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give sanction to your users when they intend to navigate to certain portions of your website

branch: master
README.markdown

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Sanction Plugin for CakePHP

Centralize all of those permissions in a single file using the Sanction plugin.

Background

Sanction is the culmination of lots of auth work on CakePackages. I was using the CakePHP Authsome plugin for application authentication, but needed something similar to Auth for Authorization. I could have used Auth component, but that felt both hacky and sometimes tricky to use. Rather than spread the permissions across several controllers with complex rules in various places, I created the PermitComponent to centralize all of this into one permit.php file.

Requirements

  • CakeSession-accessible User session
  • CakePHP 2.x

Installation

[Using Composer]

Add the plugin to your project's composer.json - something like this:

{
    "require": {
        "josegonzalez/cakephp-sanction": "2.1.0"
    }
}

Because this plugin has the type cakephp-plugin set in it's own composer.json, composer knows to install it inside your /Plugins directory, rather than in the usual vendors file. It is recommended that you add /Plugins/Upload to your .gitignore file. (Why? read this.)

[Manual]

[GIT Submodule]

In your app directory type:

git submodule add git://github.com/josegonzalez/cakephp-sanction.git Plugin/Sanction
git submodule init
git submodule update

[GIT Clone]

In your plugin directory type

git clone git://github.com/josegonzalez/cakephp-sanction.git Sanction

Enable plugin

In 2.0 you need to enable the plugin your app/Config/bootstrap.php file:

    CakePlugin::load('Sanction');

If you are already using CakePlugin::loadAll();, then this is not necessary.

Usage

PermitComponent Setup

Install the SanctionPlugin in your app/Plugin/ folder under the Sanction folder.

If you want to use the PermitComponent to block user access to controllers/actions, add the following to your AppController or a specific Controller:

/**
* the 'path' key defines the Session key which holds user information (default Auth.User)
* the 'check' key defined the subfield of the path, used to verify only that someone is logged in (default: id)
*/


// Example for default AuthComponent Configuration (with associated models)
public $components = array('Sanction.Permit' => array(
    'path' => 'Auth',
    'check' => 'Auth.id'
));

// Example for default AuthComponent Configuration (no associated models, restricted to just looking at the User model)
public $components = array('Sanction.Permit' => array(
    'path' => 'Auth.User'
));

// Example for default AuthsomeComponent Configuration (with associated models)
public $components = array('Sanction.Permit' => array(
    'path' => 'User',
    'check' => 'User.id'
));

// Example for default AuthsomeComponent Configuration (no associated models, restricted to just looking at the User model)
public $components = array('Sanction.Permit' => array(
    'path' => 'User.User'
));

// Example for customized AuthsomeComponent Configuration (with associated models)
public $components = array(
    'Authsome.Authsome' => array(
        'model' => 'Member',
        'configureKey' => 'MemberAuth',
        'sessionKey' => 'MemberAuth',
        'cookieKey' => 'MemberAuth',
    ),
    'Sanction.Permit' => array('path' => 'MemberAuth')
);

// NOTE: you can also configure the settings in the permit.php file (below) in which case, just include the component by itself (this way the configuration is available to the debug_kit panel)
public $components = array('Sanction.Permit');

Then you will want to setup some permissions...

Create a file called permit.php in your app/Config/ folder. You'll need to do the following:

  • Add App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');
  • Define some rules - these will be outlined below - using Permit::access();

You can test those rules by browsing to the url you are protecting.

ClearanceHelper Setup

Install the SanctionPlugin in your app/Plugin/ folder under the Sanction folder.

If you want to use the ClearanceHelper to block user access to controllers/actions, add the following to your AppController or a specific Controller:

// Example (use the same {{$PATH}} as in the component)
var $helpers = array('Sanction.Clearance' => array('path' => '{{$PATH}}'));

Then you will want to setup some permissions...

Create a file called permit.php in your app/Config/ folder. You'll need to do the following:

  • Add App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');
  • Define some rules (these will be outlined below)

Then create links in your views using $this->Clearance->link() instead of $this->Html->link(). If the currently logged in user (or not logged in user) has access as defined by the app/config/permit.php file, then the link will appear in whatever view the ClearanceHelper was created in.

Note that checking against the app/Config/permit.php file is an expensive operation (for now!), so you might want to use this on links that will actually vary when displayed to different users, as opposed to all links in your application.

DebugKit Panel

Included in the Sanction plugin is a debug_kit panel (as of commit fb061e57) which displays not only the currently matched access rule, but also all rules that you have defined for the application. Useful information if only so you can see whether the current request even went through a rule.

To use it, add the following to your AppController:

// Example of how to implement the Sanction pannel
var $components = array(
    'DebugKit.Toolbar' => array('panels' => array('Sanction.permit')),
);

In the future, it will also keep a history of past requests, as well as highlighting explicitly which access rule was used.

Rules

Rules are defined by Permit::access(); and can contain 3 arrays:

  • Array of rules upon which we will control access. It can be a string, but these are much less flexible.
  • Array of rules by which the User's session must be defined by
    • If you restrict to a single model and don't use associated data, you can enter just the fieldname to match on in the Auth array
    • If you use associated models, you need to specify a Set::extract() path as the fieldname
  • Array of extra parameters, such as where to redirect, the flash message, etc.

An example app/Config/permit.php:

App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

// no associated model, example: looks for $sessionUser['group'] == 'admin'
Permit::access(
    array('controller' => 'posts', 'action' => array('add', 'edit', 'delete')),
    array('auth' => array('group' => 'admin')),
    array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login'))
);

// with associated model, example: looks for in_array('admin', Set::extract('/Group/name',$sessionUser))
Permit::access(
    array('controller' => 'posts', 'action' => array('add', 'edit', 'delete')),
    array('auth' => array('Group.name' => 'admin')),
    array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login'))
);

For the above, the following actions will be affected:

  • /posts/add/*
  • /posts/edit/*
  • /posts/delete/*

The user must have be in the admin group (first example as a field on the user model, second as an assocaited Group model), and if they are not, they will be redirected to /users/login.

App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

// no associated model, example: looks for $sessionUser['group'] == 'admin'
Permit::access(
    array('controller' => 'comments', 'action' => array('edit', 'delete')),
    array('auth' => array('group' => 'admin')),
    array(
        'element' => 'comment',
        'key' => 'flash',
        'message' => __('You must be logged in to comment', true),
        'redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login')
    )
);

For the above, the following actions will be affected:

  • /comments/edit/*
  • /comments/delete/*

The user must have a field 'group' with a value of admin, and if they do not, they will be redirected to /users/login. A flash message at the key flash using the comment element will also be displayed, which will contain the message 'You must be logged in to comment'.

App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

Permit::access(
    array('controller' => array('comments'), 'action' => array('add')),
    array('auth' => true),
    array(
        'message' => __('You must be logged in to comment', true),
        'redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login')
    )
);

For the above, the following actions will be affected:

  • /comments/add/*

The user must authenticated, and if they are not, they will be redirected to /users/login. A flash message will also be presented to them which will contain the message 'You must be logged in to comment'.

App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

// no associated model, example: looks for $sessionUser['group'] == 'admin'
Permit::access(
    array('prefix' => 'admin'),
    array('auth' => array('group' => 'admin')),
    array('redirect' => array('admin' => false, 'controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login')));

// with associated model, example: looks for in_array('admin', Set::extract('/Group/name',$sessionUser))
Permit::access(
    array('prefix' => 'admin'),
    array('auth' => array('Group.name' => 'admin')),
    array('redirect' => array('admin' => false, 'controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login'))
);

For the above, any route with an admin prefix would be affected.

The user must be in the group admin, and if they are not, they will be redirected to /users/login.

It is also possible to use strings to reference URLs instead of routes:

    App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

    Permit::access(
        '/posts',
        array('auth' => array('group' => 'admin')),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login'))
    );

The above rule will affect ONLY requests to /posts and /posts/; Requests to /posts/index or /posts/add will remain untouched. Trailing commas are removed from rules for normalization purposes.

You can also specify query strings, though again, it is a literal match:

    App::uses('Permit', 'Sanction.Controller/Component');

    Permit::access(
        '/posts?page=5',
        array('auth' => array('group' => 'admin')),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'login'))
    );

The above would affect only /posts?page=5, and requests to /posts?page=6 or /posts?page=5&order=created would be ignored in rule parsing. Please keep this in mind when using string-based permission access.

Rules Specificity

As with routes, all rules must be specified in order of most specific to least specific. The following two examples will illustrate this:

// If this access declaration comes first, this will be the
// ONLY declaration that Sanction uses. Once this fails,
// Sanction will not continue on to other rules
Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts', 'categories', 'comments'),
        array('auth' => array('User.role' => array('admin'))),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'account')
);

// So this declaration will be effectively useless.
Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts'), 'action' => array('edit'),
        array('auth' => array('User.role' => array('manager', 'admin'))),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'account')
);

In order to specify the rules such that an admin user can edit posts, the rules would need to be switched. The most restrictive rule - i.e. the one that limits the controller AND action, as opposed to just the controller - should come first. The following will work as expected:

Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts'), 'action' => array('edit'),
        array('auth' => array('User.role' => array('manager', 'admin'))),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'account')
);

Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts', 'configs', 'comments'),
        array('auth' => array('User.role' => array('admin'))),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'users', 'action' => 'account')
);

Example Rules

Allowing anonymous access:

Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts'), 'action' => array('index')),
        array(),
        array()
);

Allowing access to multiple roles:

Permit::access(
        array('controller' => array('posts'), 'action' => array('add', 'delete')),
        array('auth' => array('User.role' => array('user', 'admin'))),
        array('redirect' => array('controller' => 'posts', 'action' => 'index'),
                    'message' => 'You are not authorized to perform the requested action.'
        )
);

PermitBehavour Setup

Sanction now contains a Behavour which allows you to deny access to records owned by other users, which was created primarally for limiting access to the edit() action. It does this by checking the specified field (default of user_id) within the current model against the id of the currently logged in user, and throws an UnauthorizedException if they don't match.

To enable this, add one of the following to your models:

// default set-up
public $actsAs = array(
    'Sanction.Permit'
);

// example set-up with all available options, set your own defaults
public $actsAs = array(
    'Sanction.Permit' => array(
        'message' => 'You do not have permission to edit this post', // (string, optional) A message to display to the user when they do not have access to the model record. DEFAULTS TO: "You do not have permission to view this %ModelAlias%"
        'field' => 'Post.user_id', // (string, optional) A `Hash::get()`-compatible string for retrieving the from the current record user_id.  DEFAULTS TO: %ModelAlias%.user_id
        'check' => 'is_admin', // (string, optional) optional admin override for returning the results when the user_id does not match the current user. DEFAULTS TO: false
        'value' => true, // (mixed, optional) The value the check should resolve to. DEFAULTS TO: true
        'skip' => true, // (boolean, optional) Whether to skip rule checking. DEFAULTS TO: true
        'rules' => array(), (array, optional) If `permit` is set in a `Model::find()`, this key will be used to make an index lookup for rules to apply to this find. DEFAULTS TO: empty array
    )
);

If you want to add additional settings to individual data retrieval calls, there are a couple of ways you're able to do this:

// passing additional settings via a `find('first')`
$params = array(
    'conditions' => array('id' => $id),
    'permit_skip' => false,
    'permit_check' => 'is_admin',
    'permit_value' => true,
);
$data = $this->find('first', $params);

// using the `permit()` method on the model
$this->permit(array(
    'skip' => false,
    'check' => 'is_admin',
    'value' => true,
    'persist' => true // (boolean, optional) if set to true, all settings passed here will persist for future `find()` requests, unless false is set
));
$this->request->data = $this->read(null, $id);

Todo

  • More Unit Tests
  • Support yaml/db-backed Permit Component permission loading

License

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2010 Jose Diaz-Gonzalez

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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