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 % Pandoc User's Guide % John MacFarlane % January 27, 2012 Synopsis ======== pandoc [*options*] [*input-file*]... Description =========== Pandoc is a [Haskell] library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read [markdown] and (subsets of) [Textile], [reStructuredText], [HTML], [LaTeX], and [DocBook XML]; and it can write plain text, [markdown], [reStructuredText], [XHTML], [HTML 5], [LaTeX] (including [beamer] slide shows), [ConTeXt], [RTF], [DocBook XML], [OpenDocument XML], [ODT], [Word docx], [GNU Texinfo], [MediaWiki markup], [EPUB], [FictionBook2], [Textile], [groff man] pages, [Emacs Org-Mode], [AsciiDoc], and [Slidy], [Slideous], [DZSlides], or [S5] HTML slide shows. It can also produce [PDF] output on systems where LaTeX is installed. Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes, tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, fenced code blocks, superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables of contents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and markdown inside HTML block elements. (These enhancements, described below under [Pandoc's markdown](#pandocs-markdown), can be disabled using the markdown_strict input or output format.) In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which use regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer. Using pandoc -------------- If no *input-file* is specified, input is read from *stdin*. Otherwise, the *input-files* are concatenated (with a blank line between each) and used as input. Output goes to *stdout* by default (though output to *stdout* is disabled for the odt, docx, and epub output formats). For output to a file, use the -o option: pandoc -o output.html input.txt Instead of a file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP: pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them) before parsing. The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. The input format can be specified using the -r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the -w/--write or -t/--to options. Thus, to convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX, you could type: pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt To convert hello.html from html to markdown: pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html Supported output formats are listed below under the -t/--to option. Supported input formats are listed below under the -f/--from option. Note that the rst, textile, latex, and html readers are not complete; there are some constructs that they do not parse. If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the input and output filenames. Thus, for example, pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt will convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX. If no output file is specified (so that output goes to *stdout*), or if the output file's extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML. If no input file is specified (so that input comes from *stdin*), or if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will be assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified. Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv: iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8 Creating a PDF -------------- Earlier versions of pandoc came with a program, markdown2pdf, that used pandoc and pdflatex to produce a PDF. This is no longer needed, since pandoc can now produce pdf output itself. To produce a PDF, simply specify an output file with a .pdf extension. Pandoc will create a latex file and use pdflatex (or another engine, see --latex-engine) to convert it to PDF: pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf Production of a PDF requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see --latex-engine, below), and assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available: amssymb, amsmath, ifxetex, ifluatex, listings (if the --listings option is used), fancyvrb, enumerate, ctable, url, graphicx, hyperref, ulem, babel (if the lang variable is set), fontspec (if xelatex or lualatex is used as the LaTeX engine), xltxtra and xunicode (if xelatex is used). hsmarkdown ------------ A user who wants a drop-in replacement for Markdown.pl may create a symbolic link to the pandoc executable called hsmarkdown. When invoked under the name hsmarkdown, pandoc will behave as if invoked with -f markdown_strict --email-obfuscation=references, and all command-line options will be treated as regular arguments. However, this approach does not work under Cygwin, due to problems with its simulation of symbolic links. [Cygwin]: http://www.cygwin.com/ [iconv]: http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/ [CTAN]: http://www.ctan.org "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network" [TeX Live]: http://www.tug.org/texlive/ [MacTeX]: http://www.tug.org/mactex/ Options ======= General options --------------- -f *FORMAT*, -r *FORMAT*, --from=*FORMAT*, --read=*FORMAT* : Specify input format. *FORMAT* can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), markdown (pandoc's extended markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended markdown), textile (Textile), rst (reStructuredText), html (HTML), docbook (DocBook XML), or latex (LaTeX). If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, the input will be treated as literate Haskell source: see [Literate Haskell support](#literate-haskell-support), below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name. So, for example, markdown_strict+footnotes+definition_lists is strict markdown with footnotes and definition lists enabled, and markdown-pipe_tables+hard_line_breaks is pandoc's markdown without pipe tables and with hard line breaks. See [Pandoc's markdown](#pandocs-markdown), below, for a list of extensions and their names. -t *FORMAT*, -w *FORMAT*, --to=*FORMAT*, --write=*FORMAT* : Specify output format. *FORMAT* can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), plain (plain text), markdown (pandoc's extended markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended markdown), rst (reStructuredText), html (XHTML 1), html5 (HTML 5), latex (LaTeX), beamer (LaTeX beamer slide show), context (ConTeXt), man (groff man), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), textile (Textile), org (Emacs Org-Mode), texinfo (GNU Texinfo), docbook (DocBook XML), opendocument (OpenDocument XML), odt (OpenOffice text document), docx (Word docx), epub (EPUB book), fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book), asciidoc (AsciiDoc), slidy (Slidy HTML and javascript slide show), slideous (Slideous HTML and javascript slide show), dzslides (HTML5 + javascript slide show), s5 (S5 HTML and javascript slide show), or rtf (rich text format). Note that odt and epub output will not be directed to *stdout*; an output filename must be specified using the -o/--output option. If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, beamer, html, or html5, the output will be rendered as literate Haskell source: see [Literate Haskell support](#literate-haskell-support), below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name, as described above under -f. -o *FILE*, --output=*FILE* : Write output to *FILE* instead of *stdout*. If *FILE* is -, output will go to *stdout*. (Exception: if the output format is odt, docx, or epub, output to stdout is disabled.) --data-dir=*DIRECTORY* : Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files. If this option is not specified, the default user data directory will be used: $HOME/.pandoc in unix and C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc in Windows. A reference.odt, reference.docx, default.csl, epub.css, templates, slidy, slideous, or s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc's normal defaults. -v, --version : Print version. -h, --help : Show usage message. Reader options -------------- -R, --parse-raw : Parse untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments as raw HTML or LaTeX, instead of ignoring them. Affects only HTML and LaTeX input. Raw HTML can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, and S5 output; raw LaTeX can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader does pass through untranslatable LaTeX *commands*, even if -R is not specified.) -S, --smart : Produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr." (Note: This option is significant only when the input format is markdown, markdown_strict, or textile. It is selected automatically when the input format is textile or the output format is latex or context, unless --no-tex-ligatures is used.) --old-dashes : Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - before a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option is selected automatically for textile input. --base-header-level=*NUMBER* : Specify the base level for headers (defaults to 1). --indented-code-classes=*CLASSES* : Specify classes to use for indented code blocks--for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas. --normalize : Normalize the document after reading: merge adjacent Str or Emph elements, for example, and remove repeated Spaces. -p, --preserve-tabs : Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default). Note that this will only affect tabs in literal code spans and code blocks; tabs in regular text will be treated as spaces. --tab-stop=*NUMBER* : Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4). General writer options ---------------------- -s, --standalone : Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a standalone HTML, LaTeX, or RTF file, not a fragment). This option is set automatically for pdf, epub, fb2, docx, and odt output. --template=*FILE* : Use *FILE* as a custom template for the generated document. Implies --standalone. See [Templates](#templates) below for a description of template syntax. If no extension is specified, an extension corresponding to the writer will be added, so that --template=special looks for special.html for HTML output. If the template is not found, pandoc will search for it in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this option is not used, a default template appropriate for the output format will be used (see -D/--print-default-template). -V *KEY[=VAL]*, --variable=*KEY[:VAL]* : Set the template variable *KEY* to the value *VAL* when rendering the document in standalone mode. This is generally only useful when the --template option is used to specify a custom template, since pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default templates. If no *VAL* is specified, the key will be given the value true. -D *FORMAT*, --print-default-template=*FORMAT* : Print the default template for an output *FORMAT*. (See -t for a list of possible *FORMAT*s.) --no-wrap : Disable text wrapping in output. By default, text is wrapped appropriately for the output format. --columns=*NUMBER* : Specify length of lines in characters (for text wrapping). --toc, --table-of-contents : Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in the case of latex, context, and rst, an instruction to create one) in the output document. This option has no effect on man, docbook, slidy, slideous, or s5 output. --no-highlight : Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and inlines, even when a language attribute is given. --highlight-style=*STYLE* : Specifies the coloring style to be used in highlighted source code. Options are pygments (the default), kate, monochrome, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango. -H *FILE*, --include-in-header=*FILE* : Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the header. This can be used, for example, to include special CSS or javascript in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone. -B *FILE*, --include-before-body=*FILE* : Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the beginning of the document body (e.g. after the  tag in HTML, or the \begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone. -A *FILE*, --include-after-body=*FILE* : Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the document body (before the  tag in HTML, or the \end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone. Options affecting specific writers ---------------------------------- --self-contained : Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. The resulting file should be "self-contained," in the sense that it needs no external files and no net access to be displayed properly by a browser. This option works only with HTML output formats, including html, html5, html+lhs, html5+lhs, s5, slidy, slideous, and dzslides. Scripts, images, and stylesheets at absolute URLs will be downloaded; those at relative URLs will be sought first relative to the working directory, then relative to the user data directory (see --data-dir), and finally relative to pandoc's default data directory. --offline : Deprecated synonym for --self-contained. -5, --html5 : Produce HTML5 instead of HTML4. This option has no effect for writers other than html. (*Deprecated:* Use the html5 output format instead.) --ascii : Use only ascii characters in output. Currently supported only for HTML output (which uses numerical entities instead of UTF-8 when this option is selected). --reference-links : Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing markdown or reStructuredText. By default inline links are used. --atx-headers : Use ATX style headers in markdown output. The default is to use setext-style headers for levels 1-2, and then ATX headers. --chapters : Treat top-level headers as chapters in LaTeX, ConTeXt, and DocBook output. When the LaTeX template uses the report, book, or memoir class, this option is implied. If --beamer is used, top-level headers will become \part{..}. -N, --number-sections : Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, or HTML output. By default, sections are not numbered. --no-tex-ligatures : Do not convert quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes to the TeX ligatures when writing LaTeX or ConTeXt. Instead, just use literal unicode characters. This is needed for using advanced OpenType features with XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX. Note: normally --smart is selected automatically for LaTeX and ConTeXt output, but it must be specified explicitly if --no-tex-ligatures is selected. If you use literal curly quotes, dashes, and ellipses in your source, then you may want to use --no-tex-ligatures without --smart. --listings : Use listings package for LaTeX code blocks -i, --incremental : Make list items in slide shows display incrementally (one by one). The default is for lists to be displayed all at once. --slide-level=*NUMBER* : Specifies that headers with the specified level create slides (for beamer, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides). Headers above this level in the hierarchy are used to divide the slide show into sections; headers below this level create subheads within a slide. The default is to set the slide level based on the contents of the document; see [Structuring the slide show](#structuring-the-slide-show), below. --section-divs : Wrap sections in   tags (or   tags in HTML5), and attach identifiers to the enclosing   (or  ) rather than the header itself. See [Section identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html-latex-and-context), below. --email-obfuscation=*none|javascript|references* : Specify a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents. *none* leaves mailto: links as they are. *javascript* obfuscates them using javascript. *references* obfuscates them by printing their letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references. --id-prefix=*STRING* : Specify a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers in HTML and DocBook output. This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers when generating fragments to be included in other pages. -T *STRING*, --title-prefix=*STRING* : Specify *STRING* as a prefix at the beginning of the title that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at the beginning of the HTML body). Implies --standalone. -c *URL*, --css=*URL* : Link to a CSS style sheet. This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. --reference-odt=*FILE* : Use the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT. For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used. --reference-docx=*FILE* : Use the specified file as a style reference in producing a docx file. For best results, the reference docx should be a modified version of a docx file produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference docx are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new docx. If no reference docx is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.docx in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used. The following styles are used by pandoc: [paragraph] Normal, Title, Authors, Date, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, Heading 4, Heading 5, Block Quote, Definition Term, Definition, Body Text, Table Caption, Picture Caption; [character] Default Paragraph Font, Body Text Char, Verbatim Char, Footnote Reference, Hyperlink. --epub-stylesheet=*FILE* : Use the specified CSS file to style the EPUB. If no stylesheet is specified, pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used. --epub-cover-image=*FILE* : Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than 1000px in width and height. --epub-metadata=*FILE* : Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements, as documented at . For example: Creative Commons es-AR By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements:  (from the document title),  (from the document authors),  (from the document date, which should be in [ISO 8601 format]),  (from the lang variable, or, if is not set, the locale), and  (a randomly generated UUID). Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file. --epub-embed-font=*FILE* : Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts. To use embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS (see --epub-stylesheet): @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: normal; font-weight: bold; src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: italic; font-weight: normal; src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf"); } @font-face { font-family: DejaVuSans; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf"); } body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; } --latex-engine=*pdflatex|lualatex|xelatex* : Use the specified LaTeX engine when producing PDF output. The default is pdflatex. If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here. Citation rendering ------------------ --bibliography=*FILE* : Specify bibliography database to be used in resolving citations. The database type will be determined from the extension of *FILE*, which may be .mods (MODS format), .bib (BibTeX/BibLaTeX format), .ris (RIS format), .enl (EndNote format), .xml (EndNote XML format), .wos (ISI format), .medline (MEDLINE format), .copac (Copac format), or .json (citeproc JSON). If you want to use multiple bibliographies, just use this option repeatedly. --csl=*FILE* : Specify [CSL] style to be used in formatting citations and the bibliography. If *FILE* is not found, pandoc will look for it in$HOME/.csl in unix and C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\csl in Windows. If the --csl option is not specified, pandoc will use a default style: either default.csl in the user data directory (see --data-dir), or, if that is not present, the Chicago author-date style. --citation-abbreviations=*FILE* : Specify a file containing abbreviations for journal titles and other bibliographic fields (indicated by setting form="short" in the CSL node for the field). The format is described at . Here is a short example: { "default": { "container-title": { "Lloyd's Law Reports": "Lloyd's Rep", "Estates Gazette": "EG", "Scots Law Times": "SLT" } } } --natbib : Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output. --biblatex : Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output. Math rendering in HTML ---------------------- -m [*URL*], --latexmathml[=*URL*] : Use the [LaTeXMathML] script to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. To insert a link to a local copy of the LaTeXMathML.js script, provide a *URL*. If no *URL* is provided, the contents of the script will be inserted directly into the HTML header, preserving portability at the price of efficiency. If you plan to use math on several pages, it is much better to link to a copy of the script, so it can be cached. --mathml[=*URL*] : Convert TeX math to MathML (in docbook as well as html and html5). In standalone html output, a small javascript (or a link to such a script if a *URL* is supplied) will be inserted that allows the MathML to be viewed on some browsers. --jsmath[=*URL*] : Use [jsMath] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The *URL* should point to the jsMath load script (e.g. jsMath/easy/load.js); if provided, it will be linked to in the header of standalone HTML documents. If a *URL* is not provided, no link to the jsMath load script will be inserted; it is then up to the author to provide such a link in the HTML template. --mathjax[=*URL*] : Use [MathJax] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The *URL* should point to the MathJax.js load script. If a *URL* is not provided, a link to the MathJax CDN will be inserted. --gladtex : Enclose TeX math in  tags in HTML output. These can then be processed by [gladTeX] to produce links to images of the typeset formulas. --mimetex[=*URL*] : Render TeX math using the [mimeTeX] CGI script. If *URL* is not specified, it is assumed that the script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi. --webtex[=*URL*] : Render TeX formulas using an external script that converts TeX formulas to images. The formula will be concatenated with the URL provided. If *URL* is not specified, the Google Chart API will be used. Options for wrapper scripts --------------------------- --dump-args : Print information about command-line arguments to *stdout*, then exit. This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts. The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified with the -o option, or - (for *stdout*) if no output file was specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments, one per line, in the order they appear. These do not include regular Pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing after a -- separator at the end of the line. --ignore-args : Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts). Regular Pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example, pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1 is equivalent to pandoc -o foo.html -s [LaTeXMathML]: http://math.etsu.edu/LaTeXMathML/ [jsMath]: http://www.math.union.edu/~dpvc/jsmath/ [MathJax]: http://www.mathjax.org/ [gladTeX]: http://ans.hsh.no/home/mgg/gladtex/ [mimeTeX]: http://www.forkosh.com/mimetex.html [CSL]: http://CitationStyles.org Templates ========= When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template to add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document. To see the default template that is used, just type pandoc -D FORMAT where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. You can also override the system default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a file templates/default.FORMAT in the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). *Exceptions:* For odt output, customize the default.opendocument template. For pdf output, customize the default.latex template. For epub output, customize the epub-page.html, epub-coverimage.html, and epub-titlepage.html templates. Templates may contain *variables*. Variable names are sequences of alphanumerics, -, and _, starting with a letter. A variable name surrounded by $ signs will be replaced by its value. For example, the string $title$ in$title$will be replaced by the document title. To write a literal $ in a template, use $$. Some variables are set automatically by pandoc. These vary somewhat depending on the output format, but include: header-includes : contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values) toc : non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified include-before : contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values) include-after : contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values) body : body of document title : title of document, as specified in title block author : author of document, as specified in title block (may have multiple values) date : date of document, as specified in title block lang : language code for HTML or LaTeX documents slidy-url : base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to http://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2) slideous-url : base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to default) s5-url : base URL for S5 documents (defaults to ui/default) fontsize : font size (10pt, 11pt, 12pt) for LaTeX documents documentclass : document class for LaTeX documents geometry : options for LaTeX geometry class, e.g. margin=1in; may be repeated for multiple options mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont : fonts for LaTeX documents (works only with xelatex and lualatex) theme : theme for LaTeX beamer documents colortheme : colortheme for LaTeX beamer documents linkcolor : color for internal links in LaTeX documents (red, green, magenta, cyan, blue, black) urlcolor : color for external links in LaTeX documents links-as-notes : causes links to be printed as footnotes in LaTeX documents Variables may be set at the command line using the -V/--variable option. This allows users to include custom variables in their templates. Templates may contain conditionals. The syntax is as follows: if(variable) X else Y endif This will include X in the template if variable has a non-null value; otherwise it will include Y. X and Y are placeholders for any valid template text, and may include interpolated variables or other conditionals. The else section may be omitted. When variables can have multiple values (for example, author in a multi-author document), you can use the for keyword: for(author) endfor You can optionally specify a separator to be used between consecutive items: for(author)$$authorsep, endfor If you use custom templates, you may need to revise them as pandoc changes. We recommend tracking the changes in the default templates, and modifying your custom templates accordingly. An easy way to do this is to fork the pandoc-templates repository () and merge in changes after each pandoc release. Pandoc's markdown ================= Pandoc understands an extended and slightly revised version of John Gruber's [markdown] syntax. This document explains the syntax, noting differences from standard markdown. Except where noted, these differences can be suppressed by using the markdown_strict format instead of markdown. An extensions can be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name and disabled by adding -EXTENSION. For example, markdown_strict+footnotes is strict markdown with footnotes enabled, while markdown-footnotes-pipe_tables is pandoc's markdown without footnotes or pipe tables. Philosophy ---------- Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly, easy to read: > A Markdown-formatted document should be publishable as-is, as plain > text, without looking like it's been marked up with tags or formatting > instructions. > -- [John Gruber](http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax#philosophy) This principle has guided pandoc's decisions in finding syntax for tables, footnotes, and other extensions. There is, however, one respect in which pandoc's aims are different from the original aims of markdown. Whereas markdown was originally designed with HTML generation in mind, pandoc is designed for multiple output formats. Thus, while pandoc allows the embedding of raw HTML, it discourages it, and provides other, non-HTMLish ways of representing important document elements like definition lists, tables, mathematics, and footnotes. Paragraphs ---------- A paragraph is one or more lines of text followed by one or more blank line. Newlines are treated as spaces, so you can reflow your paragraphs as you like. If you need a hard line break, put two or more spaces at the end of a line. **Extension: escaped_line_breaks** A backslash followed by a newline is also a hard line break. Headers ------- There are two kinds of headers, Setext and atx. ### Setext-style headers ### A setext-style header is a line of text "underlined" with a row of = signs (for a level one header) of - signs (for a level two header): A level-one header ================== A level-two header ------------------ The header text can contain inline formatting, such as emphasis (see [Inline formatting](#inline-formatting), below). ### Atx-style headers ### An Atx-style header consists of one to six # signs and a line of text, optionally followed by any number of # signs. The number of # signs at the beginning of the line is the header level: ## A level-two header ### A level-three header ### As with setext-style headers, the header text can contain formatting: # A level-one header with a [link](/url) and *emphasis* **Extension: blank_before_header** Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a header. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a # to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping). Consider, for example: I like several of their flavors of ice cream: #22, for example, and #5. ### Header identifiers in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt ### **Extension** Each header element in pandoc's HTML and ConTeXt output is given a unique identifier. This identifier is based on the text of the header. To derive the identifier from the header text, - Remove all formatting, links, etc. - Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, and periods. - Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens. - Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase. - Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may not begin with a number or punctuation mark). - If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section. Thus, for example, Header Identifier ------------------------------- ---------------------------- Header identifiers in HTML header-identifiers-in-html *Dogs*?--in *my* house? dogs--in-my-house [HTML], [S5], or [RTF]? html-s5-or-rtf 3. Applications applications 33 section These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier from the header text. The exception is when several headers have the same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as described above; the second will get the same identifier with -1 appended; the third with -2; and so on. These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of contents generated by the --toc|--table-of-contents option. They also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to another. A link to this section, for example, might look like this: See the section on [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html). Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works only in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt formats. If the --section-divs option is specified, then each section will be wrapped in a div (or a section, if --html5 was specified), and the identifier will be attached to the enclosing   (or  ) tag rather than the header itself. This allows entire sections to be manipulated using javascript or treated differently in CSS. Block quotations ---------------- Markdown uses email conventions for quoting blocks of text. A block quotation is one or more paragraphs or other block elements (such as lists or headers), with each line preceded by a > character and a space. (The > need not start at the left margin, but it should not be indented more than three spaces.) > This is a block quote. This > paragraph has two lines. > > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. > 2. Second item. A "lazy" form, which requires the > character only on the first line of each block, is also allowed: > This is a block quote. This paragraph has two lines. > 1. This is a list inside a block quote. 2. Second item. Among the block elements that can be contained in a block quote are other block quotes. That is, block quotes can be nested: > This is a block quote. > > > A block quote within a block quote. **Extension: blank_line_before_blockquote** Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a block quote. Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that it is all too easy for a > to end up at the beginning of a line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping). So, unless the markdown_strict format is used, the following does not produce a nested block quote in pandoc: > This is a block quote. >> Nested. Verbatim (code) blocks ---------------------- ### Indented code blocks ### A block of text indented four spaces (or one tab) is treated as verbatim text: that is, special characters do not trigger special formatting, and all spaces and line breaks are preserved. For example, if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); } The initial (four space or one tab) indentation is not considered part of the verbatim text, and is removed in the output. Note: blank lines in the verbatim text need not begin with four spaces. ### Fenced code blocks ### **Extension: fenced_code_blocks** In addition to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports *fenced* code blocks. These begin with a row of three or more tildes (~) or backticks (  ) and end with a row of tildes or backticks that must be at least as long as the starting row. Everything between these lines is treated as code. No indentation is necessary: ~~~~~~~ if (a > 3) { moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN); } ~~~~~~~ Like regular code blocks, fenced code blocks must be separated from surrounding text by blank lines. If the code itself contains a row of tildes or backticks, just use a longer row of tildes or backticks at the start and end: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ code including tildes ~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Optionally, you may attach attributes to the code block using this syntax: ~~~~ {#mycode .haskell .numberLines startFrom="100"} qsort [] = [] qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++ qsort (filter (>= x) xs) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Here mycode is an identifier, haskell and numberLines are classes, and startFrom is an attribute with value 100. Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting. Currently, the only output formats that uses this information are HTML and LaTeX. If highlighting is supported for your output format and language, then the code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines. (To see which languages are supported, do pandoc --version.) Otherwise, the code block above will appear as follows: ... A shortcut form can also be used for specifying the language of the code block: haskell qsort [] = []  This is equivalent to:  {.haskell} qsort [] = []  To prevent all highlighting, use the --no-highlight flag. To set the highlighting style, use --highlight-style. Lists ----- ### Bullet lists ### A bullet list is a list of bulleted list items. A bulleted list item begins with a bullet (*, +, or -). Here is a simple example: * one * two * three This will produce a "compact" list. If you want a "loose" list, in which each item is formatted as a paragraph, put spaces between the items: * one * two * three The bullets need not be flush with the left margin; they may be indented one, two, or three spaces. The bullet must be followed by whitespace. List items look best if subsequent lines are flush with the first line (after the bullet): * here is my first list item. * and my second. But markdown also allows a "lazy" format: * here is my first list item. * and my second. ### The four-space rule ### A list item may contain multiple paragraphs and other block-level content. However, subsequent paragraphs must be preceded by a blank line and indented four spaces or a tab. The list will look better if the first paragraph is aligned with the rest: * First paragraph. Continued. * Second paragraph. With a code block, which must be indented eight spaces: { code } List items may include other lists. In this case the preceding blank line is optional. The nested list must be indented four spaces or one tab: * fruits + apples - macintosh - red delicious + pears + peaches * vegetables + brocolli + chard As noted above, markdown allows you to write list items "lazily," instead of indenting continuation lines. However, if there are multiple paragraphs or other blocks in a list item, the first line of each must be indented. + A lazy, lazy, list item. + Another one; this looks bad but is legal. Second paragraph of second list item. **Note:** Although the four-space rule for continuation paragraphs comes from the official [markdown syntax guide], the reference implementation, Markdown.pl, does not follow it. So pandoc will give different results than Markdown.pl when authors have indented continuation paragraphs fewer than four spaces. The [markdown syntax guide] is not explicit whether the four-space rule applies to *all* block-level content in a list item; it only mentions paragraphs and code blocks. But it implies that the rule applies to all block-level content (including nested lists), and pandoc interprets it that way. [markdown syntax guide]: http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax#list ### Ordered lists ### Ordered lists work just like bulleted lists, except that the items begin with enumerators rather than bullets. In standard markdown, enumerators are decimal numbers followed by a period and a space. The numbers themselves are ignored, so there is no difference between this list: 1. one 2. two 3. three and this one: 5. one 7. two 1. three **Extension: fancy_lists** Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to arabic numerals. List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by a single right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from the text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[^2] [^2]: The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs starting with people's initials, like B. Russell was an English philosopher. do not get treated as list items. This rule will not prevent (C) 2007 Joe Smith from being interpreted as a list item. In this case, a backslash escape can be used: (C\) 2007 Joe Smith **Extension: startnum** Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the output format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase roman numerals: 9) Ninth 10) Tenth 11) Eleventh i. subone ii. subtwo iii. subthree Pandoc will start a new list each time a different type of list marker is used. So, the following will create three lists: (2) Two (5) Three 1. Four * Five If default list markers are desired, use #.: #. one #. two #. three ### Definition lists ### **Extension: definition_lists** Pandoc supports definition lists, using a syntax inspired by [PHP Markdown Extra] and [reStructuredText]:[^3] Term 1 : Definition 1 Term 2 with *inline markup* : Definition 2 { some code, part of Definition 2 } Third paragraph of definition 2. Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by a blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions. A definition begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented one or two spaces. The body of the definition (including the first line, aside from the colon or tilde) should be indented four spaces. A term may have multiple definitions, and each definition may consist of one or more block elements (paragraph, code block, list, etc.), each indented four spaces or one tab stop. If you leave space after the definition (as in the example above), the blocks of the definitions will be considered paragraphs. In some output formats, this will mean greater spacing between term/definition pairs. For a compact definition list, do not leave space between the definition and the next term: Term 1 ~ Definition 1 Term 2 ~ Definition 2a ~ Definition 2b [^3]: I have also been influenced by the suggestions of [David Wheeler](http://www.justatheory.com/computers/markup/modest-markdown-proposal.html). [PHP Markdown Extra]: http://www.michelf.com/projects/php-markdown/extra/ ### Numbered example lists ### **Extension: example_lists** The special list marker @ can be used for sequentially numbered examples. The first list item with a @ marker will be numbered '1', the next '2', and so on, throughout the document. The numbered examples need not occur in a single list; each new list using @ will take up where the last stopped. So, for example: (@) My first example will be numbered (1). (@) My second example will be numbered (2). Explanation of examples. (@) My third example will be numbered (3). Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in the document: (@good) This is a good example. As (@good) illustrates, ... The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores, or hyphens. ### Compact and loose lists ### Pandoc behaves differently from Markdown.pl on some "edge cases" involving lists. Consider this source: + First + Second: - Fee - Fie - Foe + Third Pandoc transforms this into a "compact list" (with no   tags around "First", "Second", or "Third"), while markdown puts   tags around "Second" and "Third" (but not "First"), because of the blank space around "Third". Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is followed by a blank line, it is treated as a paragraph. Since "Second" is followed by a list, and not a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph. The fact that the list is followed by a blank line is irrelevant. (Note: Pandoc works this way even when the markdown_strict format is specified. This behavior is consistent with the official markdown syntax description, even though it is different from that of Markdown.pl.) ### Ending a list ### What if you want to put an indented code block after a list? - item one - item two { my code block } Trouble! Here pandoc (like other markdown implementations) will treat { my code block } as the second paragraph of item two, and not as a code block. To "cut off" the list after item two, you can insert some non-indented content, like an HTML comment, which won't produce visible output in any format: - item one - item two { my code block } You can use the same trick if you want two consecutive lists instead of one big list: 1. one 2. two 3. three 1. uno 2. dos 3. tres Horizontal rules ---------------- A line containing a row of three or more *, -, or _ characters (optionally separated by spaces) produces a horizontal rule: * * * * --------------- Tables ------ **Extension: simple_tables, multiline_tables, grid_tables, pipe_tables, table_captions** Four kinds of tables may be used. The first three kinds presuppose the use of a fixed-width font, such as Courier. The fourth kind can be used with proportionally spaced fonts, as it does not require lining up columns. ### Simple tables Simple tables look like this: Right Left Center Default ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 Table: Demonstration of simple table syntax. The headers and table rows must each fit on one line. Column alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative to the dashed line below it:[^4] - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned. - If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides, the column is centered. - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides, the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left). [^4]: This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the [Markdown discussion list](http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/markdown-discuss/2005-March/001097.html). The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by a blank line. A caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated in the example above). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string Table: (or just :), which will be stripped off. It may appear either before or after the table. The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used to end the table. For example: ------- ------ ---------- ------- 12 12 12 12 123 123 123 123 1 1 1 1 ------- ------ ---------- ------- When headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis of the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columns would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively. ### Multiline tables Multiline tables allow headers and table rows to span multiple lines of text (but cells that span multiple columns or rows of the table are not supported). Here is an example: ------------------------------------------------------------- Centered Default Right Left Header Aligned Aligned Aligned ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span multiple lines. These work like simple tables, but with the following differences: - They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text (unless the headers are omitted). - They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line. - The rows must be separated by blank lines. In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in the output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the output, try widening it in the markdown source. Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables: ----------- ------- --------------- ------------------------- First row 12.0 Example of a row that spans multiple lines. Second row 5.0 Here's another one. Note the blank line between rows. ------------------------------------------------------------- : Here's a multiline table without headers. It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row should be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends the table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table. ### Grid tables Grid tables look like this: : Sample grid table. +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Fruit | Price | Advantages | +===============+===============+====================+ | Bananas | 1.34 | - built-in wrapper | | | | - bright color | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ | Oranges | 2.10 | - cures scurvy | | | | - tasty | +---------------+---------------+--------------------+ The row of =s separates the header from the table body, and can be omitted for a headerless table. The cells of grid tables may contain arbitrary block elements (multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists, etc.). Alignments are not supported, nor are cells that span multiple columns or rows. Grid tables can be created easily using [Emacs table mode]. [Emacs table mode]: http://table.sourceforge.net/ ### Pipe tables Pipe tables look like this: | Right | Left | Default | Center | |------:|:-----|---------|:------:| | 12 | 12 | 12 | 12 | | 123 | 123 | 123 | 123 | | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | : Demonstration of simple table syntax. The syntax is the same as in [PHP markdown extra]. The beginning and ending pipe characters are optional, but pipes are required between all columns. The colons indicate column alignment as shown. The header can be omitted, but the horizontal line must still be included, as it defines column alignments. Since the pipes indicate column boundaries, columns need not be vertically aligned, as they are in the above example. So, this is a perfectly legal (though ugly) pipe table: fruit| price -----|-----: apple|2.05 pear|1.37 orange|3.09 The cells of pipe tables cannot contain block elements like paragraphs and lists, and cannot span multiple lines. [PHP markdown extra]: http://michelf.ca/projects/php-markdown/extra/#table Note: Pandoc also recognizes pipe tables of the following form, as can produced by Emacs' orgtbl-mode: | One | Two | |-----+-------| | my | table | | is | nice | The difference is that + is used instead of |. Other orgtbl features are not supported. In particular, to get non-default column alignment, you'll need to add colons as above. Title block ----------- **Extension: pandoc_title_block** If the file begins with a title block % title % author(s) (separated by semicolons) % date it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text. (It will be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML output.) The block may contain just a title, a title and an author, or all three elements. If you want to include an author but no title, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line: % % Author % My title % % June 15, 2006 The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines must begin with leading space, thus: % My title on multiple lines If a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put on separate lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, or both. So, all of the following are equivalent: % Author One Author Two % Author One; Author Two % Author One; Author Two The date must fit on one line. All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting (italics, links, footnotes, etc.). Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output only when the --standalone (-s) option is chosen. In HTML output, titles will appear twice: once in the document head -- this is the title that will appear at the top of the window in a browser -- and once at the beginning of the document body. The title in the document head can have an optional prefix attached (--title-prefix or -T option). The title in the body appears as an H1 element with class "title", so it can be suppressed or reformatted with CSS. If a title prefix is specified with -T and no title block appears in the document, the title prefix will be used by itself as the HTML title. The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and other header and footer information from the title line. The title is assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionally end with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses. (There should be no space between the title and the parentheses.) Anything after this is assumed to be additional footer and header text. A single pipe character (|) should be used to separate the footer text from the header text. Thus, % PANDOC(1) will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer. % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0 will also have "Version 4.0" in the header. Backslash escapes ----------------- **Extension: all_symbols_escapable** Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it would normally indicate formatting. Thus, for example, if one writes *\*hello\** one will get *hello* instead of hello This rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule, which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped: \*_{}[]()>#+-.! (However, if the markdown_strict format is used, the standard markdown rule will be used.) A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space. It will appear in TeX output as ~ and in HTML and XML as \  or \ . A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end of a line) is parsed as a hard line break. It will appear in TeX output as \\ and in HTML as  . This is a nice alternative to markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using two trailing spaces on a line. Backslash escapes do not work in verbatim contexts. Smart punctuation ----------------- **Extension** If the --smart option is specified, pandoc will produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr." Note: if your LaTeX template uses the csquotes package, pandoc will detect automatically this and use \enquote{...} for quoted text. Inline formatting ----------------- ### Emphasis ### To *emphasize* some text, surround it with *s or _, like this: This text is _emphasized with underscores_, and this is *emphasized with asterisks*. Double * or _ produces **strong emphasis**: This is **strong emphasis** and __with underscores__. A * or _ character surrounded by spaces, or backslash-escaped, will not trigger emphasis: This is * not emphasized *, and \*neither is this\*. **Extension: intraword_underscores** Because _ is sometimes used inside words and identifiers, pandoc does not interpret a _ surrounded by alphanumeric characters as an emphasis marker. If you want to emphasize just part of a word, use *: feas*ible*, not feas*able*. ### Strikeout ### **Extension: strikeout** To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it with ~~. Thus, for example, This ~~is deleted text.~~ ### Superscripts and subscripts ### **Extension: superscript, subscript** Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by ^ characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscripted text by ~ characters. Thus, for example, H~2~O is a liquid. 2^10^ is 1024. If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces must be escaped with backslashes. (This is to prevent accidental superscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of ~ and ^.) Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat' in subscripts, use P~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~. ### Verbatim ### To make a short span of text verbatim, put it inside backticks: What is the difference between >>= and >>? If the verbatim text includes a backtick, use double backticks: Here is a literal backtick   . (The spaces after the opening backticks and before the closing backticks will be ignored.) The general rule is that a verbatim span starts with a string of consecutive backticks (optionally followed by a space) and ends with a string of the same number of backticks (optionally preceded by a space). Note that backslash-escapes (and other markdown constructs) do not work in verbatim contexts: This is a backslash followed by an asterisk: \*. **Extension: inline_code_attributes** Attributes can be attached to verbatim text, just as with [fenced code blocks](#fenced-code-blocks): <>{.haskell} Math ---- **Extension: tex_math_dollars** Anything between two  characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening  must have a character immediately to its right, while the closing  must have a character immediately to its left. Thus, 20,000 and 30,000 won't parse as math. If for some reason you need to enclose text in literal  characters, backslash-escape them and they won't be treated as math delimiters. TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendered depends on the output format: Markdown, LaTeX, Org-Mode, ConTeXt ~ It will appear verbatim between  characters. reStructuredText ~ It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:, as described [here](http://www.american.edu/econ/itex2mml/mathhack.rst). AsciiDoc ~ It will be rendered as latexmath:[...]. Texinfo ~ It will be rendered inside a @math command. groff man ~ It will be rendered verbatim without 's. MediaWiki ~ It will be rendered inside [itex] tags. Textile ~ It will be rendered inside  tags. RTF, OpenDocument, ODT ~ It will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim. Docbook ~ If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered using mathml in an inlineequation or informalequation tag. Otherwise it will be rendered, if possible, using unicode characters. Docx ~ It will be rendered using OMML math markup. FictionBook2 ~ If the --webtex option is used, formulas are rendered as images using Google Charts or other compatible web service, downloaded and embedded in the e-book. Otherwise, they will appear verbatim. HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB ~ The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line options selected: 1. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode characters, as with RTF, DocBook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from the surrounding text if needed. 2. If the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed between  or  characters and put in  tags with class LaTeX. The [LaTeXMathML] script will be used to render it as formulas. (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox. In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear verbatim between \$ characters.) 3. If the --jsmath option is used, TeX math will be put inside  tags (for inline math) or

 tags (for display math) with class math. The [jsMath] script will be used to render it. 4. If the --mimetex option is used, the [mimeTeX] CGI script will be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should work in all browsers. The --mimetex option takes an optional URL as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi. 5. If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed in  tags in the HTML output. The resulting htex file may then be processed by [gladTeX], which will produce image files for each formula and an html file with links to these images. So, the procedure is: pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex gladtex -d myfile-images myfile.htex # produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images 6. If the --webtex option is used, TeX formulas will be converted to  tags that link to an external script that converts formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated with the URL provided. If no URL is specified, the Google Chart API will be used (http://chart.apis.google.com/chart?cht=tx&chl=). 7. If the --mathjax option is used, TeX math will be displayed between $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display math) and put in  tags with class math. The [MathJax] script will be used to render it as formulas. Raw HTML -------- **Extenion: raw_html** Markdown allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a document (except verbatim contexts, where <, >, and & are interpreted literally). (Techncially this is not an extension, since standard markdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it can be disabled if desired.) The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, and Textile output, and suppressed in other formats. **Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks** Standard markdown allows you to include HTML "blocks": blocks of HTML between balanced tags that are separated from the surrounding text with blank lines, and start and end at the left margin. Within these blocks, everything is interpreted as HTML, not markdown; so (for example), * does not signify emphasis. Pandoc behaves this way when the markdown_strict format is used; but by default, pandoc interprets material between HTML block tags as markdown. Thus, for example, Pandoc will turn
whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is. There is one exception to this rule: text between