Browse files

Initial release

  • Loading branch information...
jodal committed Nov 14, 2010
0 parents commit f2366b7915b1ff0a35c93679f3c7e47884c9c2a4
Showing with 388 additions and 0 deletions.
  1. +202 −0 LICENSE
  2. +41 −0 README.rst
  3. +145 −0
@@ -0,0 +1,202 @@
+ Apache License
+ Version 2.0, January 2004
+ 1. Definitions.
+ "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction,
+ and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.
+ "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by
+ the copyright owner that is granting the License.
+ "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all
+ other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common
+ control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition,
+ "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the
+ direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or
+ otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the
+ outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.
+ "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity
+ exercising permissions granted by this License.
+ "Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications,
+ including but not limited to software source code, documentation
+ source, and configuration files.
+ "Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical
+ transformation or translation of a Source form, including but
+ not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation,
+ and conversions to other media types.
+ "Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or
+ Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a
+ copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work
+ (an example is provided in the Appendix below).
+ "Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object
+ form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the
+ editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications
+ represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes
+ of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain
+ separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of,
+ the Work and Derivative Works thereof.
+ "Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including
+ the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions
+ to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally
+ submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner
+ or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of
+ the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted"
+ means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent
+ to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to
+ communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems,
+ and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the
+ Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but
+ excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise
+ designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution."
+ "Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity
+ on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and
+ subsequently incorporated within the Work.
+ 2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of
+ this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual,
+ worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable
+ copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of,
+ publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the
+ Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form.
+ 3. Grant of Patent License. Subject to the terms and conditions of
+ this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual,
+ worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable
+ (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made,
+ use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work,
+ where such license applies only to those patent claims licensable
+ by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their
+ Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s)
+ with the Work to which such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You
+ institute patent litigation against any entity (including a
+ cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work
+ or a Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct
+ or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses
+ granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate
+ as of the date such litigation is filed.
+ 4. Redistribution. You may reproduce and distribute copies of the
+ Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without
+ modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You
+ meet the following conditions:
+ (a) You must give any other recipients of the Work or
+ Derivative Works a copy of this License; and
+ (b) You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices
+ stating that You changed the files; and
+ (c) You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works
+ that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and
+ attribution notices from the Source form of the Work,
+ excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of
+ the Derivative Works; and
+ (d) If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its
+ distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must
+ include a readable copy of the attribution notices contained
+ within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not
+ pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one
+ of the following places: within a NOTICE text file distributed
+ as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or
+ documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or,
+ within a display generated by the Derivative Works, if and
+ wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents
+ of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and
+ do not modify the License. You may add Your own attribution
+ notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside
+ or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided
+ that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed
+ as modifying the License.
+ You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and
+ may provide additional or different license terms and conditions
+ for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or
+ for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use,
+ reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with
+ the conditions stated in this License.
+ 5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise,
+ any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work
+ by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of
+ this License, without any additional terms or conditions.
+ Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify
+ the terms of any separate license agreement you may have executed
+ with Licensor regarding such Contributions.
+ 6. Trademarks. This License does not grant permission to use the trade
+ names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor,
+ except as required for reasonable and customary use in describing the
+ origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file.
+ 7. Disclaimer of Warranty. Unless required by applicable law or
+ agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each
+ Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions
+ PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the
+ appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any
+ risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License.
+ 8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory,
+ whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise,
+ unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly
+ negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be
+ liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special,
+ incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a
+ result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the
+ Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill,
+ work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all
+ other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor
+ has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
+ 9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing
+ the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer,
+ and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity,
+ or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this
+ License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only
+ on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf
+ of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify,
+ defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability
+ incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason
+ of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.
+ APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work.
+ To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following
+ boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]"
+ replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include
+ the brackets!) The text should be enclosed in the appropriate
+ comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a
+ file or class name and description of purpose be included on the
+ same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier
+ identification within third-party archives.
+ Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
+ Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
+ you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+ You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
+ distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
+ See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
+ limitations under the License.
@@ -0,0 +1,41 @@
+Pykka is a concurrency abstraction which makes actors look like regular
+It lets you call methods on an actor like you would on a regular object, but it
+runs the code in the actor's own thread. Similarily, when you access the
+actor's fields, they are read in the actor's thread, serialized and copied to
+the reading thread.
+Both method calling and attribute reads returns futures which ensures that the
+calling thread does not block before the value from the object's thread is
+actually used.
+Pykka is similar to typed actors in the Akka framework.
+What can it do?
+See end of ```` for a code example. The code example results in
+approximately the following output, where ``Pinger`` and ``Ponger`` are two
+different objects and threads::
+ Pinger: calling ...
+ Pinger: calling Ponger.get() ...
+ Pinger: printing result ... (blocking)
+ Ponger: this was printed by
+ Pinger: this was returned by Ponger.get()
+ Pinger: reading Ponger.field ...
+ Pinger: printing result ... (blocking)
+ Pinger: this is the value of Ponger.field
+ ...
+Pykka is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. See ``LICENSE`` for
+the full license text.
@@ -0,0 +1,145 @@
+from multiprocessing import Queue, Pipe
+from multiprocessing.dummy import Process
+from multiprocessing.reduction import reduce_connection
+import pickle
+import sys
+import time
+def pickle_connection(connection):
+ return pickle.dumps(reduce_connection(connection))
+def unpickle_connection(pickled_connection):
+ # From
+ (func, args) = pickle.loads(pickled_connection)
+ return func(*args)
+class Actor(Process):
+ def __init__(self, **kwargs):
+ super(Actor, self).__init__()
+ self.__dict__.update(kwargs)
+ self.runnable = True
+ self.inbox = Queue()
+ def run(self):
+ try:
+ self.run_inside_try()
+ except KeyboardInterrupt:
+ sys.exit()
+ def run_inside_try(self):
+ while self.runnable:
+ message = self.inbox.get()
+ response = self.react(message)
+ if 'reply_to' in message:
+ connection = unpickle_connection(message['reply_to'])
+ try:
+ connection.send(response)
+ except IOError:
+ pass
+ def react(self, message):
+ if message['command'] == 'call':
+ return getattr(self, message['attribute'])(
+ *message['args'], **message['kwargs'])
+ if message['command'] == 'read':
+ return getattr(self, message['attribute'])
+ raise NotImplementedError
+ def start(self):
+ super(Actor, self).start()
+ return ActorProxy(self)
+ def quit(self):
+ self.runnable = False
+class ActorProxy(object):
+ def __init__(self, actor):
+ self._actor_queue = actor.inbox
+ self._can_call = dict([(attr, callable(getattr(actor, attr)))
+ for attr in dir(actor) if not attr.startswith('_')])
+ def __getattr__(self, name):
+ if self._can_call[name]:
+ return CallableProxy(self._actor_queue, name)
+ else:
+ (read_end, write_end) = Pipe(duplex=False)
+ message = {
+ 'command': 'read',
+ 'attribute': name,
+ 'reply_to': pickle_connection(write_end),
+ }
+ self._actor_queue.put(message)
+ return Future(read_end)
+class CallableProxy(object):
+ def __init__(self, actor_queue, attribute):
+ self.actor_queue = actor_queue
+ self.attribute = attribute
+ def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
+ (read_end, write_end) = Pipe(duplex=False)
+ message = {
+ 'command': 'call',
+ 'attribute': self.attribute,
+ 'args': args,
+ 'kwargs': kwargs,
+ 'reply_to': pickle_connection(write_end),
+ }
+ self.actor_queue.put(message)
+ return Future(read_end)
+class Future(object):
+ def __init__(self, connection):
+ self.connection = connection
+ def __repr__(self):
+ return self.get()
+ def __str__(self):
+ return self.get()
+ def get(self):
+ self.connection.poll(None)
+ return self.connection.recv()
+if __name__ == '__main__':
+ class Ponger(Actor):
+ name = 'Ponger'
+ field = 'this is the value of Ponger.field'
+ def do(self):
+ print '%s: this was printed by' %
+ def get(self):
+ time.sleep(0.2) # Block a bit to make it realistic
+ return 'this was returned by Ponger.get()'
+ class Pinger(Actor):
+ name = 'Pinger'
+ def run(self):
+ for i in range(5):
+ # Method with side effect
+ print '%s: calling ...' %
+ # Method with return value
+ print '%s: calling Ponger.get() ...' %
+ result = self.ponger.get() # Does not block, returns a future
+ print '%s: printing result ... (blocking)' %
+ print '%s: %s' % (, result) # Blocks until result ready
+ # Field access
+ print '%s: reading Ponger.field ...' %
+ result = self.ponger.field # Does not block, returns a future
+ print '%s: printing result ... (blocking)' %
+ print '%s: %s' % (, result) # Blocks until result ready
+ self.ponger.quit()
+ ponger = Ponger().start()
+ pinger = Pinger(ponger=ponger).start()

0 comments on commit f2366b7

Please sign in to comment.