also been influenced by the suggestions of [David Wheeler](http://www.justatheory.com/computers/markup/modest-markdown-proposal.html).[PHP Markdown Extra]: http://www.michelf.com/projects/php-markdown/extra/### Numbered example lists ###**Extension: example_lists**The special list marker @ can be used for sequentially numberedexamples. The first list item with a @ marker will be numbered '1',the next '2', and so on, throughout the document. The numbered examplesneed not occur in a single list; each new list using @ will take upwhere the last stopped. So, for example: (@) My first example will be numbered (1). (@) My second example will be numbered (2). Explanation of examples. (@) My third example will be numbered (3).Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in thedocument: (@good) This is a good example. As (@good) illustrates, ...The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores,or hyphens.### Compact and loose lists ###Pandoc behaves differently from Markdown.pl on some "edgecases" involving lists. Consider this source: + First + Second: - Fee - Fie - Foe + ThirdPandoc transforms this into a "compact list" (with no   tags around"First", "Second", or "Third"), while markdown puts   tags around"Second" and "Third" (but not "First"), because of the blank spacearound "Third". Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is followed bya blank line, it is treated as a paragraph. Since "Second" is followedby a list, and not a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph. Thefact that the list is followed by a blank line is irrelevant. (Note:Pandoc works this way even when the markdown_strict format is specified. Thisbehavior is consistent with the official markdown syntax description,even though it is different from that of Markdown.pl.)### Ending a list ###What if you want to put an indented code block after a list? - item one - item two { my code block }Trouble! Here pandoc (like other markdown implementations) will treat{ my code block } as the second paragraph of item two, and not asa code block.To "cut off" the list after item two, you can insert some non-indentedcontent, like an HTML comment, which won't produce visible output inany format: - item one - item two { my code block }You can use the same trick if you want two consecutive lists insteadof one big list: 1. one 2. two 3. three 1. uno 2. dos 3. tresHorizontal rules----------------A line containing a row of three or more *, -, or _ characters(optionally separated by spaces) produces a horizontal rule: * * * * ---------------Tables------Four kinds of tables may be used. The first three kinds presuppose the use ofa fixed-width font, such as Courier. The fourth kind can be used withproportionally spaced fonts, as it does not require lining up columns.### Simple tables**Extension: simple_tables, table_captions**Simple tables look like this: Right Left Center Default ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 Table: Demonstration of simple table syntax.The headers and table rows must each fit on one line. Columnalignments are determined by the position of the header text relativeto the dashed line below it:[^4] - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned. - If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides, the column is centered. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides, the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left).[^4]: This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the [Markdown discussion list](http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/markdown-discuss/2005-March/001097.html).The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed bya blank line. A caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated inthe example above). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the stringTable: (or just :), which will be stripped off. It may appear eitherbefore or after the table.The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is usedto end the table. For example: ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 ------- ------ ---------- -------When headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basisof the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columnswould be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively.### Multiline tables**Extension: multiline_tables, table_captions**Multiline tables allow headers and table rows to span multiple linesof text (but cells that span multiple columns or rows of the table arenot supported). Here is an example: ------------------------------------------------------------- Centered Default Right Left Header Aligned Aligned Aligned ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span multiple lines.These work like simple tables, but with the following differences: - They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text (unless the headers are omitted). - They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line. - The rows must be separated by blank lines.In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths ofthe columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths inthe output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in theoutput, try widening it in the markdown source.Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables: ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- : Here's a multiline table without headers.It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the rowshould be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that endsthe table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table.### Grid tables**Extension: grid_tables, table_captions**Grid tables look like this: : Sample grid table. +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Fruit | Price | Advantages | +===============+===============+====================+ | Bananas | 1.34 | - built-in wrapper | | | | - bright color | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Oranges | 2.10 | - cures scurvy | | | | - tasty | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+The row of =s separates the header from the table body, and can beomitted for a headerless table. The cells of grid tables may containarbitrary block elements (multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists,etc.). Alignments are not supported, nor are cells that span multiplecolumns or rows. Grid tables can be created easily using [Emacs table mode]. [Emacs table mode]: http://table.sourceforge.net/### Pipe tables**Extension: pipe_tables, table_captions**Pipe tables look like this: | Right | Left | Default | Center | |------:|:-----|---------|:------:| | 12 | 12 | 12 | 12 | | 123 | 123 | 123 | 123 | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | : Demonstration of simple table syntax.The syntax is [the same as in PHP markdown extra]. The beginning andending pipe characters are optional, but pipes are required between allcolumns. The colons indicate column alignment as shown. The headercan be omitted, but the horizontal line must still be included, asit defines column alignments.Since the pipes indicate column boundaries, columns need not be verticallyaligned, as they are in the above example. So, this is a perfectlylegal (though ugly) pipe table: fruit| price -----|-----: apple|2.05 pear|1.37 orange|3.09The cells of pipe tables cannot contain block elements like paragraphsand lists, and cannot span multiple lines. [the same as in PHP markdown extra]: http://michelf.ca/projects/php-markdown/extra/#tableNote: Pandoc also recognizes pipe tables of the followingform, as can produced by Emacs' orgtbl-mode: | One | Two | |-----+-------| | my | table | | is | nice |The difference is that + is used instead of |. Other orgtbl featuresare not supported. In particular, to get non-default column alignment,you'll need to add colons as above.Title block-----------**Extension: pandoc_title_block**If the file begins with a title block % title % author(s) (separated by semicolons) % dateit will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text. (Itwill be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTMLoutput.) The block may contain just a title, a title and an author,or all three elements. If you want to include an author but notitle, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line: % % Author % My title % % June 15, 2006The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines mustbegin with leading space, thus: % My title on multiple linesIf a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put onseparate lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, orboth. So, all of the following are equivalent: % Author One Author Two % Author One; Author Two % Author One; Author TwoThe date must fit on one line.All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting(italics, links, footnotes, etc.).Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output onlywhen the --standalone (-s) option is chosen. In HTML output, titleswill appear twice: once in the document head -- this is the title thatwill appear at the top of the window in a browser -- and once at thebeginning of the document body. The title in the document head can havean optional prefix attached (--title-prefix or -T option). The titlein the body appears as an H1 element with class "title", so it can besuppressed or reformatted with CSS. If a title prefix is specified with-T and no title block appears in the document, the title prefix willbe used by itself as the HTML title.The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, andother header and footer information from the title line. The titleis assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionallyend with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses. (There shouldbe no space between the title and the parentheses.) Anything afterthis is assumed to be additional footer and header text. A single pipecharacter (|) should be used to separate the footer text from the headertext. Thus, % PANDOC(1)will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manualswill also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0will also have "Version 4.0" in the header.Backslash escapes-----------------**Extension: all_symbols_escapable**Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or spacecharacter preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if itwould normally indicate formatting. Thus, for example, if one writes *\*hello\**one will get *hello*instead of helloThis rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule,which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped: \*_{}[]()>#+-.!(However, if the markdown_strict format is used, the standard markdown rulewill be used.)A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space. It willappear in TeX output as ~ and in HTML and XML as \  or\ .A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end ofa line) is parsed as a hard line break. It will appear in TeX output as\\ and in HTML as  . This is a nice alternative tomarkdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks usingtwo trailing spaces on a line.Backslash escapes do not work in verbatim contexts.Smart punctuation-----------------**Extension**If the --smart option is specified, pandoc will produce typographicallycorrect output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- toem-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spacesare inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr."Note: if your LaTeX template uses the csquotes package, pandoc willdetect automatically this and use \enquote{...} for quoted text.Inline formatting-----------------### Emphasis ###To *emphasize* some text, surround it with *s or _, like this: This text is _emphasized with underscores_, and this is *emphasized with asterisks*.Double * or _ produces **strong emphasis**: This is **strong emphasis** and __with underscores__.A * or _ character surrounded by spaces, or backslash-escaped,will not trigger emphasis: This is * not emphasized *, and \*neither is this\*.**Extension: intraword_underscores**Because _ is sometimes used inside words and identifiers,pandoc does not interpret a _ surrounded by alphanumericcharacters as an emphasis marker. If you want to emphasizejust part of a word, use *: feas*ible*, not feas*able*.### Strikeout ###**Extension: strikeout**To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end itwith ~~. Thus, for example, This ~~is deleted text.~~### Superscripts and subscripts ###**Extension: superscript, subscript**Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by ^characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscriptedtext by ~ characters. Thus, for example, H~2~O is a liquid. 2^10^ is 1024.If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spacesmust be escaped with backslashes. (This is to prevent accidentalsuperscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of ~ and ^.)Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat' in subscripts, useP~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~.### Verbatim ###To make a short span of text verbatim, put it inside backticks: What is the difference between >>= and >>?If the verbatim text includes a backtick, use double backticks: Here is a literal backtick   .(The spaces after the opening backticks and before the closingbackticks will be ignored.)The general rule is that a verbatim span starts with a stringof consecutive backticks (optionally followed by a space)and ends with a string of the same number of backticks (optionallypreceded by a space).Note that backslash-escapes (and other markdown constructs) do notwork in verbatim contexts: This is a backslash followed by an asterisk: \*.**Extension: inline_code_attributes**Attributes can be attached to verbatim text, just as with[fenced code blocks](#fenced-code-blocks): <>{.haskell}Math----**Extension: tex_math_dollars**Anything between two  characters will be treated as TeX math. Theopening  must have a character immediately to its right, while theclosing  must have a character immediately to its left. Thus,20,000 and 30,000 won't parse as math. If for some reasonyou need to enclose text in literal  characters, backslash-escapethem and they won't be treated as math delimiters.TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendereddepends on the output format:Markdown, LaTeX, Org-Mode, ConTeXt ~ It will appear verbatim between  characters.reStructuredText ~ It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:, as described [here](http://www.american.edu/econ/itex2mml/mathhack.rst).AsciiDoc ~ It will be rendered as latexmath:[...].Texinfo ~ It will be rendered inside a @math command.groff man ~ It will be rendered verbatim without 's.MediaWiki ~ It will be rendered inside [itex] tags.Textile ~ It will be rendered inside  tags.RTF, OpenDocument, ODT ~ It will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim.Docbook ~ If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered using mathml in an inlineequation or informalequation tag. Otherwise it will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters.Docx ~ It will be rendered using OMML math markup.FictionBook2 ~ If the --webtex option is used, formulas are rendered as images using Google Charts or other compatible web service, downloaded and embedded in the e-book. Otherwise, they will appear verbatim.HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB ~ The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line options selected: 1. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode characters, as with RTF, DocBook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from the surrounding text if needed. 2. If the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed between  or  characters and put in  tags with class LaTeX.        The [LaTeXMathML] script will be used to render it as formulas.        (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox.        In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear        verbatim between \$ characters.)    3. If the --jsmath option is used, TeX math will be put inside         tags (for inline math) or 

tags (for display math)        with class math. The [jsMath] script will be used to render        it.    4. If the --mimetex option is used, the [mimeTeX] CGI script will        be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should        work in all browsers. The --mimetex option takes an optional URL        as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the        mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.    5. If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed        in  tags in the HTML output. The resulting htex file may then        be processed by [gladTeX], which will produce image files for each        formula and an html file with links to these images. So, the        procedure is:            pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex            gladtex -d myfile-images myfile.htex            # produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images    6. If the --webtex option is used, TeX formulas will be converted        to  tags that link to an external script that converts        formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated        with the URL provided. If no URL is specified, the Google Chart        API will be used (http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?cht=tx&chl=).    7. If the --mathjax option is used, TeX math will be displayed        between $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display        math) and put in  tags with class math.        The [MathJax] script will be used to render it as formulas.Raw HTML--------**Extension: raw_html**Markdown allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a document(except verbatim contexts, where <, >, and & are interpretedliterally). (Techncially this is not an extension, since standardmarkdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it canbe disabled if desired.)The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous,DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, and Textile output, and suppressed in otherformats.**Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks**Standard markdown allows you to include HTML "blocks": blocksof HTML between balanced tags that are separated from the surrounding textwith blank lines, and start and end at the left margin. Withinthese blocks, everything is interpreted as HTML, not markdown;so (for example), * does not signify emphasis.Pandoc behaves this way when the markdown_strict format is used; butby default, pandoc interprets material between HTML block tags as markdown.Thus, for example, Pandoc will turn
whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is.There is one exception to this rule: text between `