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Classy web-development dressed in a DSL (official / canonical repo)

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Octocat-spinner-32 compat
Octocat-spinner-32 lib
Octocat-spinner-32 test
Octocat-spinner-32 .gitignore
Octocat-spinner-32 AUTHORS
Octocat-spinner-32 CHANGES
Octocat-spinner-32 LICENSE
Octocat-spinner-32 README.rdoc
Octocat-spinner-32 Rakefile
Octocat-spinner-32 sinatra.gemspec
README.rdoc

Sinatra

Sinatra is a DSL for quickly creating web-applications in Ruby with minimal effort:

# myapp.rb
require 'rubygems'
require 'sinatra'
get '/' do
  'Hello world!'
end

Install the gem and run with:

sudo gem install sinatra
ruby myapp.rb

View at: localhost:4567

Routes

In Sinatra, a route is an HTTP method paired with an URL matching pattern. Each route is associated with a block:

get '/' do
  .. show something ..
end

post '/' do
  .. create something ..
end

put '/' do
  .. update something ..
end

delete '/' do
  .. annihilate something ..
end

Routes are matched in the order they are defined. The first route that matches the request is invoked.

Route patterns may include named parameters, accessible via the params hash:

get '/hello/:name' do
  # matches "GET /foo" and "GET /bar"
  # params[:name] is 'foo' or 'bar'
  "Hello #{params[:name]}!"
end

You can also access named parameters via block parameters:

get '/hello/:name' do |n|
  "Hello #{n}!"
end

Route patterns may also include splat (or wildcard) parameters, accessible via the params[:splat] array.

get '/say/*/to/*' do
  # matches /say/hello/to/world
  params[:splat] # => ["hello", "world"]
end

get '/download/*.*' do
  # matches /download/path/to/file.xml
  params[:splat] # => ["path/to/file", "xml"]
end

Route matching with Regular Expressions:

get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do
  "Hello, #{params[:captures].first}!"
end

Or with a block parameter:

get %r{/hello/([\w]+)} do |c|
  "Hello, #{c}!"
end

Routes may include a variety of matching conditions, such as the user agent:

get '/foo', :agent => /Songbird (\d\.\d)[\d\/]*?/ do
  "You're using Songbird version #{params[:agent][0]}"
end

get '/foo' do
  # Matches non-songbird browsers
end

Static Files

Static files are served from the ./public directory. You can specify a different location by setting the :public option:

set :public, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/static'

Note that the public directory name is not included in the URL. A file ./public/css/style.css is made available as example.com/css/style.css.

Views / Templates

Templates are assumed to be located directly under the ./views directory. To use a different views directory:

set :views, File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/templates'

One important thing to remember is that you always have to reference templates with symbols, even if they're in a subdirectory (in this case use :'subdir/template'). Rendering methods will render any strings passed to them directly.

Haml Templates

The haml gem/library is required to render HAML templates:

## You'll need to require haml in your app
require 'haml'

get '/' do
  haml :index
end

Renders ./views/index.haml.

Haml’s options can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations, see Options and Configurations, and overridden on an individual basis.

set :haml, {:format => :html5 } # default Haml format is :xhtml

get '/' do
  haml :index, :haml_options => {:format => :html4 } # overridden
end

Erb Templates

## You'll need to require erb in your app
require 'erb'

get '/' do
  erb :index
end

Renders ./views/index.erb

Builder Templates

The builder gem/library is required to render builder templates:

## You'll need to require builder in your app
require 'builder'

get '/' do
  content_type 'application/xml', :charset => 'utf-8'
  builder :index
end

Renders ./views/index.builder.

Sass Templates

The sass gem/library is required to render Sass templates:

## You'll need to require haml or sass in your app
require 'sass'

get '/stylesheet.css' do
  content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
  sass :stylesheet
end

Renders ./views/stylesheet.sass.

Sass’ options can be set globally through Sinatra's configurations, see Options and Configurations, and overridden on an individual basis.

set :sass, {:style => :compact } # default Sass style is :nested

get '/stylesheet.css' do
  content_type 'text/css', :charset => 'utf-8'
  sass :stylesheet, :sass_options => {:style => :expanded } # overridden
end

Inline Templates

get '/' do
  haml '%div.title Hello World'
end

Renders the inlined template string.

Accessing Variables in Templates

Templates are evaluated within the same context as route handlers. Instance variables set in route handlers are direcly accessible by templates:

get '/:id' do
  @foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
  haml '%h1= @foo.name'
end

Or, specify an explicit Hash of local variables:

get '/:id' do
  foo = Foo.find(params[:id])
  haml '%h1= foo.name', :locals => { :foo => foo }
end

This is typically used when rendering templates as partials from within other templates.

In-file Templates

Templates may be defined at the end of the source file:

require 'rubygems'
require 'sinatra'

get '/' do
  haml :index
end

__END__

@@ layout
%html
  = yield

@@ index
%div.title Hello world!!!!!

NOTE: In-file templates defined in the source file that requires sinatra are automatically loaded. Call the use_in_file_templates! method explicitly if you have in-file templates in other source files.

Named Templates

Templates may also be defined using the top-level template method:

template :layout do
  "%html\n  =yield\n"
end

template :index do
  '%div.title Hello World!'
end

get '/' do
  haml :index
end

If a template named “layout” exists, it will be used each time a template is rendered. You can disable layouts by passing :layout => false.

get '/' do
  haml :index, :layout => !request.xhr?
end

Helpers

Use the top-level helpers method to define helper methods for use in route handlers and templates:

helpers do
  def bar(name)
    "#{name}bar"
  end
end

get '/:name' do
  bar(params[:name])
end

Filters

Before filters are evaluated before each request within the context of the request and can modify the request and response. Instance variables set in filters are accessible by routes and templates:

before do
  @note = 'Hi!'
  request.path_info = '/foo/bar/baz'
end

get '/foo/*' do
  @note #=> 'Hi!'
  params[:splat] #=> 'bar/baz'
end

Halting

To immediately stop a request during a before filter or route use:

halt

You can also specify a body when halting …

halt 'this will be the body'

Or set the status and body …

halt 401, 'go away!'

Passing

A route can punt processing to the next matching route using pass:

get '/guess/:who' do
  pass unless params[:who] == 'Frank'
  "You got me!"
end

get '/guess/*' do
  "You missed!"
end

The route block is immediately exited and control continues with the next matching route. If no matching route is found, a 404 is returned.

Configuration

Run once, at startup, in any environment:

configure do
  ...
end

Run only when the environment (RACK_ENV environment variable) is set to :production:

configure :production do
  ...
end

Run when the environment is set to either :production or :test:

configure :production, :test do
  ...
end

Error handling

Error handlers run within the same context as routes and before filters, which means you get all the goodies it has to offer, like haml, erb, halt, etc.

Not Found

When a Sinatra::NotFound exception is raised, or the response's status code is 404, the not_found handler is invoked:

not_found do
  'This is nowhere to be found'
end

Error

The error handler is invoked any time an exception is raised from a route block or before filter. The exception object can be obtained from the sinatra.error Rack variable:

error do
  'Sorry there was a nasty error - ' + env['sinatra.error'].name
end

Custom errors:

error MyCustomError do
  'So what happened was...' + request.env['sinatra.error'].message
end

Then, if this happens:

get '/' do
  raise MyCustomError, 'something bad'
end

You get this:

So what happened was... something bad

Sinatra installs special not_found and error handlers when running under the development environment.

Mime types

When using send_file or static files you may have mime types Sinatra doesn't understand. Use mime to register them by file extension:

mime :foo, 'text/foo'

Rack Middleware

Sinatra rides on Rack, a minimal standard interface for Ruby web frameworks. One of Rack's most interesting capabilities for application developers is support for “middleware” – components that sit between the server and your application monitoring and/or manipulating the HTTP request/response to provide various types of common functionality.

Sinatra makes building Rack middleware pipelines a cinch via a top-level use method:

require 'sinatra'
require 'my_custom_middleware'

use Rack::Lint
use MyCustomMiddleware

get '/hello' do
  'Hello World'
end

The semantics of use are identical to those defined for the Rack::Builder DSL (most frequently used from rackup files). For example, the use method accepts multiple/variable args as well as blocks:

use Rack::Auth::Basic do |username, password|
  username == 'admin' && password == 'secret'
end

Rack is distributed with a variety of standard middleware for logging, debugging, URL routing, authentication, and session handling. Sinatra uses many of of these components automatically based on configuration so you typically don't have to use them explicitly.

Testing

Sinatra tests can be written using any Rack-based testing library or framework. Rack::Test is recommended:

require 'my_sinatra_app'
require 'rack/test'

class MyAppTest < Test::Unit::TestCase
  include Rack::Test::Methods

  def app
    Sinatra::Application
  end

  def test_my_default
    get '/'
    assert_equal 'Hello World!', last_response.body
  end

  def test_with_params
    get '/meet', :name => 'Frank'
    assert_equal 'Hello Frank!', last_response.body
  end

  def test_with_rack_env
    get '/', {}, 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' => 'Songbird'
    assert_equal "You're using Songbird!", last_response.body
  end
end

NOTE: The built-in Sinatra::Test module and Sinatra::TestHarness class are deprecated as of the 0.9.2 release.

Command line

Sinatra applications can be run directly:

ruby myapp.rb [-h] [-x] [-e ENVIRONMENT] [-p PORT] [-s HANDLER]

Options are:

-h # help
-p # set the port (default is 4567)
-e # set the environment (default is development)
-s # specify rack server/handler (default is thin)
-x # turn on the mutex lock (default is off)

The Bleeding Edge

If you would like to use Sinatra's latest bleeding code, create a local clone and run your app with the sinatra/lib directory on the LOAD_PATH:

cd myapp
git clone git://github.com/sinatra/sinatra.git
ruby -Isinatra/lib myapp.rb

Alternatively, you can add the sinatra/lib directory to the LOAD_PATH in your application:

$LOAD_PATH.unshift File.dirname(__FILE__) + '/sinatra/lib'
require 'rubygems'
require 'sinatra'

get '/about' do
  "I'm running version " + Sinatra::VERSION
end

To update the Sinatra sources in the future:

cd myproject/sinatra
git pull

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