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Maybe

Build Status npm version

Maybe encapsulates the idea of a value that might not be there.

A Maybe value can either be Just some value or Nothing.

type Maybe<T> = Just<T> | Nothing;

Where Nothing is an instance of Nothing, null or undefined, and Just represents any non Nothing value.

If this is new to you, you may want to read the introductory article Safer code with container types about why and how to use this library.

Install

npm install ts.data.maybe --save

Example 1

import { Maybe, just, withDefault, map2 } from 'ts.data.maybe';

interface User {
  email: string;
  name: Maybe<string>;
  surname: Maybe<string>;
}
const user: User = {
  email: 'user@example.com',
  name: just('John'),
  surname: just('Doe')
};

const getFullName = (name: string, surname: string) => `${name} ${surname}`;
const maybeFullname = map2(getFullName, user.name, user.surname); // Just<string>('John Doe')
console.log(withDefault(maybeFullname, '')); // 'John Doe'

Example 2

const prices: Maybe<number>[] = [
  just(300),
  nothing(),
  just(500),
  just(150),
  nothing()
];
const sum = (a: number, b: number) => a + b;
const total = prices
  .filter(n => !equals(n, nothing()))
  .reduce((acc, current) => map2(sum, acc, current), just(0));
console.log(withDefault(total, 0)); // 950

Api

(Inspired by elm-lang)

just

just<T>(value: T): Maybe<T>;

Wraps a value in an instance of Just.

just(5); // Just(5) (Maybe<number>)

nothing

nothing<T>(): Maybe<T>;

Creates an instance of Nothing.

nothing<number>(); // Nothing (Maybe<number>)

It's recommended to parametrize the function, otherwise the resolved type will be Maybe<unknown> and type won't flow through map, andThen and so on.

isJust

isJust<T>(value: Maybe<T>): value is Just<T>;

Returns true if a value is an instance of Just.

isJust(nothing()); // false

isNothing

isNothing<T>(value: Maybe<T>): value is Nothing;

Returns true if a value is an instance of Nothing.

isNothing(just(5)); // false
isNothing(undefined); // true
isNothing(null); // true
isNothing(nothing()); // true

withDefault

withDefault<A>(value: Maybe<A>, defaultValue: A): A;

If value is an instance of Just it returns its wrapped value, if it's an instance of Nothing it returns the defaultValue.

withDefault(just(5), 0); // 5
withDefault(nothing(), 'hola'); // 'hola'

caseOf

caseOf<A, B>(caseof: {Just: (v: A) => B; Nothing: () => B;}, value: Maybe<A>): B;

Run different computations depending on whether a Maybe is Just or Nothing and returns the result.

caseOf(
  {
    Nothing: () => 'Do nothing',
    Just: n => `Launch ${n} missiles`
  },
  just(5)
); // 'Launch 5 missiles'

map

map<A, B>(f: (a: A) => B, value: Maybe<A>): Maybe<B>;

Transforms a Maybe value with a given function.

const add1 = (n: number) => n + 1;
map(add1, just(4)); // Just<number>(5)
map(add1, nothing()); // Nothing

There are map2, map3, map4, map5 and mapN functions too:

map2<A, B, C>(
  f: (a: A, b: B) => C,
  a: Maybe<A>, b: Maybe<B>
): Maybe<C>

An example with map2:

const safeParseInt = (num: string): Maybe<number> => {
  const n = parseInt(num, 10);
  return isNaN(n) ? nothing() : just(n);
};
const sum = (x: number, y: number) => x + y;
const safeStringSum = (x: string, y: string) =>
  map2(sum, safeParseInt(x), safeParseInt(y));
safeStringSum('1', '2'); // Just<number>(3)
safeStringSum('a', '2'); // Nothing

If you need to parametrize the function with more than one argument, use the map that matches your parametrization.

mapN only accepts arguments of the same type)

map3<A, B, C, D>(
  f: (a: A, b: B, c: C) => D,
  a: Maybe<A>, b: Maybe<B>, c: Maybe<C>
): Maybe<D>
map4<A, B, C, D, E>(
  f: (a: A, b: B, c: C, d: D) => E,
  a: Maybe<A>, b: Maybe<B>, c: Maybe<C>, d: Maybe<D>
): Maybe<E>
map5<A, B, C, D, E, F>(
  f: (a: A, b: B, c: C, d: D, e: E) => F,
  a: Maybe<A>, b: Maybe<B>, c: Maybe<C>, d: Maybe<D>, e: Maybe<E>
): Maybe<F>
mapN<A, B>(
  f: (...a: A[]) => B,
  ...a: Maybe<A>[]
): Maybe<B>

andThen

andThen<A, B>(f: (a: A) => Maybe<B>, v: Maybe<A>): Maybe<B>;

Chains together many computations that may fail.

const head = (arr: string[]) => (arr.length > 0 ? just(arr[0]) : nothing());
andThen(head, just(['a', 'b', 'c'])); // Just<string>('a')
andThen(head, just([])); // Nothing

equals

equals<T>(a: Maybe<T>, b: Maybe<T>): boolean;

Compares two Maybe instances and returns true when both are Nothing or their wrapped values are strictly equal (===), false otherwise.

equals(just(5), just(5); // true
equals(just(6), just(5); // false
equals(nothing(), just(5); // false
equals(nothing(), nothing(); // true
equals(null, nothing(); // true
equals(undefined, nothing(); // true

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A Typescript implementation of the Maybe data type

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