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% JGMENUTUTORIAL(7) % Johan Malm % 16 October, 2019

NAME

jgmenututorial - A step-by-step tutorial to jgmenu

INTRODUCTION

This tutorial aims to explain the usage of jgmenu through a set of lessons.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lesson 1 - Get started {#lesson1}

After installing jgmenu, you can get going quickly by running

jgmenu_run

You should see a Linux/BSD system menu showing installed applications. We call this menu "pmenu" (see lesson 7 for further details).

Create a config file (~/.config/jgmenu/jgmenurc) by running

jgmenu_run init

Full details of config options are covered in jgmenu(1)

You can also try some templates using the interactive mode

jgmenu_run init -i

There are a small number of configuration options which may need manual intervention in order for jgmenu to display correctly on your system.

position_mode

: There are several methods for positioning the menu. Try fixed, ipc, center and pointer to see what works best on your system. See jgmenu(1) for full details.

menu_margin_x and menu_margin_y

: If your are using position_mode=fixed, you may need to set these two variables. Depending on what window manager and panel you use, jgmenu may be able to automatically find a suitable vertical and horizontal position, so try without setting these variables first.

menu_halign and menu_valign

: Again, depending on your system, you may need to manually specify horizontal and vertical alignment of the menu, but try without first.

Lesson 2 - Architecture {#lesson2}

As you get started with jgmenu, there are two concepts worth mentioning early, the modular architecture or jgmenu and the jgmenu_run wrapper.

When jgmenu is started, two processes are run to produce the menu.

┌────────────────┐
│ csv-generator  │
└────────────────┘
        |
        V
┌────────────────┐
│ graphical menu │
└────────────────┘

The first process (csv-generator) produces the menu content, whereas the second generates a graphical menu (what you see). This modular approach provides a lot of flexibility in how jgmenu is used.

jgmenu_run is a wrapper script which will either show jgmenu if it is already running, or start a new instance. This makes it suitable for using with panels and keyboard shortcuts. See jgmenu_run(1) for full details.

Lesson 3 - Scripting with jgmenu {#lesson3}

From this point onwards, it is assumed that you understand basic shell usage including re-direction (e.g. <, >) and piping (e.g. |).

The syntax below (here-document) is used to denote the creation of a text file from whatever is between the EOFs. You can of course use your favourite text editor instead.

cat >file <<EOF
foo
bar
EOF

There are many ways to run jgmenu. In lesson 1, you saw jgmenu as a long-running application. As we go through the next few lessons we will run jgmenu as a short-lived applications. This means that it starts from scratch every time it is called.

So let's get back to basics. Try the following:

echo >foo.txt <<EOF
xterm
firefox
EOF

If you have not got used to the here-document syntax yet, it just means that you put the words "xterm" and "firefox" in a text file (which you can of course do using a text editor). Then either of the following

cat foo.txt | jgmenu --simple --icon-size=0

jgmenu --vsimple --csv-file="foo.txt"

The option --simple make jgmenu short-lived, disables all syncing with tint2 and reads menu items from stdin.

The option --icon-size=0, disables icons (i.e. it does not just display them at zero size, it actually does not load them)

The command line argument --vsimple is the same as --simple, but also disables icons and ignores jgmenurc (if it exists).

If you want a menu to be launched by a single script, you could construct it like this:

cat <<EOF >menu.sh
#!/bin/sh
(
printf "foo\\n"
printf "bar\\n"
) | jgmenu --vsimple
EOF
chmod +x menu.sh
./menu.sh

Lesson 4 - Descriptions {#lesson4}

As you saw in the previous example, each line fed to stdin becomes a menu item. Any line containing two fields separated by a comma is parsed as description,command. Consider the following CSV menu data:

Terminal,xterm
File Manager,pcmanfm

This lets you give a more meaningful description to each menu item.

Lesson 5 - Icons {#lesson5}

To display icons, you need to populate the third field. By default, jgmenu will obtain the icon theme from xsettings (if it is running) or tint2rc (if it exists). When running with the --simple argument, make sure that icon_theme is set to something sensible in your $HOME/.config/jgmenu/jgmenurc. Consider the following CSV menu data:

Browser,firefox,firefox
File manager,pcmanfm,system-file-manager
Terminal,xterm,utilities-terminal
Lock,i3lock -c 000000,system-lock-screen
Exit to prompt,openbox --exit,system-log-out
Reboot,systemctl -i reboot,system-reboot
Poweroff,systemctl -i poweroff,system-shutdown

In the third field you can also specify the full path if you wish.

Lesson 6 - Submenus {#lesson6}

So far we have looked at producing a single "root" menu only. jgmenu understands a small amount of markup and enables submenus by ^tag() and ^checkout(). Try this:

Terminal,xterm
File Manager,pcmanfm
Settings,^checkout(settings)

^tag(settings)
Set Background Image,nitrogen

In pseudo-code, build your CSV file as follows:

# the root-menu
item0.0
item0.1
sub1,^checkout(1)
sub2,^checkout(2)

# the first sub-menu
^tag(1)
item1.0
item1.1

# the second sub-menu
^tag(2)
item2.0
item2.1

^root() can be used instead of ^checkout() in order to open the submenu in the parent window.

Lesson 7 - XDG Application Menus {#lesson7}

freedesktop.org have developed a menu standard which is adhered to by the big Desktop Environments. We will refer to this type of menu as XDG. jgmenu can run two types of XDG(ish) menus: pmenu and lx.

To understand the subtleties between them, you need a basic appreciataion of the XDG menu-spec and desktop-entry-spec. See: http://standards.freedesktop.org/ for further information.

To keep things simple, when discussing XDG paths, only one location will be referred to rather than XDG variables and every possible location. So for example, if "/usr/share" is quoted, it may refer to "/usr/local/share", "$HOME/.local/share", etc on your system.

In brief, there are three types of files which define the Linux/BSD system menu:

.menu

: These files are generally located in /etc/xdg/menus. They are XML files describing such things as the menu categories and directory structure.

.directory

: These are typically located in /usr/share/desktop-directories and describe the menu directories

.desktop

: On many systems, these will be found at/usr/share/applications. Each application has a .desktop file associated with it. These files contain most of the information needed to build a menu (e.g. Name, Exec command, Icon and Category)

pmenu is written in python by @o9000. It uses .directory and .desktop files to build a menu, but ignores any .menu files. Instead of the structure specified in the .menu file, it simply maps each ".desktop" application onto one of the ".directory" categories. If a matching ".directory" category does not exist, it tries to cross-reference "additional categories" to "related categories" in accordance with the XDG menu-spec. This is a generic approach which avoids Desktop Environment specific rules defined in the .menu file. It ensures that all .desktop files are included in the menu.

lx uses LXDE's libmenu-cache to generate an XDG compliant menu including separators and internationalization. It requires a recent version of libmenu-cache, so may not be included in your build.

Set csv_cmd in jgmenurc to specify which of these csv-commands you wish to run.

Comparison of application menu modules

This table summarise the key features of each module:

╔═══════════════════════╤═════════════════╤═════════════════════╗
║                       │ pmenu           │ lx                  ║
║ ──────────────────────│─────────────────│─────────────────────║
║ speed (my machine)    │ 400 ms          │ 99 ms               ║
║ language              │ python          │ C                   ║
║ dependencies          │ python3         │ glib, libmenu-cache ║
║ XDG compliance        │ not intended    │ yes                 ║
║ localisation support  │ yes             │ yes                 ║
║ ──────────────────────│─────────────────│─────────────────────║
║ {ap,pre}pend support  │ yes             │ yes                 ║
║ 'no-dirs' support     │ yes             │ yes                 ║
║ single window support │ yes             │ no                  ║
║ formatting            │ no              │ yes                 ║
║ generic name support  │ no              │ yes                 ║
╚═══════════════════════╧═════════════════╧═════════════════════╝

Lesson 8 - Disable directory structure {#lesson8}

Many modern menus and launchers, ignore the XDG directory strcture.

With jgmenu, an XDG menu without any directories can be created in a number of ways:

The config options csv_no_dirs = 1

The CSV generators pmenu and lx understand the environment variable JGMENU_NO_DIRS. Set this variable (e.g. JGMENU_NO_DIRS=1 to open a menu without a directory structure.

Lesson 9 - Apprend/Prepend and Separators {#lesson9}

When running pmenu or lx, you can add menu items to the top and bottom of the root menu by editing append.csv and/or prepend.csv in ~/.config/jgmenu. For example, try the following:

prepend.csv

Browser,firefox,firefox
File manager,pcmanfm,system-file-manager
Terminal,xterm,utilities-terminal
^sep()

append.csv

^sep()
Suspend,systemctl -i suspend,system-log-out
Reboot,systemctl -i reboot,system-reboot
Poweroff,systemctl -i poweroff,system-shutdown

In these example we have used the markup ^sep(), which inserts a horizontal separator line. Similarly, ^sep(foo) inserts a text separator displaying "foo"

Lesson 10 - CSV generators {#lesson10}

In lesson 7, we introduced pmenu and lx. These commands are referred to as "CSV generators" and are invoked as follows:

jgmenu_run <command>

This is the full list of built-in "CSV generators":

  • pmenu
  • lx
  • ob

They are documented by a man page or a simple --help message.

man jgmenu-<command>
jgmenu_run <command> --help

Here follow some examples of how they can be used.

Specify CSV generator in the config file by setting csv_cmd in ~/.config/jgmenu/jgmenurc

csv_cmd = jgmenu_run pmenu

Specify CSV generator on the command line

jgmenu --csv-cmd="jgmenu_run pmenu"

Pipe the CSV output to jgmenu (using --simple to read from stdin)

jgmenu_run pmenu | jgmenu --simple

Create a pipemenu using ^pipe() markup. Consider this example

Terminal,xterm
File Manager,pcmanfm
^pipe(jgmenu_run pmenu)

Lesson 11 - Search {#lesson11}

jgmenu has search support, which can be invoked by just typing when the menu is open.

A search box can be inserted using widgets.

You can’t perform that action at this time.