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eBay4R is a Ruby wrapper for eBay's Web Services SOAP API
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README

=================
Welcome to eBay4R
=================

:Author: Garry Dolley
:Date: 03-28-2008
:Version: v1.1
:eBay API: 583

eBay4R is a Ruby wrapper for eBay's Web Services SOAP API (v583). Emphasis is
on ease of use and small footprint.

Please report bugs and other problems, see "Author" section at the bottom.

Current release can be downloaded from:

http://rubyforge.org/projects/ebay4r

The latest code is available at both RubyForge and GitHub:

  * git://rubyforge.org/ebay4r.git
  * git://github.com/up_the_irons/ebay4r.git


Requirements
------------

* SOAP4R library v1.5.7 or newer.  The specific version I'm using for testing
  is soap4r-1.5.7.90.20070921.


Optionals
---------

* RubyGems


Installation
------------

tar/gzip
~~~~~~~~

Just unzip the archive anywhere you like, and see "Getting Started" below 
(you will need to add the ebay4r/lib path to your $RUBYLIB environment
variable)

RubyGems
~~~~~~~~

* To install a gem you already downloaded::
  
    gem install ebay-<version>.gem

* For the latest release with no fuss (previous download not required)::
  
    gem install -r ebay

Git
~~~

You can download the latest and greatest code using Git, just type::

  git clone git://github.com/up_the_irons/ebay4r.git


Important Note about Using eBay4R and Ruby on Rails
---------------------------------------------------

If you installed SOAP4R as a gem you must put the following two lines at the
very top of your config/environment.rb::

  require 'rubygems'
  gem 'soap4r'

This must be done before Rails starts auto-loading things.

Additionally, you have to put those two lines in *every* Rails app you have
on your machine, even if it doesn't use SOAP4R!  This is, allegedly, because
ActiveSupport (in dependency.rb) wrongly loads the SOAP4R included with Ruby
instead of your Gem.  More details can be found here:

  http://dev.ctor.org/soap4r/ticket/433

If you get this error, or similar, in every Rails app::

  [...]/activesupport-1.4.2/lib/active_support/dependencies.rb:477:in `const_missing': uninitialized constant XSD::NS::KNOWN_TAG (NameError?)

you've hit this problem.


Getting Started
---------------

If you installed eBay4R from a tarball or git repo, you will want to add the
ebay4r/lib directory to your Ruby include path ($RUBYLIB).  Then put

::

  require 'eBayAPI'
 
at the top of your programs.

If you installed eBay4R with RubyGems, you don't have to add anything to
Ruby's include path, just put

::

  require 'rubygems'
  gem 'ebay'

at the top of your programs.

Examples
--------

Look at the examples/ directory.  Edit the file myCredentials.rb and insert
the appropriate values.  Then you can run any of the example programs.

Hello, World!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The simplest eBay API call is "GeteBayOfficialTime".  Here's how to call it
with eBay4R::

  require 'rubygems'
  gem 'ebay'

  # Put your credentials in this file
  load('myCredentials.rb')

  # Create new eBay caller object.  Omit last argument to use live platform.
  eBay = EBay::API.new($authToken, $devId, $appId, $certId, :sandbox => true)

  resp = eBay.GeteBayOfficialTime

  puts "Hello, World!"
  puts "The eBay time is now: #{resp.timestamp}"

  # Wasn't that easy?!

Adding an Item
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This is a more complex example that performs a real (useful) function::

  require 'rubygems'
  gem 'ebay'

  load('myCredentials.rb')

  eBay = EBay::API.new($authToken, $devId, $appId, $certId, :sandbox => true)

  # Notice how we nest hashes to mimic the XML structure of an AddItem request
  resp = eBay.AddItem(:Item => EBay.Item(:PrimaryCategory => EBay.Category(:CategoryID => 57882),
                                         :Title => 'Mouse Pad',
                                         :Description => 'A really cool mouse pad, you know you want it...',
                                         :Location => 'On Earth',
                                         :StartPrice => '12.0',
                                         :Quantity => 1,
                                         :ListingDuration => "Days_7",
                                         :Country => "US",
                                         :Currency => "USD",
                                         :PaymentMethods => ["VisaMC", "PersonalCheck"]))

  puts "New Item #" + resp.itemID + " added."


Don't worry too much about EBay.Item and EBay.Category calls for now, they are
explained in the "Creating Complex Data Types" section below.


Format of Requests
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If ``eBay`` is your caller object, then you can issue any eBay API call
by doing::

  eBay.<call_name>( ... hash of named-arguments ... )

For example, to issue the GetItem call for Item #4503432058 and return all
information, you do::

  eBay.GetItem(:DetailLevel => 'ReturnAll', :ItemID => '4503432058')

or to see your last invoice using the GetAccount call, you do::

  eBay.GetAccount(:AccountHistorySelection => 'LastInvoice')

See the "eBay Web Services SOAP API Guide" for acceptable parameters and values
for each API call.  This guide can be downloaded at eBay's 
`SOAP Development Center <http://developer.ebay.com/soap/>`_.

Creating Complex Data Types
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

A number of elements in eBay's schema are XML Schema simple types.  For
example, CategoryID, Title, and Description are all strings.  But many 
elements, like Item and Seller, are of types "ItemType" and "SellerType", 
respectively.  These are complex data types, meaning they are structures
composed of collections of simple types.

"How do I make a complex type object?", you ask.  Simple::

  EBay.<element_name>( ... hash of named-arguments ... )

creates a new `<element_name>` element of type ``<element_name>Type``.  For
example,

::

  EBay.Item(:Title => 'Mouse Pad', :Description => '...')

creates a new ``ItemType`` object.  Please note, these factory methods are class
methods of module EBay, so the upper-case "E" in "EBay" is not a typo.  A
more common way to see this is::

  EBay::Item( ... )

The only difference is if you do not pass any arguments to the factory method
and do not explicitly put empty parentheses (), Ruby will assume it is a 
constant, not a method.

Setting XML Attributes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The symbol you use to set an XML attribute on an element is::

  :xmlattr_<attribute_name>

For example, to create a <Label> element (corresponding to eBay's LabelType)
with an attribute of "visible" equal to "true", you would do::

  EBay.Label(:Name => "some string", :xmlattr_visible => true)


Format of Responses
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There is a one-to-one correspondence between the XML returned by eBay and the
way you access the values contained therein using the response object returned
by the call.  For example, let's say you issued a "GetItem" call::
  
  resp = eBay.GetItem(:DetailLevel => 'ReturnAll', :ItemID => '4503432058')

and eBay returned the following XML (abbreviated where appropriate)::

  <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
  <soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" 
                    xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" 
                    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
   <soapenv:Body>
    <GetItemResponse xmlns="urn:ebay:apis:eBLBaseComponents">
     <Timestamp>2005-12-09T09:40:41.602Z</Timestamp>
     <Ack>Success</Ack>
     <Version>437</Version>
     <Build>e437_core_Bundled_2119808_R1</Build>
     <Item>
      ...

      <AutoPay>false</AutoPay>
      <BuyerProtection>ItemIneligible</BuyerProtection>
      <BuyItNowPrice currencyID="USD">0.0</BuyItNowPrice>
      <Country>US</Country>
      <Currency>USD</Currency>
      <Description>Fund. of Physics, 5th, by Halliday, Resnick, Walker</Description>
      <Escrow>None</Escrow>
      <GiftIcon>0</GiftIcon>
      ...

      <ShipToLocations>US</ShipToLocations>
      <ShipToLocations>CA</ShipToLocations>
     </Item>
    </GetItemResponse>
   </soapenv:Body>
  </soapenv:Envelope>


The "resp" object is of type
  
  SOAP::Mapping::Object

and contains all the XML elements between ``<GetItemResponse> ... </GetItemResponse>``.

So, if you want to print the item description, just do::

  puts resp.item.description

and you will see::
  
  "Fund. of Physics, 5th, by Halliday, Resnick, Walker"

Repeated XML elements automatically become arrays of the same name, so to see
all the locations this item can ship to, just do::

  resp.item.shipToLocations.each { |loc| puts loc }

and you will see::

  US
  CA

It's that easy! (Are any Java or C# developers reading this?  Don't be
jealous... ;)

A Note about Case
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Astute readers (all of you, right?) will notice that the first letter of every
element contained within the response object is lower-case, even though in the
XML it is upper-case.  This is currently the way things are and you will have
to remember to lower the first character in your code.  

Ruby's convention is that only classes, modules, and constants begin with 
upper-case letters.  The author of the SOAP4R library (which contains 
wsdl2ruby.rb) respected this convention, and as a result, the eBay.rb 
file I use (generated from eBay's WSDL) has this mapping.

I haven't come up with any Ruby magic to dynamically allow upper-case first
characters to work also, so if you happen to want to take a crack at it and
get it working, please send me your patches (see "Author" section at the 
bottom).

Please note, the opposite does _not_ apply.  That is, you can *submit* a call
using either case of the first character, and your arguments can also have
either case letter first.  For example, this::

  resp = eBay.GetItem(:DetailLevel => 'ReturnAll', :ItemID => '4503432058')

is the same as::

  resp = eBay.getItem(:detailLevel => 'ReturnAll', :itemID => '4503432058')


Debugging
---------

If "eBay" is your eBay caller object, as in::

  eBay = EBay::API.new( ... )

You can see XML wiredumps by doing::

  eBay.debug = true

before you issue any eBay API calls.  This is useful to see the raw XML of
what eBay is sending back to you.


Files
-----

contrib/
  Extras contributed by the community (myself included)

examples/
  Examples of eBay API calls using this library. You will want to check out
  these examples before making your own calls.

lib/eBayAPI.rb
  The heart of this library

lib/eBayDriver.rb
  Autogenerated by wsdl2ruby.rb

lib/eBay.rb
  Autogenerated by wsdl2ruby.rb

lib/RequesterCredentialsHandler.rb
  Helper for generating the eBay Authentication header for each call

test/
  Unit and functional tests


To Do
-----

* Add many more examples
* Add more unit and functional tests


Author
------

Garry C. Dolley

gdolley [at] NOSPAM- ucla.edu

AIM: garry97531

IRC: up_the_irons in #ram, #git, #caboose on Freenode (and usually many other
channels)


Formatting
----------

I've dropped RDoc formatting for this README.  Headings never looked like
headings to me, which was annoying.

This README is formatted in reStructredText [RST]_.  It has the best
correlation between what a document looks like as plain text vs. its
formatted output (HTML, LaTeX, etc...).  What I like best is, markup doesn't
look like markup, even though it is.

.. [RST] http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html

Copyright
---------

Copyright (c) 2005,2006,2007,2008 Garry C. Dolley

eBay4R is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later 
version.

eBay4R is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more
details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
eBay4R; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin
Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

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