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README.md

README.md

The W3C WebDriver Spec: A Simplified Guide

This document is essentially a cheat sheet for the official WebDriver spec (which has in-progress drafts available on GitHub). The official spec is designed for implementers to have very detailed information about processing algorithms and so on. Much of the information in the spec is not targeted towards those who are simply writing client libraries, or even users who want a closer look at the API. It also uses language which is so exact it can sometimes obfuscate an intuitive understanding of a section.

The approach used here is to simply look at the supported endpoints along with their inputs and outputs, without worrying too much how the implementation is supposed to work. This should be beneficial to client library implementers as well as remote end implementers looking for some quick highlights. And in most cases there are examples to illustrate

DISCLAIMER: This is not the official spec. It is my interpretation of it and an attempt to present the most salient bits of it in a more digestible fashion. You should always consult the official spec before beginning work on a client or server implementation!

Introduction

What is WebDriver? From the spec:

WebDriver is a remote control interface that enables introspection and control of user agents. It provides a platform- and language-neutral wire protocol as a way for out-of-process programs to remotely instruct the behavior of web browsers.

Essentially, it's a client-server protocol that allows you to automate web browsers. Clients send well-formed requests, the server interprets them according to the protocol, and then performs the automation behaviors as defined by the implementation steps in the spec. The most common use of this technology is for automated testing.

The WebDriver spec grew out of the Selenium project, and that is still the community of users pushing forward the associated browser automation technology and using it every day to write and run automated tests. Browser vendors now also support the WebDriver spec natively.

WebDriver has gone beyond the web, with implementations for mobile and desktop app automation. The Appium project is a set of WebDriver-compliant servers that allow automation of these non-web-browser platforms.

Basic Architecture

Automation is organized around WebDriver sessions, whose state is maintained across requests via a 'session id' token shared by the server and client. Creating a new session involves sending parameters in the form of capabilities, which tell the server what you want to automate and under what conditions. The server prepares the appropriate browser with any modifications as specified in the capabilities, and the session is then underway. Automation commands and responses are sent back and forth (keyed on the session id), until the client sends a request to delete the session, at which point the browser and other resources are quit or cleaned up, and the session id is discarded.

Requests and Responses

Overview

When the client (called a local end) sends a request to the server (called a remote end), this is known in the spec as a 'command'. Since this is an HTTP protocol, commands have several components:

  • An HTTP verb
  • A path

The remote end at this point looks up the command based on the HTTP verb and path. The spec defines a list of endpoints that map verb + path to a command name. The path portion is actually a list of "URI Templates" that show how path components should be extracted as parameters for the command. For example, in:

/session/{session id}/element

The {session id} bit is saying that this component of the path is a "url variable" called session id whose value will be sent to the command (in this case Find Element). Once a command is matched to the request, other data is potentially parsed from the request body (these are the "parameters"), the command is executed (having been passed any url variables and request parameters), and a response is returned.

Request format and handling

A request from the local end to the remote end is a valid HTTP request, with a verb, path, and potentially a body. As mentioned above, the remote end validates the request and attempts to map it to a command. If the request can't be mapped to a command, an unknown method error is returned (see below for what it means to return an error).

There is one command (New Session) which does not require a session id url variable. Every other command requires this variable, since every other command is executed in the context of an existing session. If we are not requesting a new session, the remote end immediately validates the session id against the list of active sessions. If it's not found, an invalid session id error is returned.

In the case of a POST request, the local end might have sent data in the request body. This data must always be JSON data. The remote end first parses it as JSON (if this fails, an invalid argument error is returned). If the result of the parse is not a JSON object (i.e., if it's a string or array or number or what have you), an invalid argument is likewise returned. Otherwise, the result of parsing is the set of "parameters" which is passed to the command.

(In the case of a POST request without a request body, the "parameters" value is null.)

Response format

When a remote end sends an HTTP response, it first of all uses an appropriate HTTP status code and message (for example, 404 and no such element), based on the command that was attempted and the result. The spec defines status codes and messages for various responses, including success and error conditions (see below).

It then sets the following headers:

  • Content-Type: "application/json; charset=utf-8"
  • Cache-Control: "no-cache"

If any data needs to be returned with the response, it is serialized into a JSON object with the key value, e.g.:

{"value": null}

And this becomes the body of the HTTP response.

Normal responses

When an error has not occurred, the HTTP status is 200, and the response body is the appropriate JSON object with the response data in the value property of the JSON object.

Error handling

When an error occurs, the remote end first of all determines the appropriate error code and corresponding HTTP status code (see below for the full list). For example, if an element could not be found, the error code is no such element and the corresponding HTTP status code is 404. The remote end then constructs a data JSON object with the properties error, message, and stacktrace. Here error is just the JSON code for the error (see table below; usually the same as the error code itself). message is whatever implementation-specific error message is appropriate. And likewise stacktrace is an implementation-specific stacktrace useful to implementation maintainers in diagnosing any issues.

An example error JSON object could look like:

{
  "error": "no such element",
  "message": "My fake implementation couldn't find your element",
  "stacktrace": "Fake:21> Not a real stacktrace"
}

Since this JSON object becomes the data for the response, the full response from the remote end would be an HTTP status code of 404, the headers listed above, and finally the following JSON string as the response body:

{
  "value": {
    "error": "no such element",
    "message": "My fake implementation couldn't find your element",
    "stacktrace": "Fake:21> Not a real stacktrace"
   }
}

Error codes

The following is a list of all the possible errors, their HTTP status codes, and their JSON error codes:

Error code HTTP Status JSON code Description
element click intercepted 400 element click intercepted The Element Click command could not be completed because the element receiving the events is obscuring the element that was requested clicked.
element not selectable 400 element not selectable An attempt was made to select an element that cannot be selected.
element not interactable 400 element not interactable A command could not be completed because the element is not pointer- or keyboard interactable.
insecure certificate 400 insecure certificate caused the user agent to hit a certificate warning, which is usually the result of an expired or invalid TLS certificate.
invalid argument 400 invalid argument The arguments passed to a command are either invalid or malformed.
invalid cookie domain 400 invalid cookie domain An illegal attempt was made to set a cookie under a different domain than the current page.
invalid coordinates 400 invalid coordinates The coordinates provided to an interactions operation are invalid.
invalid element state 400 invalid element state A command could not be completed because the element is in an invalid state, e.g. attempting to click an element that is no longer attached to the document.
invalid selector 400 invalid selector Argument was an invalid selector.
invalid session id 404 invalid session id Occurs if the given session id is not in the list of active sessions, meaning the session either does not exist or that it’s not active.
javascript error 500 javascript error An error occurred while executing JavaScript supplied by the user.
move target out of bounds 500 move target out of bounds The target for mouse interaction is not in the browser’s viewport and cannot be brought into that viewport.
no such alert 400 no such alert An attempt was made to operate on a modal dialog when one was not open.
no such cookie 404 no such cookie No cookie matching the given path name was found amongst the associated cookies of the current browsing context’s active document.
no such element 404 no such element An element could not be located on the page using the given search parameters.
no such frame 400 no such frame A command to switch to a frame could not be satisfied because the frame could not be found.
no such window 400 no such window A command to switch to a window could not be satisfied because the window could not be found.
script timeout 408 script timeout A script did not complete before its timeout expired.
session not created 500 session not created A new session could not be created.
stale element reference 400 stale element reference A command failed because the referenced element is no longer attached to the DOM.
timeout 408 timeout An operation did not complete before its timeout expired.
unable to set cookie 500 unable to set cookie A command to set a cookie’s value could not be satisfied.
unable to capture screen 500 unable to capture screen A screen capture was made impossible.
unexpected alert open 500 unexpected alert open A modal dialog was open, blocking this operation.
unknown command 404 unknown command A command could not be executed because the remote end is not aware of it.
unknown error 500 unknown error An unknown error occurred in the remote end while processing the command.
unknown method 405 unknown method The requested command matched a known URL but did not match an method for that URL.
unsupported operation 500 unsupported operation Indicates that a command that should have executed properly cannot be supported for some reason.

The Endpoints

In this section, we go through each endpoint and examine its inputs and outputs and potential errors. The conventions I use are:

  • "URL variables": variable strings slotted into URI templates

  • "Request parameters": properties of the JSON object in the request body. Could be "None", which means no body

  • "Response value": the value of the value property of the response body, when that is a single, non-object value.

  • "Response properties": properties of a JSON object which is the value of the value property of the response body. For example, in this JSON response body:

    {"value": {"foo": "bar"}}

    I'm calling foo a "response property" with a value of "bar".

  • "Possible errors": errors and codes it's possible for the command to return in case of an error specific to that command. Note that regardless of what's in this list, it's always possible for some errors to occur (e.g., invalid session id or unknown error. As another example, most endpoints attempt to handle user prompts in the course of operation, which might result in unexpected alert open. See Handling User Prompts for more information). A value of "None" here means "no particularly relevant errors", not that it's not possible for an error to occur!

List of all endpoints

Method URI Template Command
POST /session New Session
DELETE /session/{session id} Delete Session
GET /status Status
GET /session/{session id}/timeouts Get Timeouts
POST /session/{session id}/timeouts Set Timeouts
POST /session/{session id}/url Go
GET /session/{session id}/url Get Current URL
POST /session/{session id}/back Back
POST /session/{session id}/forward Forward
POST /session/{session id}/refresh Refresh
GET /session/{session id}/title Get Title
GET /session/{session id}/window Get Window Handle
DELETE /session/{session id}/window Close Window
POST /session/{session id}/window Switch To Window
GET /session/{session id}/window/handles Get Window Handles
POST /session/{session id}/frame Switch To Frame
POST /session/{session id}/frame/parent Switch To Parent Frame
GET /session/{session id}/window/rect Get Window Rect
POST /session/{session id}/window/rect Set Window Rect
POST /session/{session id}/window/maximize Maximize Window
POST /session/{session id}/window/minimize Minimize Window
POST /session/{session id}/window/fullscreen Fullscreen Window
POST /session/{session id}/element Find Element
POST /session/{session id}/elements Find Elements
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/element Find Element From Element
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/elements Find Elements From Element
GET /session/{session id}/element/active Get Active Element
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/selected Is Element Selected
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/attribute/{name} Get Element Attribute
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/property/{name} Get Element Property
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/css/{property name} Get Element CSS Value
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/text Get Element Text
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/name Get Element Tag Name
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/rect Get Element Rect
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/enabled Is Element Enabled
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/click Element Click
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/clear Element Clear
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/value Element Send Keys
GET /session/{session id}/source Get Page Source
POST /session/{session id}/execute/sync Execute Script
POST /session/{session id}/execute/async Execute Async Script
GET /session/{session id}/cookie Get All Cookies
GET /session/{session id}/cookie/{name} Get Named Cookie
POST /session/{session id}/cookie Add Cookie
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie/{name} Delete Cookie
DELETE /session/{session id)/cookie Delete All Cookies
POST /session/{session id}/actions Perform Actions
DELETE /session/{session id}/actions Release Actions
POST /session/{session id}/alert/dismiss Dismiss Alert
POST /session/{session id}/alert/accept Accept Alert
GET /session/{session id}/alert/text Get Alert Text
POST /session/{session id}/alert/text Send Alert Text
GET /session/{session id}/screenshot Take Screenshot
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/screenshot Take Element Screenshot

New Session

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session

Spec description:

The New Session command creates a new WebDriver session with the endpoint node. If the creation fails, a session not created error is returned.

  • URL variables:

    • None
  • Request parameters:

    • capabilities: a JSON object with a special structure that's so complex it deserves its own section. See Capabilities under Other Topics below.

    • Example:

       {"capabilities": {...}}
  • Response properties:

    • sessionId: a string, the UUID reference of the session, to be used in subsequent requests

    • capabilities: a JSON object, the set of capabilities that was ultimately merged and matched in the capability processing algorithm.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "sessionId": "1234567890",
           "capabilities": {...}
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • session not created (500): if the session could not be started for a variety of reasons:
      • maximum session count exceeded
      • capabilities could not be processed
      • any other problem in session creation
    • invalid argument (400): if the capabilities object was malformed in some way (see section on capabilities for examples)

Delete Session

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}

Spec description:

The Delete Session command closes any top-level browsing contexts associated with the current session, terminates the connection, and finally closes the current session.

  • URL variables:
    • session id: the id of a currently active session
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • None

Status

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /status

Spec description:

The Status command returns information about whether a remote end is in a state in which it can create new sessions and can additionally include arbitrary meta information that is specific to the implementation.

  • URL variables:

    • None
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response properties:

    • ready: boolean value; whether the server has the capability to start more sessions

    • message: implementation-specific string describing readiness state

    • arbitrary other properties denoting metadata returned by the remote end

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "ready": true,
           "message": "server ready",
           "uptime": 123457890
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • None

Get Timeouts

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/timeouts

Spec description:

The Get Timeouts command gets timeout durations associated with the current session.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response properties:

    • script: value (in ms) of the session script timeout

      A session has an associated session script timeout that specifies a time to wait for scripts to run. If equal to null then session script timeout will be indefinite. Unless stated otherwise it is 30,000 milliseconds.

    • pageLoad: value (in ms) of the session page load timeout

      A session has an associated session page load timeout that specifies a time to wait for the page loading to complete. Unless stated otherwise it is 300,000 milliseconds.

    • implicit: value (in ms) of the session implicit wait timeout

      A session has an associated session implicit wait timeout that specifies a time to wait in milliseconds for the element location strategy when retreiving elements and when waiting for an element to become interactable when performing element interaction. Unless stated otherwise it is zero milliseconds.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "script": 30000,
           "pageLoad": 300000,
           "implicit": 0
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • None

Set Timeouts

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/timeouts

Spec description:

The Set Timeouts command sets timeout durations associated with the current session. The timeouts that can be controlled are listed in the table of session timeouts below.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters: Send one or more of the following parameters. For definition of what each of these timeouts means, see Get Timeouts above.

    • script: integer in ms for session script timeout

    • pageLoad: integer in ms for session page load timeout

    • implicit: integer in ms for session implicit wait timeout

    • Example:

       {
         "script": 1000,
         "pageLoad": 7000,
         "implicit": 5000
       }
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if a parameter property was not a valid timeout, or was not an integer in the range [0, 264 - 1]

Go

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/url

Spec description:

The Go command is used to cause the user agent to navigate the current top-level browsing context a new location.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • url: string representing an absolute URL (beginning with http(s)), possibly including a fragment (#...). Could also be a local scheme (about: etc).
    • Example:
     {
       "url": "https://jlipps.com"
     }
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if:
      • url parameter is missing
      • url parameter doesn't conform to above spec
    • timeout (408) if url is different from the current URL, and the new page does not load within the page load timeout.

Get Current URL

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/url

Spec description:

The Get Current URL command returns the URL of the current top-level browsing context.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response value:

    • current document URL of the top-level browsing context

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "https://google.com"
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open

Back

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/back

Spec description:

The Back command causes the browser to traverse one step backward in the joint session history of the current top-level browsing context. This is equivalent to pressing the back button in the browser chrome or calling window.history.back.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open
    • timeout (408) if it took longer than the page load timeout for the pageShow event to fire after navigating back

Forward

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/forward

Spec description:

The Forward command causes the browser to traverse one step forwards in the joint session history of the current top-level browsing context.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open
    • timeout (408) if it took longer than the page load timeout for the pageShow event to fire after navigating forward

Refresh

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/refresh

Spec description:

The Refresh command causes the browser to reload the page in in current top-level browsing context.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open
    • timeout (408) if it took longer than the page load timeout for the pageShow event to fire after navigating forward

Get Title

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/title

Spec description:

The Get Title command returns the document title of the current top-level browsing context, equivalent to calling document.title.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response value:

    • a string which is the same as document.title of the current top-level browsing context.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "My web page title"
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open

Get Window Handle

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/window

Spec description:

The Get Window Handle command returns the window handle for the current top-level browsing context. It can be used as an argument to Switch To Window.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response value:

    • a string which is the window handle for the current top-level browsing context

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "window-1234-5678-abcd-efgh"
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is no longer open

Close Window

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/window

Spec link:

The Close Window command closes the current top-level browsing context. Once done, if there are no more top-level browsing contexts open, the WebDriver session itself is closed.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the current top-level browsing context is not open when this command is first called

Switch to Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window

Spec description:

The Switch To Window command is used to select the current top-level browsing context for the current session, i.e. the one that will be used for processing commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • handle: a string representing a window handle. Should be one of the strings that was returned in a call to Get Window Handles.
    • Example:
     {"handle": "asdf-1234-jklo-5678"}
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the window handle string is not recognized
    • unsupported operation (500) if a prompt presents changing focus to the new window

Get Window Handles

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/window/handles

Spec description:

The Get Window Handles command returns a list of window handles for every open top-level browsing context. The order in which the window handles are returned is arbitrary.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • An array which is a list of window handles.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": ["handle1", "handle2", "handle3"]
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • None

Switch To Frame

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/frame

Spec description:

The Switch To Frame command is used to select the current top-level browsing context or a child browsing context of the current browsing context to use as the current browsing context for subsequent commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • id: one of three possible types:

      • null: this represents the top-level browsing context (i.e., not an iframe)
      • a Number, representing the index of the window object corresponding to a frame
      • a string representing an element id. The element must be the frame or iframe to be selected
    • Example:

       {"id": 2}
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • no such frame (400) if a frame could not be found based on the id parameter, or if the element represented by the id parameter is not a frame
    • stale element reference (400) if the element found via the id parameter is stale

Switch To Parent Frame

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/frame/parent

Spec description:

The Switch to Parent Frame command sets the current browsing context for future commands to the parent of the current browsing context.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the current browsing context is no longer open
    • Note that no error is returned if the current browsing context has no parent frame; the current context is simply retained

Get Window Rect

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/window/rect

Spec description:

The Get Window Rect command returns the size and position on the screen of the operating system window corresponding to the current top-level browsing context.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON representation of a "window rect" object. This has 4 properties:

      • x: the screenX attribute of the window object
      • y: the screenY attribute of the window object
      • width: the width of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
      • height: the height of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 0,
           "y": 23,
           "width": 1280,
           "height": 960
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • None

Set Window Rect

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/rect

Spec description:

The Set Window Rect command alters the size and the position of the operating system window corresponding to the current top-level browsing context.

Basically, the command takes a set of JSON parameters corresponding to the window rect object described in the Get Window Rect command. These parameters are optional. If x and y are both present, the window is moved to that location. If width and height are both present, the window (including all external chrome) is resized as close as possible to those dimensions (though not larger than the screen, smaller than the smallest possible window size, etc...).

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • x: optional integer (-263 < i < 263 - 1) (defaults to null)

    • y: optional integer (-263 < i < 263 - 1) (defaults to null)

    • width: optional integer (0 < i 264 - 1) (defaults to null)

    • height: optional integer (0 < i 264 - 1) (defaults to null)

    • Example:

       {"x": 100, "y": 100, "width": 200, "height": 400}
  • Response value:

    • A JSON representation of a "window rect" object based on the new window state:

      • x: the screenX attribute of the window object
      • y: the screenY attribute of the window object
      • width: the width of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
      • height: the height of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 10,
           "y": 80,
           "width": 900,
           "height": 500
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • unsupported operation (500) if the remote end does not support changing window position / dimension
    • invalid argument (400) if the parameters don't conform to the restrictions

Maximize Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/maximize

Spec description:

The Maximize Window command invokes the window manager-specific "maximize" operation, if any, on the window containing the current top-level browsing context. This typically increases the window to the maximum available size without going full-screen.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON representation of a "window rect" object based on the new window state:

      • x: the screenX attribute of the window object
      • y: the screenY attribute of the window object
      • width: the width of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
      • height: the height of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 10,
           "y": 80,
           "width": 900,
           "height": 500
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • unsupported operation (500) if the remote end does not support maximizing windows

Minimize Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/minimize

Spec description:

The Minimize Window command invokes the window manager-specific “minimize” operation, if any, on the window containing the current top-level browsing context. This typically hides the window in the system tray.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON representation of a "window rect" object of the (new) current top-level browsing context:

      • x: the screenX attribute of the window object
      • y: the screenY attribute of the window object
      • width: the width of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
      • height: the height of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 10,
           "y": 80,
           "width": 900,
           "height": 500
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • unsupported operation (500) if the remote end does not support maximizing windows

Fullscreen Window

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/window/fullscreen

Spec description:

The Fullscreen Window command invokes the window manager-specific “full screen” operation, if any, on the window containing the current top-level browsing context. This typically increases the window to the size of the physical display and can hide browser chrome elements such as toolbars.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON representation of a "window rect" object of the browsing context:

      • x: the screenX attribute of the window object
      • y: the screenY attribute of the window object
      • width: the width of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
      • height: the height of the outer dimensions of the top-level browsing context, including browser chrome etc...
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 10,
           "y": 80,
           "width": 900,
           "height": 500
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • unsupported operation (500) if the remote end does not support maximizing windows

Find Element

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element

Spec description:

The Find Element command is used to find an element in the current browsing context that can be used for future commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • using: a valid element location strategy

    • value: the actual selector that will be used to find an element

    • Example:

       {"using": "css selector", "value": "#foo"}
  • Response value:

    • A JSON representation of an element object:

      • element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf: a string UUID representing the found element
    • Note that the property above is not an example, it is literally the sole property of every returned element object

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "1234-5789-0abc-defg"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if the location strategy is invalid or if the selector is undefined
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such element (404) if the element could not be found after the session implicit wait timeout has elapsed

Find Elements

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/elements

Spec description:

The Find Elements command is used to find elements in the current browsing context that can be used for future commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • using: a valid element location strategy

    • value: the actual selector that will be used to find an element

    • Example:

       {"using": "css selector", "value": "#foo"}
  • Response value:

    • A (possibly empty) JSON list of representations of an element object. Each representation is itself a JSON object with the following property:

      • element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf: a string UUID representing the found element
    • Example:

       {
         "value": [
             {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "1234-5789-0abc-defg"},
             {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "5678-1234-defg-0abc"}
         ]
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if the location strategy is invalid or if the selector is undefined
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Find Element From Element

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/element

Spec description:

The Find Element From Element command is used to find an element from a web element in the current browsing context that can be used for future commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s). This is the element which will be taken as the root element for the context of this Find command
  • Request parameters:

    • using: a valid element location strategy

    • value: the actual selector that will be used to find an element

    • Example:

       {"using": "css selector", "value": "#foo"}
  • Response value:

    • A JSON representation of an element object:

      • element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf: a string UUID representing the found element
    • Note that the property above is not an example, it is literally the sole property of every returned element object

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "1234-5789-0abc-defg"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if the location strategy is invalid or if the selector is undefined
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such element (404) if the element could not be found after the session implicit wait timeout has elapsed
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Find Elements From Element

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/elements

Spec description:

The Find Elements From Element command is used to find elements from a web element in the current browsing context that can be used for future commands.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s). This is the element which will be taken as the root element for the context of this Find command
  • Request parameters:

    • using: a valid element location strategy

    • value: the actual selector that will be used to find an element

    • Example:

       {"using": "css selector", "value": "#foo"}
  • Response value:

    • A (possibly empty) JSON list of representations of an element object. Each representation is itself a JSON object with the following property:

      • element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf: a string UUID representing the found element
    • Example:

       {
         "value": [
             {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "1234-5789-0abc-defg"},
             {"element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "5678-1234-defg-0abc"}
         ]
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • invalid argument (400) if the location strategy is invalid or if the selector is undefined
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the root element is stale

Get Active Element

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/active

Spec description:

Get Active Element returns the active element of the current browsing context’s document element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON representation of the active element:

      • element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf: a string UUID representing the found element
    • Note that the property above is not an example, it is literally the sole property of every returned element object

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf": "1234-5789-0abc-defg"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Is Element Selected

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/selected

Spec description:

Is Element Selected determines if the referenced element is selected or not. This operation only makes sense on input elements of the Checkbox- and Radio Button states, or option elements.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • true or false based on the selected state

      • If the element is a checkbox or radio button, this return value will be its "checkedness"
      • If the element is an option element, this return value will be its "selectedness"
    • Example:

       {
         "value": true
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element Attribute

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/attribute/{name}

Spec description:

The Get Element Attribute command will return the attribute of a web element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
    • name: name of the attribute value to retrieve
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The named attribute of the element. There are three possibilities

      • If the element has a named attribute with a value, this is returned
      • If the element has a boolean attribute, the string (not boolean) true is returned
      • If the element does not have the attribute, null is returned
    • Example:

       {
         "value": "checkbox"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element Property

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/property/{name}

Spec description:

The Get Element Property command will return the result of getting a property of an element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
    • name: name of the attribute property to retrieve
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The named property of the element, accessed by calling GetOwnProperty on the element object. If the property is undefined, null is returned.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "foo"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element CSS Value

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/css/{property name}

Spec description:

The Get Element CSS Value command retrieves the computed value of the given CSS property of the given web element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
    • property name: name of the CSS property to retrieve
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The computed value of the parameter corresponding to property name from the element's style declarations (unless the document type is xml, in which case the return value is simply the empty string)

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "15px"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element Text

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/text

Spec description:

The Get Element Text command intends to return an element’s text "as rendered". An element's rendered text is also used for locating a elements by their link text and partial link text.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The visible text of the element (including child elements), following the algorithm defined in the Selenium Atoms for bot.dom.getVisibleText

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "Hello world"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element Tag Name

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/name

Spec description:

The Get Element Tag Name command returns the qualified element name of the given web element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The tagName attribute of the element

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "INPUT"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Get Element Rect

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/rect

Spec description:

The Get Element Rect command returns the dimensions and coordinates of the given web element.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A JSON object representing the position and bounding rect of the element (all in CSS reference pixels):

      • x: the absolute x-coordinate of the element, relative to the document (not the screen)
      • y: the absolute y-coordinate of the element, relative to the document (not the screen)
      • width: the width of the bounding rectangle for the element
      • height: the height of the bounding rectangle for the element
    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "x": 200,
           "y": 300,
           "width": 20,
           "height": 50,
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Is Element Enabled

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/enabled

Spec description:

Is Element Enabled determines if the referenced element is enabled or not. This operation only makes sense on form controls.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • If the element is in an xml document, or is a disabled form control: bolean false

    • Otherwise, boolean true

    • Example:

       {
         "value": true
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale

Element Click

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/click

Spec description:

The Element Click command scrolls into view the element if it is not already pointer-interactable, and clicks its in-view center point. If the element's center point is obscured by another element, an element click intercepted error is returned. If the element is outside the viewport, an element not interactable error is returned.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null

    • Example:

       {
         "value": null
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale
    • invalid argument (400) if the element is an input element in the file upload state
    • element not interactable (400) if the element is not in view even after an attempt was made to scroll it into view
    • element click intercepted (400) if the element was obscured by another element
    • timeout (408) if post-click navigation did not happen within the page load timeout
    • unknown error (500) if post-click navigation failed due to a network error
    • insecure certificate (400) if post-click navigation was blocked by a content security policy

Element Clear

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/clear

Spec description:

The Element Clear command scrolls into view an editable or resettable element and then attempts to clear its selected files or text content.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null

    • Example:

       {
         "value": null
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale
    • invalid element state (400) if the element is (a) neither content editable nor both editable and resettable, or (b) disabled, read-only, or has pointer events disabled
    • element not interactable (400) if the element does not become interactable after the implicit wait timeout

Element Send Keys

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/value

Spec description:

The Element Send Keys command scrolls into view the form control element and then sends the provided keys to the element. In case the element is not keyboard-interactable, an element not interactable error is returned.

The key input state used for input may be cleared mid-way through "typing" by sending the null key, which is U+E000 (NULL).

  • URL variables:

    • session id
    • element id: the id of an element returned in a previous call to Find Element(s)
  • Request parameters:

    • text: string to send as keystrokes to the element. There are three basic possibilities for what happens with this:

      • If the element is a text input box: text is typed as an appendix to existing text.
      • If the element is a file input control: text is split on newlines (\n) and considered a list of files to select. The files must actually exist.
      • If the element is rendered as something other than a text input control: text is set as the value property of the control.
    • Example:

       {"text": "hello world"}
  • Response value:

    • null

    • Example:

       {
         "value": null
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale
    • invalid argument (400) if the text request parameter is not a string, or if the element is a file input and actual files are not sent, or if the element is has a non-standard UI and is suffering from bad input after being set
    • invalid element state (400) if the element is (a) neither content editable nor both editable and resettable, or (b) disabled, read-only, or has pointer events disabled
    • element not interactable (400) if the element does not become keyboard-interactable after the implicit wait timeout, or if the element has a non-standard UI and no value property to set

Get Page Source

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/source

Spec description:

The Get Page Source command returns a string serialization of the DOM of the current browsing context active document.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • The serialized document source

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "<html>...</html>"
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Execute Script

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/execute/sync

Spec description:

The Execute Script command executes a JavaScript function in the context of the current browsing context and returns the return value of the function.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • script: A string, the Javascript function body you want executed. Note that this is the function body, not a function definition. What happens is that script is parsed as a JS function body, and if this parsing succeeds, an internal function is created with this body. The function is then called with window as the context, and any arguments you provided applied as well (see next parameter). This whole process is wrapped in Promise.resolve, so if your script returns a Promise, its fulfillment (or rejection) will propagate to the return value of this command. If you want a return value of your script to be passed to the local end, you'll need to explicitly return in your script.

    • args: An array of JSON values which will be deserialized and passed as arguments to your function (accessible via the JS arguments array). Note that WebDriver element references may be passed in their object form, and they will be deserialized to actual web elements in your function.

    • Example 1:

       {
         "script": "let [num1, num2] = arguments; return num1 + num2;",
         "args": [5, 6]
       }
    • Example 2:

       {
         "script": "let name = arguments[0]; return new Promise((resolve, reject) => { window.setTimeout(() => { resolve('hello ' + name); }, 1000); });",
         "args": ["world"]
       }
    • Example 3:

       {
         "script": "throw new Error('boo');",
         "args": []
       }
  • Response value:

    • Either the return value of your script, the fulfillment of the Promise returned by your script, or the error which was the reason for your script's returned Promise's rejection.

    • Example 1:

       {
         "value": 11
       }
    • Example 2:

       {
         "value": "hello world"
       }
    • Example 3:

       {
         "value": {
           "error": "boo",
           "message": "boo",
           "stacktrace": "at <anonymous:1:11>"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • javascript error (500) if script could not be parsed as a function body, or if the function completes abruptly, or if the script results in a Promise rejected with any reason other than an error
    • timeout (408) if the script does not generate a return value or completed Promise by the time the session script timeout elapses

Execute Async Script

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/execute/async

Spec description:

The Execute Async Script command causes JavaScript to execute as an anonymous function. Unlike the Execute Script command, the result of the function is ignored. Instead an additional argument is provided as the final argument to the function. This is a function that, when called, returns its first argument as the response.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • script: A string, the Javascript function body you want executed. Note that this is the function body, not a function definition. What happens is that script is parsed as a JS function body, and if this parsing succeeds, an internal function is created with this body. The function is then called with window as the context, and any arguments you provided applied as well (see next parameter). In addition, a callback function reference is appended to the list of arguments, available as the last item in the arguments list. When this function is called in your script, the first parameter to it is returned as the result of this command.

    • args: An array of JSON values which will be deserialized and passed as arguments to your function (accessible via the JS arguments array). Note that WebDriver element references may be passed in their object form, and they will be deserialized to actual web elements in your function.

    • Example 1:

       {
         "script": "let [num1, num2, cb] = arguments; cb(num1 + num2);",
         "args": [5, 6]
       }
    • Example 2:

       {
         "script": "let [name, cb] = arguments; window.setTimeout(() => { cb('hello ' + name); }, 1000);",
         "args": ["world"]
       }
  • Response value:

    • The JSON serialization of the value of the first parameter sent to the callback function, or any error triggered during execution

    • Example 1:

       {
         "value": 11
       }
    • Example 2:

       {
         "value": "hello world"
       }
    • Example 3:

       {
         "value": {
           "error": "boo",
           "message": "boo",
           "stacktrace": "at <anonymous:1:11>"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • javascript error (500) if script could not be parsed as a function body, or if the function completes abruptly, or if the script results in a Promise rejected with any reason other than an error
    • timeout (408) if the script does not generate a return value or completed Promise by the time the session script timeout elapses

Get All Cookies

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/cookie

Spec description:

The Get All Cookies command returns all cookies associated with the address of the current browsing context’s active document.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A list of serialized cookies. Each serialized cookie has a number of optional fields which may or may not be returned in addition to name and value.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": [
           {"name": "cookie1", "value": "hello"},
           {"name": "cookie2", "value": "goodbye"}
         ]
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Get Named Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/cookie/{name}

Spec description:

The Get Named Cookie command returns the cookie with the requested name from the associated cookies in the cookie store of the current browsing context's active document. If no cookie is found, a no such cookie error is returned.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • name: Name of the cookie to retrieve
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • A serialized cookie, with name and value fields. There are a number of optional fields like path, domain, and expiry-time which may also be present.

    • Example:

       {
         "value": {
           "name": "cookie1",
           "value": "hello"
         }
       }
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such cookie (404) if no cookie exists for the given name

Add Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/cookie

Spec description:

The Add Cookie command adds a single cookie to the cookie store associated with the active document's address.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • cookie: A JSON object representing a cookie. It must have at least the name and value fields and could have more, including expiry-time and so on (see full list).

    • Example :

       {
         "cookie": {
           "name": "mycookie",
           "value": "hi",
           "path": "/",
           "domain": "foo.com"
         }
       }
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • invalid argument (400) if the cookie is missing a required field (name and value), or if the cookie's domain does not match the browsing context's domain, or invalid data is sent for one of the optional fields
    • unable to set cookie (500) if some error occurred and the cookie could not be set

Delete Cookie

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie/{name}

Spec description:

The Delete Cookie command allows you to delete either a single cookie by parameter name, or all the cookies associated with the active document's address if name is undefined.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
    • name: the name of the cookie, or undefined
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Delete All Cookies

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/cookie

Spec description:

The Delete All Cookies command allows deletion of all cookies associated with the active document's address.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Perform Actions

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/actions

Spec link.

Actions are a very complex portion of the spec. Some preliminary understanding of concepts is useful:

  • tick: a slice of an action chain. Actions from different input sources can be executed simultaneously. These are first lined up from the first action. Every vertical "slice" across the different input sources' action lists is a tick. A tick is not associated with any particular time value, and lasts as long as the longest action duration inside the tick.
  • input source: a representation of an input device like a keyboard, mouse, finger, or pen. There can be any number of input sources. Each one has its own id.
  • action: a behavior performed by an input source. Different types of input source have different types of possible actions

Input Sources and Corresponding Actions

  • null input source

    • pause: "Used with an integer argument to specify the duration of a tick, or as a placeholder to indicate that an input source does nothing during a particular tick."
  • key input source

    • pause: same as for null
    • keyDown: "Used to indicate that a particular key should be held down."
    • keyUp: "Used to indicate that a depressed key should be released."
  • pointer input source. This kind also has a pointer type specifying which kind of pointer it is (which can be mouse, pen, or touch):

    • pause: same as for null
    • pointerDown: "Used to indicate that a pointer should be depressed in some way e.g. by holding a button down (for a mouse) or by coming into contact with the active surface (for a touch or pen device)."
    • pointerUp: "Used to indicate that a pointer should be released in some way e.g. by releasing a mouse button or moving a pen or touch device away from the active surface."
    • pointerMove: "Used to indicate a location on the screen that a pointer should move to, either in its active (pressed) or inactive state."
    • pointerCancel: "Used to cancel a pointer action."
  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • actions: a list of input source actions. In other words, a list of objects, each of which represents an input source and its associated actions. Each input source must have the following properties:

      • type: String, one of pointer, key, or none
      • id: String, a unique id chosen to represent this input source for this and future actions
      • (Pointer-type input sources can also have a parameters property, which is an object with a pointerType key specifying either mouse, pen, or touch. If parameters is omitted, the pointerType is considered to be mouse.)
      • actions: a list of action objects for this particular input source. An action object has different fields based on the kind of input device it belongs to:
        • null input sources:
          • type: can only be the string pause
          • duration: integer >= 0, representing time in milliseconds
        • pointer input sources:
          • type: string, one of the actions listed above (pointerDown, etc...).
          • If pause: integer property duration as above
          • If pointerUp or pointerDown: integer property button (>= 0, representing which button is pressed/released)
          • If pointerMove:
            • duration: integer in ms
            • origin: either (a) string, one of viewport or pointer, or (b) an object representing a web element. Defaults to viewport if origin is omitted.
            • x: integer, x-value to move to, relative to either viewport, pointer, or element based on origin
            • y: integer, y-value to move to, relative to either viewport, pointer, or element based on origin
          • If pointerCancel: this action is not yet defined by the spec
        • key input sources:
          • type: string, one of the actions listed above (keyUp or keyDown)
          • If pause: integer property duration as above
          • If keyUp or keyDown:
            • value: a string containing a single Unicode code point (any value in the Unicode code space). Basically, this is either a "normal" character like "A", or a Unicode code point like "\uE007" (Enter), which can include control characters.
    • Example 1 (expressing a 1-second pinch-and-zoom with a 500ms wait after the fingers first touch):

       {
         "actions": [
           {
             "type": "pointer",
             "id": "finger1",
             "parameters": {"pointerType": "touch"},
             "actions": [
               {"type": "pointerMove", "duration": 0, "x": 100, "y": 100},
               {"type": "pointerDown", "button": 0},
               {"type": "pause", "duration": 500},
               {"type": "pointerMove", "duration": 1000, "origin": "pointer", "x": -50, "y": 0},
               {"type": "pointerUp", "button": 0}
             ]
           }, {
             "type": "pointer",
             "id": "finger2",
             "parameters": {"pointerType": "touch"},
             "actions": [
               {"type": "pointerMove", "duration": 0, "x": 100, "y": 100},
               {"type": "pointerDown", "button": 0},
               {"type": "pause", "duration": 500},
               {"type": "pointerMove", "duration": 1000, "origin": "pointer", "x": 50, "y": 0},
               {"type": "pointerUp", "button": 0}
             ]
           }
         ]
       }
    • Example 2 (equivalent to typing CTRL+S and releasing the keys, though releasing would be better performed by a call to Release Actions):

       {
         "actions": [
           {
             "type": "key",
             "id": "keyboard",
             "actions": [
               {"type": "keyDown", "value": "\uE009"},
               {"type": "keyDown", "value": "s"},
               {"type": "keyUp", "value": "\uE009"},
               {"type": "keyUp", "value": "s"}
             ]
           }
         ]
       }
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • invalid argument (400) if actions is not an array, or if an action sequence is set which has a mismatched pointerType, or if the inner actions is not an array, or in general if any of the requirements for parameter types and values described above are not met

Release Actions

HTTP Method Path Template
DELETE /session/{session id}/actions

Spec description:

The Release Actions command is used to release all the keys and pointer buttons that are currently depressed. This causes events to be fired as if the state was released by an explicit series of actions. It also clears all the internal state of the virtual devices.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Dismiss Alert

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/dismiss

Spec description:

The Dismiss Alert command dismisses a simple dialog if present. A request to dismiss an alert user prompt, which may not necessarily have a dismiss button, has the same effect as accepting it.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such alert (404) if there is no current user prompt

Accept Alert

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/accept

Spec description:

The Accept Alert command accepts a simple dialog if present.

  • URL variables:
    • session id
  • Request parameters:
    • None
  • Response value:
    • null
  • Possible errors:
    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such alert (404) if there is no current user prompt

Get Alert Text

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/alert/text

Spec description:

The Get Alert Text command returns the message of the current user prompt. If there is no current user prompt, it returns an error.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response value:

    • The message of the user prompt

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "XSS Hax!"
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such alert (404) if there is no current user prompt

Send Alert Text

HTTP Method Path Template
POST /session/{session id}/alert/text

Spec description:

The Send Alert Text command sets the text field of a window.prompt user prompt to the given value.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • text: string to set the prompt to

    • Example:

       {"text": "My prompt response"}
  • Response value:

    • null
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • no such alert (404) if there is no current user prompt
    • invalid argument (400) if text is not a string
    • element not interactable (400) if the prompt is an alert or confirmation dialog (these do not support setting text)
    • unsupported operation (500) if the prompt is otherwise not a prompt

Take Screenshot

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/screenshot

Spec description:

The Take Screenshot command takes a screenshot of the top-level browsing context's viewport.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
  • Request parameters:

    • None
  • Response value:

    • The base64-encoded PNG image data comprising the screenshot of the initial viewport

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAARMAAAFBC..."
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open

Take Element Screenshot

HTTP Method Path Template
GET /session/{session id}/element/{element id}/screenshot

Spec description:

The Take Element Screenshot command takes a screenshot of the visible region encompassed by the bounding rectangle of an element. If given a parameter argument scroll that evaluates to false, the element will not be scrolled into view.

  • URL variables:

    • session id
    • element id: the id of a web element
  • Request parameters:

    • scroll: boolean, whether or not to scroll the element into view before taking the screenshot. Defaults to true.

    • Example:

       {"scroll": false}
  • Response value:

    • The base64-encoded PNG image data comprising the screenshot of the initial viewport

    • Example:

       {
         "value": "iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAARMAAAFBC..."
       }
  • Possible errors:

    • no such window (400) if the top level browsing context is not open
    • stale element reference (404) if the element is stale
    • no such element (404) if the element id is unknown

Other Topics

Capabilities

From the spec:

WebDriver capabilities are used to communicate the features supported by a given implementation.

Capabilities are used by the client (local end) in order to tell the remote end what it expects, and is also used by the remote end to tell the local end what it can do. In terms of structure, capabilities are simply a JSON object with keys and values (values which themselves can be objects). There are a set of "standard capabilities" that all remote ends must support:

Capability Key Value Type Description
Browser name browserName string Identifies the user agent.
Browser version browserVersion string Identifies the version of the user agent.
Platform name platformName string Identifies the operating system of the endpoint node.
Accept insecure TLS certificates acceptInsecureCerts boolean Indicates whether untrusted and self-signed TLS certificates are implicitly trusted on navigation for the duration of the session.
Page load strategy pageLoadStrategy string Defines the current session’s page load strategy. Can be none (doesn't wait for readiness), normal (waits for document interactive state), or eager (waits for document complete state).
Proxy configuration proxy JSON Object Defines the current session’s proxy configuration. This is a potentially complex object: see the spec for more info.
Window dimensioning/positioning setWindowRect boolean Indicates whether the remote end supports all of the commands in Resizing and Positioning Windows.
Session timeouts configuration timeouts JSON Object Describes the timeouts imposed on certain session operations, as described in the Set Timeouts command.
Unhandled prompt behavior unhandledPromptBehavior string Describes the current session’s user prompt handler.

Remote ends can support capabilities beyond these, but they must be prefixed with a string followed by a colon, for example moz:foobar. This is therefore a possible set of capabilities (ignoring external structure detailed in the next section):

{
  "browserName": "firefox",
  "browserVersion": "1234",
  "moz:foobar": true
 }

Processing Capabilities

During the execution of the New Session command, the remote end looks at the capabilities object passed by the client, and attempts to process it in order to set up the correct automation environment. There is a complex algorithm that defines this process. The capabilities object always has two properties: alwaysMatch (a set of capabilities) and firstMatch (a list of sets of capabilities):

{
  "capabilities": {
    "alwaysMatch": {...},
    "firstMatch": [{...}, ...]
  }
}

Basically, the remote end validates the alwaysMatch set and each set within the firstMatch list. Then it merges the alwaysMatch set with each of the firstMatch sets. Call each result of this process a "merged capabilities" object. (Note that the merge will error out with invalid argument if any capability in a firstMatch is already present in the alwaysMatch set.) The remote end then tries to match each merged capabilities object one-by-one. "Matching" is the process of ensuring that each capability can be unified with the remote end capability. For example, if a merged capability is platformName with a value of mac, but the remote end's platformName is windows, the set of merged capabilities it belongs to would not match. On the other hand, if both were mac, we would have a match. The process stops with the first match, which is then returned in the New Session response.

Window Handles

Window Handles are strings representing a browsing context, whether top-level or not. The precise string is up to the remote end to generate, but it must not be the string current. See the spec for more details.

Handling User Prompts

User prompts are alerts, confirmation dialogs, etc..., that block the event loop and require interaction before control is returned to a browsing context. There are 2 ways these can be handled:

  • By the Alert commands in the command list above (Dismiss Alert, Accept Alert, etc...)
  • Automatically, by the remote end, when the user has specified an appropriate value for the unhandledPromptBehavior capability. Appropriate values can be one of the two strings accept and dismiss.

If the unhandledPromptBehavior capability is not set, then if a prompt is active, any command except for the Alert commands will result in an unexpected alert open error. This error may include a text property in the data field of the response, set to the text of the active prompt (in order to help with debugging).

If the unhandledPromptBehavior capability is set, then at various points in the session, if a prompt blocks the execution of one of the WebDriver algorithms, it will be automatically handled according to the capability:

  • accept means to accept all user prompts/alerts
  • dismiss means all alerts should be dismissed

See the section in the spec for more detailed algorithm.

Location Strategies

Location strategies are used in conjunction with the Find Element series of commands. They instruct the remote end which method to use to find an element using the provided locator. The valid locator strategies are:

Strategy Keyword
CSS selector css selector
Link text selector link text
Partial link text selector partial link text
Tag name tag name
XPath selector xpath
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