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This repository contains the code for our ACL 2021 paper “One2Set: Generating Diverse Keyphrases as a Set”.

Our implementation is built on the source code from keyphrase-generation-rl and fastNLP. Thanks for their work.

If you use this code, please cite our paper:

  title={One2Set: Generating Diverse Keyphrases as a Set},
  author={Ye, Jiacheng and Gui, Tao and Luo, Yichao and Xu, Yige and Zhang, Qi},
  booktitle={Proceedings of ACL},


  • python 3.5+
  • pytorch 1.0+


The datasets can be downloaded from here, which are the tokenized version of the datasets provided by Ken Chen:

  • The testsets directory contains the five datasets for testing (i.e., inspec, krapivin, nus, and semeval and kp20k), where each of the datasets contains test_src.txt and test_trg.txt.
  • The kp20k_separated directory contains the training and validation files (i.e., train_src.txt, train_trg.txt, valid_src.txt and valid_trg.txt).
  • Each line of the *_src.txt file is the source document, which contains the tokenized words of title <eos> abstract .
  • Each line of the *_trg.txt file contains the target keyphrases separated by an ; character. The <peos> is used to mark the end of present ground-truth keyphrases and train a separate set loss for SetTrans model. For example, each line can be like present keyphrase one;present keyphrase two;<peos>;absent keyprhase one;absent keyphrase two.

Quick Start

The whole process includes the following steps:

  • Preprocessing: The script numericalizes the train_src.txt, train_trg.txt,valid_src.txt and valid_trg.txt files, and produces, and
  • Training: The script loads the, and file and performs training. We evaluate the model every 8000 batches on the valid set, and the model will be saved if the valid loss is lower than the previous one.
  • Decoding: The script loads the trained model and performs decoding on the five test datasets. The prediction file will be saved, which is like predicted keyphrase one;predicted keyphrase two;…. For SetTrans, we ignore the $\varnothing$ predictions that represent the meaning of “no corresponding keyphrase”.
  • Evaluation: The script loads the ground-truth and predicted keyphrases, and calculates the $F_1@5$ and $F_1@M$ metrics.

For the sake of simplicity, we provide an one-click script in the script directory. You can run the following command to run the whole process with SetTrans model under One2Set paradigm:

bash scripts/

You can also run the baseline Transformer model under One2Seq paradigm with the following command:

bash scripts/


  • Please download and unzip the datasets in the ./data directory first.
  • To run all the bash files smoothly, you may need to specify the correct home_dir (i.e., the absolute path to kg_one2set dictionary) and the gpu id for CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES. We provide a small amount of data to quickly test whether your running environment is correct. You can test by running the following command:
bash scripts/


You can download our trained model here. We also provide raw predictions and corresponding evaluation results of three runs with different random seeds here, which contains the following files:

├── Full_One2set_Copy_Seed27_Dropout0.1_LR0.0001_BS12_MaxLen6_MaxNum20_LossScalePre0.2_LossScaleAb0.1_Step2_SetLoss
│   ├── inspec
│   │   ├── predictions.txt
│   │   └── results_log_5_M_5_M_5_M.txt
│   ├── kp20k
│   │   ├── predictions.txt
│   │   └── results_log_5_M_5_M_5_M.txt
│   ├── krapivin
│   │   ├── predictions.txt
│   │   └── results_log_5_M_5_M_5_M.txt
│   ├── nus
│   │   ├── predictions.txt
│   │   └── results_log_5_M_5_M_5_M.txt
│   └── semeval
│       ├── predictions.txt
│       └── results_log_5_M_5_M_5_M.txt
├── Full_One2set_Copy_Seed527_Dropout0.1_LR0.0001_BS12_MaxLen6_MaxNum20_LossScalePre0.2_LossScaleAb0.1_Step2_SetLoss
│   ├── ...
└── Full_One2set_Copy_Seed9527_Dropout0.1_LR0.0001_BS12_MaxLen6_MaxNum20_LossScalePre0.2_LossScaleAb0.1_Step2_SetLoss
    ├── ...


[ACL 2021] Code for our ACL 2021 paper "One2Set: Generating Diverse Keyphrases as a Set"







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