Skip to content
master
Switch branches/tags
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.
Type
Name
Latest commit message
Commit time
 
 
 
 
 
 
FAQ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
coWPAtty - Brute-force dictionary attack against WPA-PSK.

Copyright(c) 2004-2018  Joshua Wright <jwright@hasborg.com>

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

INTRO

Right off the bat, this code isn't very useful.  The PBKDF2 function makes
4096 SHA-1 passes for each passphrase, which takes quite a bit of time.  On
my Pentium II development system, I'm getting ~4 passphrases/second.
The SHA-1 code I'm using has been optimized to the best of my ability (which
isn't saying that much), but I doubt if it would be possible to optimize it
such that the tool experiences an exponential performance increase.

However, if you are auditing WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK networks, you can use
this tool to identify weak passphrases that were used to generate the
PMK.  Supply a libpcap capture file that includes the 4-way handshake, a
dictionary file of passphrases to guess with, and the SSID for the
network:

$ ./cowpatty -r eap-test.dump -f dict -s somethingclever
cowpatty 4.0 - WPA-PSK dictionary attack. <jwright@hasborg.com>

Collected all necessary data to mount crack against WPA/PSK passphrase.
Starting dictionary attack.  Please be patient.

The PSK is "family movie night".

4087 passphrases tested in 59.05 seconds:  69.22 passphrases/second
$

The files "dict" and "eap-test.dump" are included with this distribution
for testing purposes.  If your SSID has spaces or other non-ASCII characters,
enclose it in quotes so the shell doesn't interpret it as multiple parameters.


This tool can also accept dictionary words from STDIN, allowing us to utilize
a tool such as John the Ripper to create lots of word permutations from a
dictionary file:

$ john -wordfile:dictfile -rules -session:johnrestore.dat -stdout:63 | \
   cowpatty -r eap-test.dump -f - -s somethingclever

In the default configuration of John the Ripper, common permutations of
dictionary words will be sent as potential passwords to coWPAtty.  For
example, here is a list of the words John will create from the input word
"password":

jwright@mercury:~$ echo password >word
jwright@mercury:~$ john -session:/tmp/delme -wordfile:word -rules -stdout
password
Password
passwords
password1
Password1
drowssap
1password
PASSWORD
password2
password!
password3
password7
password9
password5
password4
password8
password6
password0
password.
password?
psswrd
drowssaP
Drowssap
passworD
2password
4password
Password2
Password!
Password3
Password9
Password5
Password7
Password4
Password6
Password8
Password.
Password?
Password0
3password
7password
9password
5password
6password
8password
Passwords
passworded
passwording
Passworded
Passwording
words: 49  time: 0:00:00:00 100%  w/s: 49.00  current: Passwording
jwright@mercury:~$

John the Ripper is available at http://www.openwall.com/john/.


Note that it is also possible to mount a precomputed attack against the PSK.
The PBKDF2 algorithm used to generate the PMK takes two non-fixed inputs: the
passphrase and the network SSID.  For a given SSID, we can precompute all the
PMK's from a dictionary file with the "genpmk" tool:

$ ./genpmk
genpmk 1.0 - WPA-PSK precomputation attack. <jwright@hasborg.com>
genpmk: Must specify a dictionary file with -f
Usage: genpmk [options]

	-f 	Dictionary file
	-d 	Output hash file
	-s 	Network SSID
	-h 	Print this help information and exit
	-v 	Print verbose information (more -v for more verbosity)
	-V 	Print program version and exit

After precomputing the hash file, run cowpatty with the -d argument.
$ ./genpmk -f dict -d hashfile -s somethingclever
genpmk 1.0 - WPA-PSK dictionary attack. <jwright@hasborg.com>
File hashfile does not exist, creating.
<snip>

4090 passphrases tested in 322.79 seconds:  12.67 passphrases/second
$

Once the hashfile is created with the PMK's, we can use it with cowpatty:

$ ./cowpatty -r eap-test.dump -d hashfile -s somethingclever
cowpatty 3.1 - WPA-PSK dictionary attack. <jwright@hasborg.com>

Collected all necessary data to mount crack against WPA/PSK passphrase.
Starting dictionary attack.  Please be patient.

The PSK is family movie night".

4087 passphrases tested in 0.21 seconds:  19096.17 passphrases/second
$


The attack isn't accelerated dramatically with the precomputation attack since
we still have to spend the time precomputing the PMK with the genpmk utility,
but we only have to do this once for each SSID.  This allows us to precompute
hash files with common SSID's such as "linksys" and "tsunami".  If you spend
the time precomputing big dictionaries, please drop me a copy.


REFERENCE

See Robert Moskowitz's paper "Weakness in Passphrase Choice in WPA Interface"
for more information on WPA-PSK attacks at 
http://wifinetnews.com/archives/002452.html.


THANKS

My sincere thanks to dragorn for merging in the assembly SHA1 code, and to
Randy Chou for advice on optimizing the pbkdf2 function.  Also thanks to
renderman for the inspiration to add the precomputation code.  Thanks to h1kari
and beetle for their respective foo.


QUESTIONS, COMMENTS, CONCERNS

Please contact jwright@hasborg.com with any questions, comments or concerns.
My PGP key is located at http://802.11ninja.net/pgpkey.html.