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"""Parsing and processing of CLI input (args, auth credentials, files, stdin).
"""
import os
import ssl
import sys
import re
import errno
import mimetypes
import getpass
from io import BytesIO
from collections import namedtuple, Iterable
# noinspection PyCompatibility
from argparse import ArgumentParser, ArgumentTypeError, ArgumentError
# TODO: Use MultiDict for headers once added to `requests`.
# https://github.com/jkbrzt/httpie/issues/130
from requests.structures import CaseInsensitiveDict
from httpie.compat import OrderedDict, urlsplit, str, is_pypy, is_py27
from httpie.sessions import VALID_SESSION_NAME_PATTERN
from httpie.utils import load_json_preserve_order
# ALPHA *( ALPHA / DIGIT / "+" / "-" / "." )
# <http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-3.1>
URL_SCHEME_RE = re.compile(r'^[a-z][a-z0-9.+-]*://', re.IGNORECASE)
HTTP_POST = 'POST'
HTTP_GET = 'GET'
# Various separators used in args
SEP_HEADERS = ':'
SEP_HEADERS_EMPTY = ';'
SEP_CREDENTIALS = ':'
SEP_PROXY = ':'
SEP_DATA = '='
SEP_DATA_RAW_JSON = ':='
SEP_FILES = '@'
SEP_DATA_EMBED_FILE = '=@'
SEP_DATA_EMBED_RAW_JSON_FILE = ':=@'
SEP_QUERY = '=='
# Separators that become request data
SEP_GROUP_DATA_ITEMS = frozenset([
SEP_DATA,
SEP_DATA_RAW_JSON,
SEP_FILES,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_FILE,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_RAW_JSON_FILE
])
# Separators for items whose value is a filename to be embedded
SEP_GROUP_DATA_EMBED_ITEMS = frozenset([
SEP_DATA_EMBED_FILE,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_RAW_JSON_FILE,
])
# Separators for raw JSON items
SEP_GROUP_RAW_JSON_ITEMS = frozenset([
SEP_DATA_RAW_JSON,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_RAW_JSON_FILE,
])
# Separators allowed in ITEM arguments
SEP_GROUP_ALL_ITEMS = frozenset([
SEP_HEADERS,
SEP_HEADERS_EMPTY,
SEP_QUERY,
SEP_DATA,
SEP_DATA_RAW_JSON,
SEP_FILES,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_FILE,
SEP_DATA_EMBED_RAW_JSON_FILE,
])
# Output options
OUT_REQ_HEAD = 'H'
OUT_REQ_BODY = 'B'
OUT_RESP_HEAD = 'h'
OUT_RESP_BODY = 'b'
OUTPUT_OPTIONS = frozenset([
OUT_REQ_HEAD,
OUT_REQ_BODY,
OUT_RESP_HEAD,
OUT_RESP_BODY
])
# Pretty
PRETTY_MAP = {
'all': ['format', 'colors'],
'colors': ['colors'],
'format': ['format'],
'none': []
}
PRETTY_STDOUT_TTY_ONLY = object()
# Defaults
OUTPUT_OPTIONS_DEFAULT = OUT_RESP_HEAD + OUT_RESP_BODY
OUTPUT_OPTIONS_DEFAULT_STDOUT_REDIRECTED = OUT_RESP_BODY
SSL_VERSION_ARG_MAPPING = {
'ssl2.3': 'PROTOCOL_SSLv23',
'ssl3': 'PROTOCOL_SSLv3',
'tls1': 'PROTOCOL_TLSv1',
'tls1.1': 'PROTOCOL_TLSv1_1',
'tls1.2': 'PROTOCOL_TLSv1_2',
}
SSL_VERSION_ARG_MAPPING = dict(
(cli_arg, getattr(ssl, ssl_constant))
for cli_arg, ssl_constant in SSL_VERSION_ARG_MAPPING.items()
if hasattr(ssl, ssl_constant)
)
class HTTPieArgumentParser(ArgumentParser):
"""Adds additional logic to `argparse.ArgumentParser`.
Handles all input (CLI args, file args, stdin), applies defaults,
and performs extra validation.
"""
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
kwargs['add_help'] = False
super(HTTPieArgumentParser, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
# noinspection PyMethodOverriding
def parse_args(self, env, args=None, namespace=None):
self.env = env
self.args, no_options = super(HTTPieArgumentParser, self)\
.parse_known_args(args, namespace)
if self.args.debug:
self.args.traceback = True
# Arguments processing and environment setup.
self._apply_no_options(no_options)
self._validate_download_options()
self._setup_standard_streams()
self._process_output_options()
self._process_pretty_options()
self._guess_method()
self._parse_items()
if not self.args.ignore_stdin and not env.stdin_isatty:
self._body_from_file(self.env.stdin)
if not URL_SCHEME_RE.match(self.args.url):
scheme = self.args.default_scheme + "://"
# See if we're using curl style shorthand for localhost (:3000/foo)
shorthand = re.match(r'^:(?!:)(\d*)(/?.*)$', self.args.url)
if shorthand:
port = shorthand.group(1)
rest = shorthand.group(2)
self.args.url = scheme + 'localhost'
if port:
self.args.url += ':' + port
self.args.url += rest
else:
self.args.url = scheme + self.args.url
self._process_auth()
return self.args
# noinspection PyShadowingBuiltins
def _print_message(self, message, file=None):
# Sneak in our stderr/stdout.
file = {
sys.stdout: self.env.stdout,
sys.stderr: self.env.stderr,
None: self.env.stderr
}.get(file, file)
if not hasattr(file, 'buffer') and isinstance(message, str):
message = message.encode(self.env.stdout_encoding)
super(HTTPieArgumentParser, self)._print_message(message, file)
def _setup_standard_streams(self):
"""
Modify `env.stdout` and `env.stdout_isatty` based on args, if needed.
"""
self.args.output_file_specified = bool(self.args.output_file)
if self.args.download:
# FIXME: Come up with a cleaner solution.
if not self.args.output_file and not self.env.stdout_isatty:
# Use stdout as the download output file.
self.args.output_file = self.env.stdout
# With `--download`, we write everything that would normally go to
# `stdout` to `stderr` instead. Let's replace the stream so that
# we don't have to use many `if`s throughout the codebase.
# The response body will be treated separately.
self.env.stdout = self.env.stderr
self.env.stdout_isatty = self.env.stderr_isatty
elif self.args.output_file:
# When not `--download`ing, then `--output` simply replaces
# `stdout`. The file is opened for appending, which isn't what
# we want in this case.
self.args.output_file.seek(0)
try:
self.args.output_file.truncate()
except IOError as e:
if e.errno == errno.EINVAL:
# E.g. /dev/null on Linux.
pass
else:
raise
self.env.stdout = self.args.output_file
self.env.stdout_isatty = False
def _process_auth(self):
"""
If only a username provided via --auth, then ask for a password.
Or, take credentials from the URL, if provided.
"""
url = urlsplit(self.args.url)
if self.args.auth:
if not self.args.auth.has_password():
# Stdin already read (if not a tty) so it's save to prompt.
if self.args.ignore_stdin:
self.error('Unable to prompt for passwords because'
' --ignore-stdin is set.')
self.args.auth.prompt_password(url.netloc)
elif url.username is not None:
# Handle http://username:password@hostname/
username = url.username
password = url.password or ''
self.args.auth = AuthCredentials(
key=username,
value=password,
sep=SEP_CREDENTIALS,
orig=SEP_CREDENTIALS.join([username, password])
)
def _apply_no_options(self, no_options):
"""For every `--no-OPTION` in `no_options`, set `args.OPTION` to
its default value. This allows for un-setting of options, e.g.,
specified in config.
"""
invalid = []
for option in no_options:
if not option.startswith('--no-'):
invalid.append(option)
continue
# --no-option => --option
inverted = '--' + option[5:]
for action in self._actions:
if inverted in action.option_strings:
setattr(self.args, action.dest, action.default)
break
else:
invalid.append(option)
if invalid:
msg = 'unrecognized arguments: %s'
self.error(msg % ' '.join(invalid))
def _body_from_file(self, fd):
"""There can only be one source of request data.
Bytes are always read.
"""
if self.args.data:
self.error('Request body (from stdin or a file) and request '
'data (key=value) cannot be mixed.')
self.args.data = getattr(fd, 'buffer', fd).read()
def _guess_method(self):
"""Set `args.method` if not specified to either POST or GET
based on whether the request has data or not.
"""
if self.args.method is None:
# Invoked as `http URL'.
assert not self.args.items
if not self.args.ignore_stdin and not self.env.stdin_isatty:
self.args.method = HTTP_POST
else:
self.args.method = HTTP_GET
# FIXME: False positive, e.g., "localhost" matches but is a valid URL.
elif not re.match('^[a-zA-Z]+$', self.args.method):
# Invoked as `http URL item+'. The URL is now in `args.method`
# and the first ITEM is now incorrectly in `args.url`.
try:
# Parse the URL as an ITEM and store it as the first ITEM arg.
self.args.items.insert(0, KeyValueArgType(
*SEP_GROUP_ALL_ITEMS).__call__(self.args.url))
except ArgumentTypeError as e:
if self.args.traceback:
raise
self.error(e.args[0])
else:
# Set the URL correctly
self.args.url = self.args.method
# Infer the method
has_data = (
(not self.args.ignore_stdin and
not self.env.stdin_isatty) or
any(item.sep in SEP_GROUP_DATA_ITEMS
for item in self.args.items)
)
self.args.method = HTTP_POST if has_data else HTTP_GET
def _parse_items(self):
"""Parse `args.items` into `args.headers`, `args.data`, `args.params`,
and `args.files`.
"""
try:
items = parse_items(
items=self.args.items,
data_class=ParamsDict if self.args.form else OrderedDict
)
except ParseError as e:
if self.args.traceback:
raise
self.error(e.args[0])
else:
self.args.headers = items.headers
self.args.data = items.data
self.args.files = items.files
self.args.params = items.params
if self.args.files and not self.args.form:
# `http url @/path/to/file`
file_fields = list(self.args.files.keys())
if file_fields != ['']:
self.error(
'Invalid file fields (perhaps you meant --form?): %s'
% ','.join(file_fields))
fn, fd, ct = self.args.files['']
self.args.files = {}
self._body_from_file(fd)
if 'Content-Type' not in self.args.headers:
content_type = get_content_type(fn)
if content_type:
self.args.headers['Content-Type'] = content_type
def _process_output_options(self):
"""Apply defaults to output options, or validate the provided ones.
The default output options are stdout-type-sensitive.
"""
def check_options(value, option):
unknown = set(value) - OUTPUT_OPTIONS
if unknown:
self.error('Unknown output options: {0}={1}'.format(
option,
','.join(unknown)
))
if self.args.verbose:
self.args.all = True
if self.args.output_options is None:
if self.args.verbose:
self.args.output_options = ''.join(OUTPUT_OPTIONS)
else:
self.args.output_options = (
OUTPUT_OPTIONS_DEFAULT
if self.env.stdout_isatty
else OUTPUT_OPTIONS_DEFAULT_STDOUT_REDIRECTED
)
if self.args.output_options_history is None:
self.args.output_options_history = self.args.output_options
check_options(self.args.output_options, '--print')
check_options(self.args.output_options_history, '--history-print')
if self.args.download and OUT_RESP_BODY in self.args.output_options:
# Response body is always downloaded with --download and it goes
# through a different routine, so we remove it.
self.args.output_options = str(
set(self.args.output_options) - set(OUT_RESP_BODY))
def _process_pretty_options(self):
if self.args.prettify == PRETTY_STDOUT_TTY_ONLY:
self.args.prettify = PRETTY_MAP[
'all' if self.env.stdout_isatty else 'none']
elif (self.args.prettify and self.env.is_windows and
self.args.output_file):
self.error('Only terminal output can be colorized on Windows.')
else:
# noinspection PyTypeChecker
self.args.prettify = PRETTY_MAP[self.args.prettify]
def _validate_download_options(self):
if not self.args.download:
if self.args.download_resume:
self.error('--continue only works with --download')
if self.args.download_resume and not (
self.args.download and self.args.output_file):
self.error('--continue requires --output to be specified')
class ParseError(Exception):
pass
class KeyValue(object):
"""Base key-value pair parsed from CLI."""
def __init__(self, key, value, sep, orig):
self.key = key
self.value = value
self.sep = sep
self.orig = orig
def __eq__(self, other):
return self.__dict__ == other.__dict__
def __repr__(self):
return repr(self.__dict__)
class SessionNameValidator(object):
def __init__(self, error_message):
self.error_message = error_message
def __call__(self, value):
# Session name can be a path or just a name.
if (os.path.sep not in value and
not VALID_SESSION_NAME_PATTERN.search(value)):
raise ArgumentError(None, self.error_message)
return value
class KeyValueArgType(object):
"""A key-value pair argument type used with `argparse`.
Parses a key-value arg and constructs a `KeyValue` instance.
Used for headers, form data, and other key-value pair types.
"""
key_value_class = KeyValue
def __init__(self, *separators):
self.separators = separators
self.special_characters = set('\\')
for separator in separators:
self.special_characters.update(separator)
def __call__(self, string):
"""Parse `string` and return `self.key_value_class()` instance.
The best of `self.separators` is determined (first found, longest).
Back slash escaped characters aren't considered as separators
(or parts thereof). Literal back slash characters have to be escaped
as well (r'\\').
"""
class Escaped(str):
"""Represents an escaped character."""
def tokenize(string):
"""Tokenize `string`. There are only two token types - strings
and escaped characters:
tokenize(r'foo\=bar\\baz')
=> ['foo', Escaped('='), 'bar', Escaped('\\'), 'baz']
"""
tokens = ['']
characters = iter(string)
for char in characters:
if char == '\\':
char = next(characters, '')
if char not in self.special_characters:
tokens[-1] += '\\' + char
else:
tokens.extend([Escaped(char), ''])
else:
tokens[-1] += char
return tokens
tokens = tokenize(string)
# Sorting by length ensures that the longest one will be
# chosen as it will overwrite any shorter ones starting
# at the same position in the `found` dictionary.
separators = sorted(self.separators, key=len)
for i, token in enumerate(tokens):
if isinstance(token, Escaped):
continue
found = {}
for sep in separators:
pos = token.find(sep)
if pos != -1:
found[pos] = sep
if found:
# Starting first, longest separator found.
sep = found[min(found.keys())]
key, value = token.split(sep, 1)
# Any preceding tokens are part of the key.
key = ''.join(tokens[:i]) + key
# Any following tokens are part of the value.
value += ''.join(tokens[i + 1:])
break
else:
raise ArgumentTypeError(
u'"%s" is not a valid value' % string)
return self.key_value_class(
key=key, value=value, sep=sep, orig=string)
class AuthCredentials(KeyValue):
"""Represents parsed credentials."""
def _getpass(self, prompt):
# To allow mocking.
return getpass.getpass(str(prompt))
def has_password(self):
return self.value is not None
def prompt_password(self, host):
try:
self.value = self._getpass(
'http: password for %s@%s: ' % (self.key, host))
except (EOFError, KeyboardInterrupt):
sys.stderr.write('\n')
sys.exit(0)
class AuthCredentialsArgType(KeyValueArgType):
"""A key-value arg type that parses credentials."""
key_value_class = AuthCredentials
def __call__(self, string):
"""Parse credentials from `string`.
("username" or "username:password").
"""
try:
return super(AuthCredentialsArgType, self).__call__(string)
except ArgumentTypeError:
# No password provided, will prompt for it later.
return self.key_value_class(
key=string,
value=None,
sep=SEP_CREDENTIALS,
orig=string
)
class RequestItemsDict(OrderedDict):
"""Multi-value dict for URL parameters and form data."""
if is_pypy and is_py27:
# Manually set keys when initialized with an iterable as PyPy
# doesn't call __setitem__ in such case (pypy3 does).
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], Iterable):
super(RequestItemsDict, self).__init__(**kwargs)
for k, v in args[0]:
self[k] = v
else:
super(RequestItemsDict, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
# noinspection PyMethodOverriding
def __setitem__(self, key, value):
""" If `key` is assigned more than once, `self[key]` holds a
`list` of all the values.
This allows having multiple fields with the same name in form
data and URL params.
"""
assert not isinstance(value, list)
if key not in self:
super(RequestItemsDict, self).__setitem__(key, value)
else:
if not isinstance(self[key], list):
super(RequestItemsDict, self).__setitem__(key, [self[key]])
self[key].append(value)
class ParamsDict(RequestItemsDict):
pass
class DataDict(RequestItemsDict):
def items(self):
for key, values in super(RequestItemsDict, self).items():
if not isinstance(values, list):
values = [values]
for value in values:
yield key, value
RequestItems = namedtuple('RequestItems',
['headers', 'data', 'files', 'params'])
def get_content_type(filename):
"""
Return the content type for ``filename`` in format appropriate
for Content-Type headers, or ``None`` if the file type is unknown
to ``mimetypes``.
"""
mime, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename, strict=False)
if mime:
content_type = mime
if encoding:
content_type = '%s; charset=%s' % (mime, encoding)
return content_type
def parse_items(items,
headers_class=CaseInsensitiveDict,
data_class=OrderedDict,
files_class=DataDict,
params_class=ParamsDict):
"""Parse `KeyValue` `items` into `data`, `headers`, `files`,
and `params`.
"""
headers = []
data = []
files = []
params = []
for item in items:
value = item.value
if item.sep == SEP_HEADERS:
if value == '':
# No value => unset the header
value = None
target = headers
elif item.sep == SEP_HEADERS_EMPTY:
if item.value:
raise ParseError(
'Invalid item "%s" '
'(to specify an empty header use `Header;`)'
% item.orig
)
target = headers
elif item.sep == SEP_QUERY:
target = params
elif item.sep == SEP_FILES:
try:
with open(os.path.expanduser(value), 'rb') as f:
value = (os.path.basename(value),
BytesIO(f.read()),
get_content_type(value))
except IOError as e:
raise ParseError('"%s": %s' % (item.orig, e))
target = files
elif item.sep in SEP_GROUP_DATA_ITEMS:
if item.sep in SEP_GROUP_DATA_EMBED_ITEMS:
try:
with open(os.path.expanduser(value), 'rb') as f:
value = f.read().decode('utf8')
except IOError as e:
raise ParseError('"%s": %s' % (item.orig, e))
except UnicodeDecodeError:
raise ParseError(
'"%s": cannot embed the content of "%s",'
' not a UTF8 or ASCII-encoded text file'
% (item.orig, item.value)
)
if item.sep in SEP_GROUP_RAW_JSON_ITEMS:
try:
value = load_json_preserve_order(value)
except ValueError as e:
raise ParseError('"%s": %s' % (item.orig, e))
target = data
else:
raise TypeError(item)
target.append((item.key, value))
return RequestItems(headers_class(headers),
data_class(data),
files_class(files),
params_class(params))
def readable_file_arg(filename):
try:
open(filename, 'rb')
except IOError as ex:
raise ArgumentTypeError('%s: %s' % (filename, ex.args[1]))
return filename