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Introduction

The SMART Imaging project aims to provide a unified solution for accessing imaging studies alongside clinical data using a single authorization flow. This enables patients to have better access to their data, facilitates second opinions, streamlines data donations for research, and supports providers in their analysis with preferred tools and specialty-specific viewers.

This project builds on the Sync for Science (S4S) Imaging Specs, which were developed by the SMART team for the NIH All of Us research program.

Mind map of key concepts

mindmap
  root((SMART Imaging Access))
    SMART on FHIR EHR
      Authorization
      Token Introspection
      FHIR US Core<br>GET /Patient, etc
    Imaging Subsystem
      FHIR<br>GET /ImagingStudy
        WADO<br>GET /studies/:id
    App Workflow
      Authorize
      Query FHIR
        Clinical Endpoint
        Imaging Endpoint
      Retrieve Images
        DICOM Data

Getting Started

Try the SMART Imaging Demo Stack live:

Prerequisites

To work with the SMART Imaging project, you should have the following prerequisites:

Understanding the SMART Imaging Demo Stack

The SMART Imaging demo stack includes two main components:

Sample app

See ./viewer.

This app connects a SMART on FHIR clinical data server (e.g., an EHR sandbox) as well as an imaging erver (e.g., our Reference Imaging Server). After authorization, it retrieves data from both.

Reference Imaging Server (FHIR + DICOM)

See ./server.

Flexible Behaviors

The Reference Imaging Server allows for testing SMART Imaging with many different servers. A complete configuration will provide two key components:

  • Authorization server. Typically this will be an EHR's existing SMART on FHIR server (e.g., an EHR's sandbox authz server).
  • Image source. Typically this will be a DICOM Web server that supports some kind of private authentication, but it could be something simpler like a folder full of test images in a demo environmnet. Anything that can recive a Patient and output a set of DICOM metadata + images.

Query Flow Through the Reference Imaging Server

flowchart TB
    A[Begin Request] --> AccessTokenValidation{Validate Access Token}
    AccessTokenValidation -->|<b>authorization.type</b><br>smart-on-fhir| TokenIntrospection((Token Introspection))
    AccessTokenValidation -->|<b>authorization.type</b><br>mock| MockIntrospection((Mocked Introspection))
    TokenIntrospection --> ResolvePatientContext{Resolve Patient Context}
    MockIntrospection --> ResolvePatientContext
    ResolvePatientContext -->|<b>authorization.type</b><br>smart-on-fhir| GetPatient((GET Patient/:id))
    ResolvePatientContext -->|<b>authorization.type</b><br>mock| MockResolver((Mocked Patient))

    GetPatient --> RouteQuery{Route Query}
    MockResolver --> RouteQuery

    RouteQuery --> FHIRQuery[FHIR]
    RouteQuery --> DICOMQuery[DICOM Web]

    FHIRQuery --> CheckFHIRPatientBinding{Check ?patient=}
    CheckFHIRPatientBinding -->|"<b>authorization.disableAuthzChecks</b><br>false (default)"| EnsurePatientProperty[Ensure ?patient matches<br>resolved patient]
    CheckFHIRPatientBinding -->|<b>authorization.disableAuthzChecks</b><br>true| SkipPatientBindingCheck[Skip ?patient<br>binding check]
    EnsurePatientProperty --> RespondToFHIRQueries{Query<br>Image Source}
    SkipPatientBindingCheck --> RespondToFHIRQueries
    RespondToFHIRQueries -->|"<b>images.lookup</b><br><code>studies-by-mrn>"| PatientBinding[(Search Studies<br>by Patient ID)]
    RespondToFHIRQueries -->|"<b>images.lookup</b><br><code>all-studies</code>"| AllStudiesOnServer[("Search Studies<br>(all)")]

    PatientBinding --> FHIRResponseComplete(((FHIR<br>Response Complete)))
    AllStudiesOnServer --> FHIRResponseComplete

    DICOMQuery --> CheckDICOMSessionBinding{Check<br><code>/wado/:studyToken</code>}
    CheckDICOMSessionBinding -->|"<b>authorization.disableAuthzChecks</b><br><code>false</code> (default)"|CheckSessionBindingToken[Ensure session binding token<br>valid and matches<br>resolved patient]
    CheckDICOMSessionBinding -->|"<b>authorization.disableAuthzChecks</b><br><code>true</code>"| SkipSessionBindingCheck[Skip session binding check]
    CheckSessionBindingToken --> DICOMWebResponseGeneration[(Retrieve<br>DICOM Study)]
    SkipSessionBindingCheck --> DICOMWebResponseGeneration
    DICOMWebResponseGeneration --> DICOMWebResponseComplete(((DICOM Web<br>Response Complete)))

Pre-specified configurations (https://imaging.argo.run/:key/fhir)

Pre-specified configurations are controlled by files in ./server/config. They can change the behavior of the server to help you test out specific scenarios. For example:

  • /smart-sandbox configuration is backed by ./server/config/smart-sandbox.json, which means that it will introspect access tokens against SMART's sandbox authorization server, so clients must use https://launch.smarthealthit.org to get an access token before making imaging requests.
  • /open configuration is backed by ./server/config/open.json, which means that it will ignore access tokens entirely an just use a hard-coded introspection response. Similarly, it will ignore patient matching and always return the same set of images. These behaviors can be very handy for debugging.
  • For other keys, see ./server/config

Dynamic Configuration (https://imaging.argo.run/dyn/:encoded/fhir)

Dynamic configurations are useful when you want to get started testing SMART Imaging with your own EHR's authorization server. You can rapidly iterate on your config settings until you get something that works. These paths start with /dyn/:encoded, where the variable component is base64urlencode(JSON.stringify(config)). For example, you might test out configurations dynamically until you're happy with the behavior; then you might email a few colleagues your base URL so they can test things out, and eventually you might submit a PR to this repository so a wider audience can reproduce this behavior.

Example of /dyn/:encoded

You can easily create your own dynamically configured endpoint using

import {encode} from "https://deno.land/std@0.179.0/encoding/base64url.ts";

const ex = {
  "authorization": {
    "type": "mock",
    "disableAuthzChecks": true,
  },
  "images": {
    "type": "dicom-web",
    "lookup":  "all-studies-on-server",
    "endpoint": "https://myserver.example.org/dicom-web",
    "authentication": {
      "type": "http-basic",
      "username": "argonaut",
      "password": "argonaut"
    }
  }
}
console.log(encode(JSON.stringify(ex)))

This gives you an encoded value.

eyJhdXRob3JpemF0aW9uIjp7InR5cGUiOiJtb2N...

Technologies under the hood

  • TypeScript: A superset of JavaScript that adds static typing, enabling better tooling and improved code quality. Find more information at the TypeScript website

  • Deno: A secure runtime for JavaScript and TypeScript, built with V8, Rust, and Tokio. Learn more at the Deno website

  • Svelte: A modern, lightweight, and component-based JavaScript framework for building user interfaces. Explore more at the Svelte website

  • Minikube: A tool that runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster locally, making it easy to learn and develop for Kubernetes. Check out the Minikube GitHub repository for more details.

  • Docker: A platform for developing, shipping, and running applications in containers, enabling consistent environments and easier deployment. Find more information at the Docker website

Contributing

We welcome contributions from the community to help improve and expand the SMART Imaging project. To contribute, follow these guidelines:

  1. Fork the repository and create a new branch for your feature or bugfix.

  2. Develop your changes, ensuring that you follow the existing code style and best practices.

  3. Test your changes thoroughly and verify that they work correctly.

  4. Submit a pull request, detailing the changes you've made and their purpose.

License and Credits

This project is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. Credits for third-party libraries and resources used in the project can be found in the NOTICE file.

Support and Contact Information

If you have questions, need assistance, or want to provide feedback on the SMART Imaging project, please visit #argonaut on https://chat.fhir.org, or open an issue in this repository.


Development Setup with minikube

This section provides a step-by-step guide for setting up the SMART Imaging project on your local machine using Minikube. Following these instructions will help you create a local development environment, which is essential for testing and making changes to the project before deploying it to a production environment.

  1. Install minikube locally (tested with version 1.29)
  2. Install mkcert locally (tested with 1.4.4)
minikube start
mkcert -install \
  -key-file imaging-local-key.pem \
  -cert-file imaging-local-cert.pem \
  "*.imaging-local.argo.run" \
  "imaging-local.argo.run"
kubectl -n kube-system create secret tls mkcert \
    --key imaging-local-key.pem \
    --cert imaging-local-cert.pem
echo "kube-system/mkcert" | minikube addons configure ingress
minikube addons enable ingress
echo $(minikube ip)    imaging-local.argo.run | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
echo $(minikube ip)    launcher.imaging-local.argo.run | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
eval $(minikube -p minikube docker-env)

git clone https://github.com/smart-on-fhir/smart-launcher-v2
cd smart-launcher-v2
docker build -t argonautcontainerregistry.azurecr.io/smartonfhir/smart-launcher-2 .
cd ..

git clone https://github.com/jmandel/smart-imaging-api
cd smart-imaging-api/server
docker build -t argonautcontainerregistry.azurecr.io/imaging-proxy .

kubectl apply -f k8s/base.yml -f k8s/minikube.yml

Access Services

Local API examples

This curl command queries the SMART Imaging API for ImagingStudy resources associated with a specific patient (identified by their ID) and retrieves the data in the FHIR format. The API endpoint is in the open configuration, which means it does not require any access tokens for authentication, which is useful for debugging and development.

curl https://imaging-local.argo.run/open/fhir/ImagingStudy?patient=Patient/87a339d0-8cae-418e-89c7-8651e6aab3c6

After building new images

kubectl  -n smart-imaging-access rollout restart deployment reference

Deploying to hosted demo

Deploying to a hosted demo into a public kubernetes cluster allows you to showcase the project to a wider audience, test its functionality in a production-like setting, and gather valuable user feedback for future improvements.

kubectl apply -f k8s/base.yml k8s/server.yml