Django-environ allows you to utilize 12factor inspired environment variables to configure your Django application.
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README.rst

Django-environ

Django-environ allows you to utilize 12factor inspired environment variables to configure your Django application.

Latest version released on PyPi Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux Build status of the master branch on Windows Test coverage Package license

This module is a merge of:

and inspired by:

This is your settings.py file before you have installed django-environ

import os
SITE_ROOT = os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__))))

DEBUG = True
TEMPLATE_DEBUG = DEBUG

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql_psycopg2',
        'NAME': 'database',
        'USER': 'user',
        'PASSWORD': 'githubbedpassword',
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'PORT': '8458',
    },
    'extra': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        'NAME': os.path.join(SITE_ROOT, 'database.sqlite')
    }
}

MEDIA_ROOT = os.path.join(SITE_ROOT, 'assets')
MEDIA_URL = '/media/'
STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(SITE_ROOT, 'static')
STATIC_URL = '/static/'

SECRET_KEY = '...im incredibly still here...'

CACHES = {
    'default': {
        'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache',
        'LOCATION': [
            '127.0.0.1:11211', '127.0.0.1:11212', '127.0.0.1:11213',
        ]
    },
    'redis': {
        'BACKEND': 'django_redis.cache.RedisCache',
        'LOCATION': '127.0.0.1:6379/1',
        'OPTIONS': {
            'CLIENT_CLASS': 'django_redis.client.DefaultClient',
            'PASSWORD': 'redis-githubbed-password',
        }
    }
}

After:

import environ
root = environ.Path(__file__) - 3 # three folder back (/a/b/c/ - 3 = /)
env = environ.Env(DEBUG=(bool, False),) # set default values and casting
environ.Env.read_env() # reading .env file

SITE_ROOT = root()

DEBUG = env('DEBUG') # False if not in os.environ
TEMPLATE_DEBUG = DEBUG

DATABASES = {
    'default': env.db(), # Raises ImproperlyConfigured exception if DATABASE_URL not in os.environ
    'extra': env.db('SQLITE_URL', default='sqlite:////tmp/my-tmp-sqlite.db')
}

public_root = root.path('public/')

MEDIA_ROOT = public_root('media')
MEDIA_URL = '/media/'
STATIC_ROOT = public_root('static')
STATIC_URL = '/static/'

SECRET_KEY = env('SECRET_KEY') # Raises ImproperlyConfigured exception if SECRET_KEY not in os.environ

CACHES = {
    'default': env.cache(),
    'redis': env.cache('REDIS_URL')
}

You can also pass read_env() an explicit path to the .env file.

Create a .env file:

DEBUG=on
# DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=myapp.settings.dev
SECRET_KEY=your-secret-key
DATABASE_URL=psql://urser:un-githubbedpassword@127.0.0.1:8458/database
# SQLITE_URL=sqlite:///my-local-sqlite.db
CACHE_URL=memcache://127.0.0.1:11211,127.0.0.1:11212,127.0.0.1:11213
REDIS_URL=rediscache://127.0.0.1:6379/1?client_class=django_redis.client.DefaultClient&password=redis-un-githubbed-password

How to install

$ pip install django-environ

How to use

There are only two classes, environ.Env and environ.Path

>>> import environ
>>> env = environ.Env(
        DEBUG=(bool, False),
    )
>>> env('DEBUG')
False
>>> env('DEBUG', default=True)
True

>>> open('.myenv', 'a').write('DEBUG=on')
>>> environ.Env.read_env('.myenv') # or env.read_env('.myenv')
>>> env('DEBUG')
True

>>> open('.myenv', 'a').write('\nINT_VAR=1010')
>>> env.int('INT_VAR'), env.str('INT_VAR')
1010, '1010'

>>> open('.myenv', 'a').write('\nDATABASE_URL=sqlite:///my-local-sqlite.db')
>>> env.read_env('.myenv')
>>> env.db()
{'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3', 'NAME': 'my-local-sqlite.db', 'HOST': '', 'USER': '', 'PASSWORD': '', 'PORT': ''}

>>> root = env.path('/home/myproject/')
>>> root('static')
'/home/myproject/static'

See cookiecutter-django for a concrete example on using with a django project.

Supported Types

  • str
  • bool
  • int
  • float
  • json
  • list (FOO=a,b,c)
  • tuple (FOO=(a,b,c))
  • dict (BAR=key=val,foo=bar) #environ.Env(BAR=(dict, {}))
  • dict (BAR=key=val;foo=1.1;baz=True) #environ.Env(BAR=(dict(value=unicode, cast=dict(foo=float,baz=bool)), {}))
  • url
  • path (environ.Path)
  • db_url
    • PostgreSQL: postgres://, pgsql://, psql:// or postgresql://
    • PostGIS: postgis://
    • MySQL: mysql:// or mysql2://
    • MySQL for GeoDjango: mysqlgis://
    • SQLITE: sqlite://
    • SQLITE with SPATIALITE for GeoDjango: spatialite://
    • Oracle: oracle://
    • MSSQL: mssql://
    • PyODBC: pyodbc://
    • Redshift: redshift://
    • LDAP: ldap://
  • cache_url
    • Database: dbcache://
    • Dummy: dummycache://
    • File: filecache://
    • Memory: locmemcache://
    • Memcached: memcache://
    • Python memory: pymemcache://
    • Redis: rediscache://
  • search_url
    • ElasticSearch: elasticsearch://
    • Solr: solr://
    • Whoosh: whoosh://
    • Xapian: xapian://
    • Simple cache: simple://
  • email_url
    • SMTP: smtp://
    • SMTP+SSL: smtp+ssl://
    • SMTP+TLS: smtp+tls://
    • Console mail: consolemail://
    • File mail: filemail://
    • LocMem mail: memorymail://
    • Dummy mail: dummymail://

Tips

Using unsafe characters in URLs

In order to use unsafe characters you have to encode with urllib.parse.encode before you set into .env file.

DATABASE_URL=mysql://user:%23password@127.0.0.1:3306/dbname

See https://perishablepress.com/stop-using-unsafe-characters-in-urls/ for reference.

Multiple redis cache locations

For redis cache, multiple master/slave or shard locations can be configured as follows:

CACHE_URL='rediscache://master:6379,slave1:6379,slave2:6379/1'

Email settings

In order to set email configuration for django you can use this code:

EMAIL_CONFIG = env.email_url(
    'EMAIL_URL', default='smtp://user@:password@localhost:25')

vars().update(EMAIL_CONFIG)

SQLite urls

SQLite connects to file based databases. The same URL format is used, omitting the hostname, and using the "file" portion as the filename of the database. This has the effect of four slashes being present for an absolute file path: sqlite:////full/path/to/your/database/file.sqlite.

Nested lists

Some settings such as Django's ADMINS make use of nested lists. You can use something like this to handle similar cases.

# DJANGO_ADMINS=John:john@admin.com,Jane:jane@admin.com
ADMINS = [x.split(':') for x in env.list('DJANGO_ADMINS')]

# or use more specific function

from email.utils import getaddresses

# DJANGO_ADMINS=Full Name <email-with-name@example.com>,anotheremailwithoutname@example.com
ADMINS = getaddresses([env('DJANGO_ADMINS')])

Multiline value

You can set a multiline variable value:

# MULTILINE_TEXT=Hello\\nWorld
>>> print env.str('MULTILINE_TEXT', multiline=True)
Hello
World

Proxy value

You can set a value prefixed by $ to use as a proxy to another variable value:

# BAR=FOO
# PROXY=$BAR
>>> print env.str('PROXY')
FOO

Tests

$ git clone git@github.com:joke2k/django-environ.git
$ cd django-environ/
$ python setup.py test

License

Django-environ is licensed under the MIT License - see the LICENSE_FILE file for details

Changelog

0.4.4 - 21-August-2017

  • Support for django-redis multiple locations (master/slave, shards)
  • Support for Elasticsearch2
  • Support for Mysql-connector
  • Support for pyodbc
  • Add __contains__ feature to Environ class
  • Fix Path subtracting

0.4.3 - 21-August-2017

  • Rollback the default Environ to os.environ

0.4.2 - 13-April-2017

  • Confirm support for Django 1.11.
  • Support for Redshift database URL
  • Fix uwsgi settings reload problem (#55)
  • Update support for django-redis urls (#109)

0.4.1 - 13-November-2016

  • Fix for unsafe characters into URLs
  • Clarifying warning on missing or unreadable file. Thanks to @nickcatal
  • Add support for Django 1.10.
  • Fix support for Oracle urls
  • Fix support for django-redis

0.4.0 - 23-September-2015

  • Fix non-ascii values (broken in Python 2.x)
  • New email schemes - smtp+ssl and smtp+tls (smtps would be deprecated)
  • redis_cache replaced by django_redis
  • Add tuple support. Thanks to @anonymouzz
  • Add LDAP url support for database (django-ldapdb)
  • Fix psql/pgsql url

0.3 - 03-June-2014

  • Add cache url support
  • Add email url support
  • Add search url support
  • Rewriting README.rst

0.2.1 19-April-2013

  • environ/environ.py: Env.__call__ now uses Env.get_value instance method

0.2 16-April-2013

  • environ/environ.py, environ/test.py, environ/test_env.txt: add advanced float parsing (comma and dot symbols to separate thousands and decimals)
  • README.rst, docs/index.rst: fix TYPO in documentation

0.1 02-April-2013

  • initial release

Credits