Computational grammar for the Maltese language, as part of the Grammatical Framework's Resource Grammar Library
Grammatical Framework Haskell Other
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Maltese GF Resource Grammar


This is a work-in-progress implementation of a Maltese resource grammar in GF. This grammar is currently under active development. The code can be found in two places:

  1. The GitHub repository contains all commits and auxiliary files. It may at times contain interim code which doesn't compile.
  2. The official GF repository shall only be updated with significant updates, and should always be compilable.

Feel free to contact me if you are interested in contributing, or just curious.

Repository overview

  • This directory contains the grammar itself, split amongst various .gf files. Check out the dependancy graph diagram to see how the individual modules plug together.
  • Observations on Maltese grammar and implementation notes can be found in doc/.
  • The test/ directory contains stuff used for, you guessed it, testing.
  • Some more in-depth observations of Maltese grammar can be found in my research blog, amongst other less exciting ramblings about my progress in general.


This work is released under the GNU Lesser General Public License. In a nutshell, this means you can freely use it for whatever you want, including non-open source applications.


Please site this work as:

J. Camilleri, A computational grammar and lexicon for Maltese, M.Sc. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology. Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013.


These publications are currently being used and can be referenced by citation stamp:

  1. Gwida għall-Ortografija by Carmel Azzopardi. It-tieni edizzjoni. Klabb Kotba Maltin, 2007. {GO}
  2. Grammatika Maltija by Bro. Henry F.S.C. It-tieni ktieb, is-6 edizzjoni. De La Salle Brothers Publications, 1980. {GM}
  3. Id-Dizzjunarju Malti - u teżawru ta' Malti mħaddem by Mario Serracino Inglott. It-tielet edizzjoni. Merlin, 2011. {DM}
  4. Maltese (part of "Descriptive Grammars" series) by Albert Borg and Marie Azzopardi-Alexander. Routledge, 1997. {MDG}
  5. Grammatical Framework - Programming with Multilingual Grammars by Aarne Ranta. CSLI, 2011. {GF}
  6. A Tale of Two Morphologies: Verb structure and argument alternations in Maltese by Michael Spagnol. University of Konstanz dissertation, Germany, 2011. {T2M}
  7. Deċiżjonijiet 1 by il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ilsien Malti, 2008. {D1}
  8. Stem allomorphy in the Maltese Verb by Ray Fabri. In Ilsienna, Vol 1, 2009. {SA}
  9. The tense and aspect system of Maltese in Tense Systems in European Languages II, 1995. {TAS}

Other potentially useful references:

  1. Spagnol, Michael. 2009. Lexical and grammatical aspect in Maltese. In Thomas Stolz (ed.), Ilsienna, 51--86. Bochum: Universitätsverlag Brockmeyer.
  2. Serracino-Inglott’s (1975-1989) monolingual dictionary
  3. Aquilina’s (1987-1990) bilingual dictionary
  4. Manwel Mifsud (1995, Loan Verbs in Maltese. NY: Brill, pp. 272-295)
  5. Sutcliffe, Edmund F. 1936. A grammar of the Maltese language with chrestomathy and vocabulary. London: Oxford University Press.
  6. Borg, Albert. 1981. A study of aspect in Maltese. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
  7. Borg, Albert. 1988. ? in Ilsienna: Studju grammatikali. Malta.
  8. Introducing Maltese Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 1st International Conference on Maltese Linguistics, Bremen, 18–20 October, 2007, Edited by Bernard Comrie, Ray Fabri, Elizabeth Hume, Manwel Mifsud, Thomas Stolz and Martine Vanhove.
  9. Tagħrif Fuq Il-Kitba Bil-Malti by Għaqda tal-Kittieba tal-Malti, 1924.
  10. Żieda mat-Tagħrif by l-Akkademja tal-Malti, 1984.
  11. Aġġornament tat-Tagħrif fuq il-Kitba Maltija by l-Akkademja tal-Malti, 1992.
  12. Il-Gwida Tal-Istil Dipartimentali Il-Kummissjoni Ewropea 2011.