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package gorm
import (
"database/sql"
"errors"
"fmt"
"reflect"
"strings"
"time"
)
// DB contains information for current db connection
type DB struct {
Value interface{}
Error error
RowsAffected int64
// single db
db SQLCommon
blockGlobalUpdate bool
logMode int
logger logger
search *search
values map[string]interface{}
// global db
parent *DB
callbacks *Callback
dialect Dialect
singularTable bool
}
// Open initialize a new db connection, need to import driver first, e.g:
//
// import _ "github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql"
// func main() {
// db, err := gorm.Open("mysql", "user:password@/dbname?charset=utf8&parseTime=True&loc=Local")
// }
// GORM has wrapped some drivers, for easier to remember driver's import path, so you could import the mysql driver with
// import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/mysql"
// // import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/postgres"
// // import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/sqlite"
// // import _ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/mssql"
func Open(dialect string, args ...interface{}) (db *DB, err error) {
if len(args) == 0 {
err = errors.New("invalid database source")
return nil, err
}
var source string
var dbSQL SQLCommon
switch value := args[0].(type) {
case string:
var driver = dialect
if len(args) == 1 {
source = value
} else if len(args) >= 2 {
driver = value
source = args[1].(string)
}
dbSQL, err = sql.Open(driver, source)
case SQLCommon:
dbSQL = value
default:
return nil, fmt.Errorf("invalid database source: %v is not a valid type", value)
}
db = &DB{
db: dbSQL,
logger: defaultLogger,
values: map[string]interface{}{},
callbacks: DefaultCallback,
dialect: newDialect(dialect, dbSQL),
}
db.parent = db
if err != nil {
return
}
// Send a ping to make sure the database connection is alive.
if d, ok := dbSQL.(*sql.DB); ok {
if err = d.Ping(); err != nil {
d.Close()
}
}
return
}
// New clone a new db connection without search conditions
func (s *DB) New() *DB {
clone := s.clone()
clone.search = nil
clone.Value = nil
return clone
}
type closer interface {
Close() error
}
// Close close current db connection. If database connection is not an io.Closer, returns an error.
func (s *DB) Close() error {
if db, ok := s.parent.db.(closer); ok {
return db.Close()
}
return errors.New("can't close current db")
}
// DB get `*sql.DB` from current connection
// If the underlying database connection is not a *sql.DB, returns nil
func (s *DB) DB() *sql.DB {
db, _ := s.db.(*sql.DB)
return db
}
// CommonDB return the underlying `*sql.DB` or `*sql.Tx` instance, mainly intended to allow coexistence with legacy non-GORM code.
func (s *DB) CommonDB() SQLCommon {
return s.db
}
// Dialect get dialect
func (s *DB) Dialect() Dialect {
return s.parent.dialect
}
// Callback return `Callbacks` container, you could add/change/delete callbacks with it
// db.Callback().Create().Register("update_created_at", updateCreated)
// Refer https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/development.html#callbacks
func (s *DB) Callback() *Callback {
s.parent.callbacks = s.parent.callbacks.clone()
return s.parent.callbacks
}
// SetLogger replace default logger
func (s *DB) SetLogger(log logger) {
s.logger = log
}
// LogMode set log mode, `true` for detailed logs, `false` for no log, default, will only print error logs
func (s *DB) LogMode(enable bool) *DB {
if enable {
s.logMode = 2
} else {
s.logMode = 1
}
return s
}
// BlockGlobalUpdate if true, generates an error on update/delete without where clause.
// This is to prevent eventual error with empty objects updates/deletions
func (s *DB) BlockGlobalUpdate(enable bool) *DB {
s.blockGlobalUpdate = enable
return s
}
// HasBlockGlobalUpdate return state of block
func (s *DB) HasBlockGlobalUpdate() bool {
return s.blockGlobalUpdate
}
// SingularTable use singular table by default
func (s *DB) SingularTable(enable bool) {
modelStructsMap = newModelStructsMap()
s.parent.singularTable = enable
}
// NewScope create a scope for current operation
func (s *DB) NewScope(value interface{}) *Scope {
dbClone := s.clone()
dbClone.Value = value
return &Scope{db: dbClone, Search: dbClone.search.clone(), Value: value}
}
// QueryExpr returns the query as expr object
func (s *DB) QueryExpr() *expr {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.InstanceSet("skip_bindvar", true)
scope.prepareQuerySQL()
return Expr(scope.SQL, scope.SQLVars...)
}
// SubQuery returns the query as sub query
func (s *DB) SubQuery() *expr {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.InstanceSet("skip_bindvar", true)
scope.prepareQuerySQL()
return Expr(fmt.Sprintf("(%v)", scope.SQL), scope.SQLVars...)
}
// Where return a new relation, filter records with given conditions, accepts `map`, `struct` or `string` as conditions, refer http://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#query
func (s *DB) Where(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Where(query, args...).db
}
// Or filter records that match before conditions or this one, similar to `Where`
func (s *DB) Or(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Or(query, args...).db
}
// Not filter records that don't match current conditions, similar to `Where`
func (s *DB) Not(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Not(query, args...).db
}
// Limit specify the number of records to be retrieved
func (s *DB) Limit(limit interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Limit(limit).db
}
// Offset specify the number of records to skip before starting to return the records
func (s *DB) Offset(offset interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Offset(offset).db
}
// Order specify order when retrieve records from database, set reorder to `true` to overwrite defined conditions
// db.Order("name DESC")
// db.Order("name DESC", true) // reorder
// db.Order(gorm.Expr("name = ? DESC", "first")) // sql expression
func (s *DB) Order(value interface{}, reorder ...bool) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Order(value, reorder...).db
}
// Select specify fields that you want to retrieve from database when querying, by default, will select all fields;
// When creating/updating, specify fields that you want to save to database
func (s *DB) Select(query interface{}, args ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Select(query, args...).db
}
// Omit specify fields that you want to ignore when saving to database for creating, updating
func (s *DB) Omit(columns ...string) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Omit(columns...).db
}
// Group specify the group method on the find
func (s *DB) Group(query string) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Group(query).db
}
// Having specify HAVING conditions for GROUP BY
func (s *DB) Having(query interface{}, values ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Having(query, values...).db
}
// Joins specify Joins conditions
// db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Find(&user)
func (s *DB) Joins(query string, args ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Joins(query, args...).db
}
// Scopes pass current database connection to arguments `func(*DB) *DB`, which could be used to add conditions dynamically
// func AmountGreaterThan1000(db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
// return db.Where("amount > ?", 1000)
// }
//
// func OrderStatus(status []string) func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
// return func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
// return db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000).Where("status in (?)", status)
// }
// }
//
// db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000, OrderStatus([]string{"paid", "shipped"})).Find(&orders)
// Refer https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#scopes
func (s *DB) Scopes(funcs ...func(*DB) *DB) *DB {
for _, f := range funcs {
s = f(s)
}
return s
}
// Unscoped return all record including deleted record, refer Soft Delete https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#soft-delete
func (s *DB) Unscoped() *DB {
return s.clone().search.unscoped().db
}
// Attrs initialize struct with argument if record not found with `FirstOrInit` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit or `FirstOrCreate` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate
func (s *DB) Attrs(attrs ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Attrs(attrs...).db
}
// Assign assign result with argument regardless it is found or not with `FirstOrInit` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit or `FirstOrCreate` https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate
func (s *DB) Assign(attrs ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Assign(attrs...).db
}
// First find first record that match given conditions, order by primary key
func (s *DB) First(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
newScope := s.NewScope(out)
newScope.Search.Limit(1)
return newScope.Set("gorm:order_by_primary_key", "ASC").
inlineCondition(where...).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.queries).db
}
// Take return a record that match given conditions, the order will depend on the database implementation
func (s *DB) Take(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
newScope := s.NewScope(out)
newScope.Search.Limit(1)
return newScope.inlineCondition(where...).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.queries).db
}
// Last find last record that match given conditions, order by primary key
func (s *DB) Last(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
newScope := s.NewScope(out)
newScope.Search.Limit(1)
return newScope.Set("gorm:order_by_primary_key", "DESC").
inlineCondition(where...).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.queries).db
}
// Find find records that match given conditions
func (s *DB) Find(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(out).inlineCondition(where...).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.queries).db
}
// Scan scan value to a struct
func (s *DB) Scan(dest interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).Set("gorm:query_destination", dest).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.queries).db
}
// Row return `*sql.Row` with given conditions
func (s *DB) Row() *sql.Row {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).row()
}
// Rows return `*sql.Rows` with given conditions
func (s *DB) Rows() (*sql.Rows, error) {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).rows()
}
// ScanRows scan `*sql.Rows` to give struct
func (s *DB) ScanRows(rows *sql.Rows, result interface{}) error {
var (
scope = s.NewScope(result)
clone = scope.db
columns, err = rows.Columns()
)
if clone.AddError(err) == nil {
scope.scan(rows, columns, scope.Fields())
}
return clone.Error
}
// Pluck used to query single column from a model as a map
// var ages []int64
// db.Find(&users).Pluck("age", &ages)
func (s *DB) Pluck(column string, value interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).pluck(column, value).db
}
// Count get how many records for a model
func (s *DB) Count(value interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).count(value).db
}
// Related get related associations
func (s *DB) Related(value interface{}, foreignKeys ...string) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).related(value, foreignKeys...).db
}
// FirstOrInit find first matched record or initialize a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions)
// https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorinit
func (s *DB) FirstOrInit(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
c := s.clone()
if result := c.First(out, where...); result.Error != nil {
if !result.RecordNotFound() {
return result
}
c.NewScope(out).inlineCondition(where...).initialize()
} else {
c.NewScope(out).updatedAttrsWithValues(c.search.assignAttrs)
}
return c
}
// FirstOrCreate find first matched record or create a new one with given conditions (only works with struct, map conditions)
// https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#firstorcreate
func (s *DB) FirstOrCreate(out interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
c := s.clone()
if result := s.First(out, where...); result.Error != nil {
if !result.RecordNotFound() {
return result
}
return c.NewScope(out).inlineCondition(where...).initialize().callCallbacks(c.parent.callbacks.creates).db
} else if len(c.search.assignAttrs) > 0 {
return c.NewScope(out).InstanceSet("gorm:update_interface", c.search.assignAttrs).callCallbacks(c.parent.callbacks.updates).db
}
return c
}
// Update update attributes with callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update
func (s *DB) Update(attrs ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.Updates(toSearchableMap(attrs...), true)
}
// Updates update attributes with callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update
func (s *DB) Updates(values interface{}, ignoreProtectedAttrs ...bool) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).
Set("gorm:ignore_protected_attrs", len(ignoreProtectedAttrs) > 0).
InstanceSet("gorm:update_interface", values).
callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.updates).db
}
// UpdateColumn update attributes without callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update
func (s *DB) UpdateColumn(attrs ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.UpdateColumns(toSearchableMap(attrs...))
}
// UpdateColumns update attributes without callbacks, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/crud.html#update
func (s *DB) UpdateColumns(values interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(s.Value).
Set("gorm:update_column", true).
Set("gorm:save_associations", false).
InstanceSet("gorm:update_interface", values).
callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.updates).db
}
// Save update value in database, if the value doesn't have primary key, will insert it
func (s *DB) Save(value interface{}) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(value)
if !scope.PrimaryKeyZero() {
newDB := scope.callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.updates).db
if newDB.Error == nil && newDB.RowsAffected == 0 {
return s.New().FirstOrCreate(value)
}
return newDB
}
return scope.callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.creates).db
}
// Create insert the value into database
func (s *DB) Create(value interface{}) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(value)
return scope.callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.creates).db
}
// Delete delete value match given conditions, if the value has primary key, then will including the primary key as condition
func (s *DB) Delete(value interface{}, where ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.NewScope(value).inlineCondition(where...).callCallbacks(s.parent.callbacks.deletes).db
}
// Raw use raw sql as conditions, won't run it unless invoked by other methods
// db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", 3).Scan(&result)
func (s *DB) Raw(sql string, values ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Raw(true).Where(sql, values...).db
}
// Exec execute raw sql
func (s *DB) Exec(sql string, values ...interface{}) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(nil)
generatedSQL := scope.buildCondition(map[string]interface{}{"query": sql, "args": values}, true)
generatedSQL = strings.TrimSuffix(strings.TrimPrefix(generatedSQL, "("), ")")
scope.Raw(generatedSQL)
return scope.Exec().db
}
// Model specify the model you would like to run db operations
// // update all users's name to `hello`
// db.Model(&User{}).Update("name", "hello")
// // if user's primary key is non-blank, will use it as condition, then will only update the user's name to `hello`
// db.Model(&user).Update("name", "hello")
func (s *DB) Model(value interface{}) *DB {
c := s.clone()
c.Value = value
return c
}
// Table specify the table you would like to run db operations
func (s *DB) Table(name string) *DB {
clone := s.clone()
clone.search.Table(name)
clone.Value = nil
return clone
}
// Debug start debug mode
func (s *DB) Debug() *DB {
return s.clone().LogMode(true)
}
// Begin begin a transaction
func (s *DB) Begin() *DB {
c := s.clone()
if db, ok := c.db.(sqlDb); ok && db != nil {
tx, err := db.Begin()
c.db = interface{}(tx).(SQLCommon)
c.AddError(err)
} else {
c.AddError(ErrCantStartTransaction)
}
return c
}
// Commit commit a transaction
func (s *DB) Commit() *DB {
var emptySQLTx *sql.Tx
if db, ok := s.db.(sqlTx); ok && db != nil && db != emptySQLTx {
s.AddError(db.Commit())
} else {
s.AddError(ErrInvalidTransaction)
}
return s
}
// Rollback rollback a transaction
func (s *DB) Rollback() *DB {
var emptySQLTx *sql.Tx
if db, ok := s.db.(sqlTx); ok && db != nil && db != emptySQLTx {
s.AddError(db.Rollback())
} else {
s.AddError(ErrInvalidTransaction)
}
return s
}
// NewRecord check if value's primary key is blank
func (s *DB) NewRecord(value interface{}) bool {
return s.NewScope(value).PrimaryKeyZero()
}
// RecordNotFound check if returning ErrRecordNotFound error
func (s *DB) RecordNotFound() bool {
for _, err := range s.GetErrors() {
if err == ErrRecordNotFound {
return true
}
}
return false
}
// CreateTable create table for models
func (s *DB) CreateTable(models ...interface{}) *DB {
db := s.Unscoped()
for _, model := range models {
db = db.NewScope(model).createTable().db
}
return db
}
// DropTable drop table for models
func (s *DB) DropTable(values ...interface{}) *DB {
db := s.clone()
for _, value := range values {
if tableName, ok := value.(string); ok {
db = db.Table(tableName)
}
db = db.NewScope(value).dropTable().db
}
return db
}
// DropTableIfExists drop table if it is exist
func (s *DB) DropTableIfExists(values ...interface{}) *DB {
db := s.clone()
for _, value := range values {
if s.HasTable(value) {
db.AddError(s.DropTable(value).Error)
}
}
return db
}
// HasTable check has table or not
func (s *DB) HasTable(value interface{}) bool {
var (
scope = s.NewScope(value)
tableName string
)
if name, ok := value.(string); ok {
tableName = name
} else {
tableName = scope.TableName()
}
has := scope.Dialect().HasTable(tableName)
s.AddError(scope.db.Error)
return has
}
// AutoMigrate run auto migration for given models, will only add missing fields, won't delete/change current data
func (s *DB) AutoMigrate(values ...interface{}) *DB {
db := s.Unscoped()
for _, value := range values {
db = db.NewScope(value).autoMigrate().db
}
return db
}
// ModifyColumn modify column to type
func (s *DB) ModifyColumn(column string, typ string) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.modifyColumn(column, typ)
return scope.db
}
// DropColumn drop a column
func (s *DB) DropColumn(column string) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.dropColumn(column)
return scope.db
}
// AddIndex add index for columns with given name
func (s *DB) AddIndex(indexName string, columns ...string) *DB {
scope := s.Unscoped().NewScope(s.Value)
scope.addIndex(false, indexName, columns...)
return scope.db
}
// AddUniqueIndex add unique index for columns with given name
func (s *DB) AddUniqueIndex(indexName string, columns ...string) *DB {
scope := s.Unscoped().NewScope(s.Value)
scope.addIndex(true, indexName, columns...)
return scope.db
}
// RemoveIndex remove index with name
func (s *DB) RemoveIndex(indexName string) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.removeIndex(indexName)
return scope.db
}
// AddForeignKey Add foreign key to the given scope, e.g:
// db.Model(&User{}).AddForeignKey("city_id", "cities(id)", "RESTRICT", "RESTRICT")
func (s *DB) AddForeignKey(field string, dest string, onDelete string, onUpdate string) *DB {
scope := s.NewScope(s.Value)
scope.addForeignKey(field, dest, onDelete, onUpdate)
return scope.db
}
// RemoveForeignKey Remove foreign key from the given scope, e.g:
// db.Model(&User{}).RemoveForeignKey("city_id", "cities(id)")
func (s *DB) RemoveForeignKey(field string, dest string) *DB {
scope := s.clone().NewScope(s.Value)
scope.removeForeignKey(field, dest)
return scope.db
}
// Association start `Association Mode` to handler relations things easir in that mode, refer: https://jinzhu.github.io/gorm/associations.html#association-mode
func (s *DB) Association(column string) *Association {
var err error
var scope = s.Set("gorm:association:source", s.Value).NewScope(s.Value)
if primaryField := scope.PrimaryField(); primaryField.IsBlank {
err = errors.New("primary key can't be nil")
} else {
if field, ok := scope.FieldByName(column); ok {
if field.Relationship == nil || len(field.Relationship.ForeignFieldNames) == 0 {
err = fmt.Errorf("invalid association %v for %v", column, scope.IndirectValue().Type())
} else {
return &Association{scope: scope, column: column, field: field}
}
} else {
err = fmt.Errorf("%v doesn't have column %v", scope.IndirectValue().Type(), column)
}
}
return &Association{Error: err}
}
// Preload preload associations with given conditions
// db.Preload("Orders", "state NOT IN (?)", "cancelled").Find(&users)
func (s *DB) Preload(column string, conditions ...interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().search.Preload(column, conditions...).db
}
// Set set setting by name, which could be used in callbacks, will clone a new db, and update its setting
func (s *DB) Set(name string, value interface{}) *DB {
return s.clone().InstantSet(name, value)
}
// InstantSet instant set setting, will affect current db
func (s *DB) InstantSet(name string, value interface{}) *DB {
s.values[name] = value
return s
}
// Get get setting by name
func (s *DB) Get(name string) (value interface{}, ok bool) {
value, ok = s.values[name]
return
}
// SetJoinTableHandler set a model's join table handler for a relation
func (s *DB) SetJoinTableHandler(source interface{}, column string, handler JoinTableHandlerInterface) {
scope := s.NewScope(source)
for _, field := range scope.GetModelStruct().StructFields {
if field.Name == column || field.DBName == column {
if many2many := field.TagSettings["MANY2MANY"]; many2many != "" {
source := (&Scope{Value: source}).GetModelStruct().ModelType
destination := (&Scope{Value: reflect.New(field.Struct.Type).Interface()}).GetModelStruct().ModelType
handler.Setup(field.Relationship, many2many, source, destination)
field.Relationship.JoinTableHandler = handler
if table := handler.Table(s); scope.Dialect().HasTable(table) {
s.Table(table).AutoMigrate(handler)
}
}
}
}
}
// AddError add error to the db
func (s *DB) AddError(err error) error {
if err != nil {
if err != ErrRecordNotFound {
if s.logMode == 0 {
go s.print(fileWithLineNum(), err)
} else {
s.log(err)
}
errors := Errors(s.GetErrors())
errors = errors.Add(err)
if len(errors) > 1 {
err = errors
}
}
s.Error = err
}
return err
}
// GetErrors get happened errors from the db
func (s *DB) GetErrors() []error {
if errs, ok := s.Error.(Errors); ok {
return errs
} else if s.Error != nil {
return []error{s.Error}
}
return []error{}
}
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
// Private Methods For DB
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
func (s *DB) clone() *DB {
db := &DB{
db: s.db,
parent: s.parent,
logger: s.logger,
logMode: s.logMode,
values: map[string]interface{}{},
Value: s.Value,
Error: s.Error,
blockGlobalUpdate: s.blockGlobalUpdate,
}
for key, value := range s.values {
db.values[key] = value
}
if s.search == nil {
db.search = &search{limit: -1, offset: -1}
} else {
db.search = s.search.clone()
}
db.search.db = db
return db
}
func (s *DB) print(v ...interface{}) {
s.logger.Print(v...)
}
func (s *DB) log(v ...interface{}) {
if s != nil && s.logMode == 2 {
s.print(append([]interface{}{"log", fileWithLineNum()}, v...)...)
}
}
func (s *DB) slog(sql string, t time.Time, vars ...interface{}) {
if s.logMode == 2 {
s.print("sql", fileWithLineNum(), NowFunc().Sub(t), sql, vars, s.RowsAffected)
}
}