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NETCTL.PROFILE(5)
=================
NAME
----
netctl.profile - Profile options
SYNOPSIS
--------
netctl.profile
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Profiles for netctl live under '/etc/netctl/' and are plain text files.
The files consist of variable definitions following the bash shell
syntax and are not expected to execute any code. It is good to omit as
much quoting as possible. For a few WPA-related variables, special
quoting rules (see below) apply.
The name of the profile is the name of the file. Profile names must not
contain newlines and should not end in '.action', '.conf', or
'.service'. Whenever a profile is read, all executable scripts in
'/etc/netctl/hooks/' and any executable script in
'/etc/netctl/interfaces/' with the name of the interface for the profile
are sourced. Declarations in an interface script override declarations
in a profile, which override declarations in hooks. For each connection
type, there are example profile files in '/etc/netctl/examples/'.
AVAILABLE CONNECTION TYPES
--------------------------
+ethernet+::
For wired connections.
+wireless+::
For wireless connections. This connection type requires
*wpa_supplicant* to be available.
+bond+::
For bonded interfaces.
+bridge+::
For bridge interfaces.
+dummy+::
For dummy interfaces.
+ppp+::
For PPP connections (currently only PPPoE).
+pppoe+::
For PPPoE connections.
+mobile_ppp+::
For mobile broadband PPP connections that use a USB modem.
+openvswitch+::
For Open vSwitch bridge interfaces.
+tunnel+::
For tunnel interfaces.
+tuntap+::
For TUN/TAP interfaces.
+vlan+::
For VLANs on ethernet-like connections.
+macvlan+::
For MACVLANs on ethernet-like connections.
GENERAL OPTIONS
---------------
'Description='::
A description of the profile.
'Connection=' [mandatory for all profiles]::
The connection type used by the profile.
'Interface=' [mandatory for all profiles]::
The name of the associated network interface. The interface name
should not be quoted.
'BindsToInterfaces=()'::
An array of physical network interfaces that this profile needs
before it can be started. For `enabled' profiles, *systemd* will
wait for the presence of the specified interfaces before starting a
profile. If this variable is not specified, it defaults to the value
of 'Interface'.
'After=()'::
An array of profile names that should be started before this profile
is started. This is only an ordering dependency and is not intended
to be a list of profiles that this profile requires. The meaning is
the same as 'After' in *systemd.unit*(5).
'ExecUpPost='::
A command that is executed after a connection is established. If the
specified command returns anything other than 0 (success), *netctl*
will abort and stop the profile. If the command should be allowed to
fail, add ``|| true`' to the end of it.
'ExecDownPre='::
A command that is executed before a connection is brought down.
Similar precautions should be taken as with 'ExecUpPost'.
'TimeoutUp'::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for an interface to get up.
Defaults to `++5++'.
'ForceConnect='::
Set to `++yes++' to force connecting even if the interface is up.
Do not use this unless you know what you are doing.
'ExcludeAuto='::
Whether or not to exclude this profile from automatic profile
selection. Defaults to `++no++' for wireless and DHCP enabled
connections and to `++yes++' otherwise.
'NETCTL_DEBUG='::
Set to `++yes++' to generate debugging output.
IP OPTIONS
----------
These options apply to all connections that set up an IP-enabled
network. In particular, these connection types are +ethernet+,
+wireless+, +bond+, +bridge+, +tunnel+, +tuntap+, and +vlan+.
'IP=' [mandatory for IPv4]::
One of `static', `dhcp', or `no', depending on the desired way of
obtaining an address.
'IP6=' [mandatory for IPv6]::
One of `static', `stateless', `dhcp-noaddr', `dhcp', `no' or left
out (empty) altogether. The difference between not specifying and
setting to `no' is in the handling of __router advertisement__
packages, which is blocked by `no'.
'Address=()' [requires 'IP=static']::
An array of IP addresses suffixed with `++/<netmask>++'.
Leaving out brackets for arrays consisting of a single element is
accepted in the Bash syntax.
'Gateway=' [requires 'IP=static']::
An IP routing gateway address.
'Routes=()'::
An array of custom routes of the form +
`**<address range>** via **<gateway>**'.
'Address6=()' [requires 'IP6=static' or 'IP6=stateless']::
An array of IPv6 addresses. Prefix length may be specified via
`1234:bcd::11/64' syntax. It is possible to specify modifiers, in
particular, `1234:bcd::11/64 nodad' disables Duplicate Address
Detection for the address.
'Gateway6=' [requires 'IP6=static' or 'IP6=stateless']::
An IPv6 routing gateway address.
'Routes6=()'::
An array of custom routes of the form +
`**<address range>** via **<gateway>**'.
'DHCPClient=' [requires 'IP=dhcp']::
The name of the DHCP client to use. Clients may accept additional
options through client-specific variables. By default, *netctl*
comes with support for `dhcpcd' and `dhclient'. Defaults to
`++dhcpcd++'.
'DHCP6Client=' [requires 'IP6=dhcp' or 'IP6=dhcp-noaddr']::
The name of the DHCPv6 client to use. By default, `dhcpcd' and
`dhclient' are supported. Defaults to `++dhclient++'.
'DHCPReleaseOnStop='::
Set to `++yes++' to release the DHCP lease when the profile is
stopped.
'IPCustom=()'::
An array of argument lines to pass to `ip`. This can be used to
achieve complicated configurations within the framework of *netctl*.
'Hostname='::
A system hostname.
'DNS=()'::
An array of DNS nameservers. Simply specify the IP addresses of each
of the DNS nameservers.
'DNSDomain='::
A `++domain++' line for '/etc/resolv.conf', passed to
*resolvconf*(5).
'DNSSearch='::
A `++search++' line for '/etc/resolv.conf', passed to
*resolvconf*(5).
'DNSOptions=()'::
An array of `++options++' lines for '/etc/resolv.conf', passed to
*resolvconf*(5).
'TimeoutDHCP='::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for DHCP to be successful.
Defaults to `++30++'.
'TimeoutDAD='::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for IPv6's Duplicate Address
Detection to succeed. Defaults to `++3++'.
'SkipDAD='::
Whether or not to bypass Duplicate Address Detection altogether.
Defaults to `++no++'.
OPTIONS FOR `ethernet' CONNECTIONS
----------------------------------
Next to the *ip options*, the following are understood for connections
of the `ethernet' type:
'Auth8021X='::
Set to `++yes++' to use 802.1x authentication.
'WPAConfigFile='::
Path to a *wpa_supplicant* configuration file. Defaults to
'/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'.
'WPADriver='::
The *wpa_supplicant* driver to use for 802.1x authentication.
Defaults to `++wired++'.
'TimeoutCarrier='::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for a carrier. Defaults to
`++5++'.
'TimeoutWPA='::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for 802.1x authentication to
succeed. Defaults to `++15++'.
'SkipNoCarrier='::
Whether or not the absence of a carrier (plugged-in cable) is
acceptable. Defaults to `++no++'.
'Priority='::
Priority level of the profile. In case of automatic profile
selection, profiles are tried in decreasing order of priority.
Defaults to `++1++' in DHCP enabled profiles and to `++0++'
otherwise.
OPTIONS FOR `wireless' CONNECTIONS
----------------------------------
Next to the *ip options*, the following are understood for connections
of the `wireless' type:
'Security='::
One of `none', `wep', `wpa', `wpa-configsection', or `wpa-config'.
Defaults to `++none++'.
'ESSID=' [mandatory]::
The name of the network to connect to.
Special quoting rules (see below) apply.
'AP='::
The BSSID (MAC address) of the access point to connect to.
'Key='::
The secret key to a WEP, or WPA encrypted network.
Special quoting rules (see below) apply.
'Hidden='::
Whether or not the specified network is a hidden network. Defaults
to `++no++'.
'AdHoc='::
Whether or not to use ad-hoc mode. Defaults to `++no++'.
'ScanFrequencies='::
A space-separated list of frequencies in MHz to scan when searching
for the network. Defaults to all available frequencies.
'Frequency='::
A frequency in MHz to use in ad-hoc mode when a new IBSS is created
(i.e. the network is not already present).
'Priority='::
Priority group for the network. In case of automatic profile
selection, the matched network with the highest priority will be
selected. Defaults to `++0++'.
'WPAConfigSection=()' [mandatory for 'Security=wpa-configsection']::
Array of lines that form a network block for *wpa_supplicant*. All
of the above options will be ignored.
'WPAConfigFile='::
Path to a *wpa_supplicant* configuration file. Used only for
'Security=wpa-config'. All options except 'WPADriver', 'TimeoutWPA',
and 'RFKill' will be ignored. The profile is excluded from
automatic profile selection. Defaults to '/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'.
'Country='::
The country for which frequency regulations will be enforced.
'WPAGroup='::
Group that has the authority to configure *wpa_supplicant* via its
control interface. Defaults to `++wheel++'.
'WPADriver='::
The *wpa_supplicant* driver to use. Defaults to `++nl80211,wext++'.
'TimeoutWPA='::
Maximum time, in seconds, to wait for steps in the association and
authentication to succeed. Defaults to `++15++'.
'RFKill='::
The name of an *rfkill* device. When specified, the device is used
to block/unblock the interface when appropriate. Names can be found
in '/sys/class/rfkill/rfkillX/name'. It is also possible to set this
variable to `++auto++'. In that case an *rfkill* device that is
associated with the network interface is used.
OPTIONS FOR `bond' CONNECTIONS
------------------------------
The interfaces of 'BindsToInterfaces' are bound together in the
interface named by 'Interface'. Next to the *ip options*, the following
is understood for connections of the `bond' type:
'Mode='::
The bonding policy. See the kernel documentation on bonding for
details.
OPTIONS FOR `bridge' CONNECTIONS
--------------------------------
The interfaces of 'BindsToInterfaces' take part in the bridge named by
'Interface'. Next to the *ip options*, the following is understood for
connections of the `bridge' type:
'SkipForwardingDelay='::
Skip \(R)STP and immediately activate all bridge members. This can
be useful when DHCP is used on the bridge.
OPTIONS FOR `dummy' CONNECTIONS
-------------------------------
The name of the dummy interface is specified in 'Interface'. Only the
*ip options* are understood for connections of the `dummy' type.
OPTIONS FOR `ppp' CONNECTIONS
-----------------------------
This connection type is identical to the `pppoe' type below, with the
ethernet interface specified in 'BindsToInterfaces'. The value of
'Interface' must be of the form `ppp<++n++>', where ++n++ is passed on
to 'PPPUnit'.
OPTIONS FOR `pppoe' CONNECTIONS
-------------------------------
The interface to dial peer-to-peer over ethernet is specified in
'Interface'. The following options are understood for connections of
the `pppoe' type:
'User=' and 'Password='::
The username and password to connect with.
'ConnectionMode='::
This option specifies how a connection should be established, and
may take either `persist' or `demand' as its argument.
'IdleTimeout='::
This option specifies the idle time (in seconds) after which `pppd'
should disconnect. This option is only valid if 'ConnectionMode' is
set to `demand'.
'MaxFail='::
The number of consecutive failed connection attempts to tolerate.
A value of 0 means no limit. Defaults to `++5++'.
'DefaultRoute='::
Use the default route provided by the peer (defaults to `true').
'UsePeerDNS='::
Use the DNS provided by the peer (defaults to `true').
'PPPUnit='::
Set the ppp unit number in the interface name (ppp0, ppp1, etc.).
'LCPEchoInterval=' and 'LCPEchoFailure='::
These options override default LCP parameters from
`/etc/ppp/options'.
'OptionsFile='::
A file to read additional pppd options from.
The following advanced options are also understood:
'PPPoEService='::
This option specifies the PPPoE service name.
'PPPoEAC='::
This option specifies the PPPoE access concentrator name.
'PPPoESession='::
This option specifies an existing session to attach to, and is of
the form `sessid:macaddr'.
'PPPoEMAC='::
Only connect to specified MAC address
'PPPoEIP6='::
Enable IPv6 support
OPTIONS FOR `mobile_ppp' CONNECTIONS
------------------------------------
The name of the USB serial device is specified in 'Interface'. The
following options are understood for connections of the `mobile_ppp'
type:
'User=' and 'Password='::
The username and password to connect with. These are unset by
default, as they are often not required.
'AccessPointName='::
The access point (apn) to connect on. This is specific to your ISP.
'Pin='::
If your modem requires a PIN to unlock, set it here.
'PhoneNumber'::
The number to dial. Defaults to `++&ast;99&num;++'.
'Mode='::
This option is used to specify the connection mode. Can be one of
`3Gpref', `3Gonly', `GPRSpref', `GPRSonly', `None'. This generates
AT commands specific to certain Huawei modems; all other devices
should use `None'.
'Init='::
An initialization string sent to the modem before dialing. This
string is sent after sending ``ATZ''. Defaults to
`++ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0++'.
'ChatScript='::
Path to a chat file. If specified, no chat script will be generated
and all of the above options except 'User' and 'Password' will be
ignored.
'MaxFail='::
The number of consecutive failed connection attempts to tolerate.
A value of 0 means no limit. Defaults to `++5++'.
'DefaultRoute='::
Use the default route provided by the peer. Defaults to `++true++'.
'UsePeerDNS='::
Use the DNS provided by the peer. Defaults to `++true++'.
'OptionsFile='::
A file to read additional pppd options from.
OPTIONS FOR `openvswitch' CONNECTIONS
-------------------------------------
The interfaces of 'BindsToInterfaces' take part in the bridge named by
'Interface'. Only the *ip options* are understood for connections of
the `openvswitch' type.
OPTIONS FOR `tunnel' CONNECTIONS
--------------------------------
The name of the tunnel interface is specified in 'Interface'. Next to
the *ip options*, the following are understood for connections of the
`tunnel' type:
'Mode='::
The tunnel type (e.g. `sit'). See *ip*(8) for available modes.
'Local='::
The address of the local end of the tunnel.
'Remote='::
The address of the remote end of the tunnel.
'Key=' [requires 'Mode=gre']::
A key identifying an individual traffic flow within a tunnel.
OPTIONS FOR `tuntap' CONNECTIONS
--------------------------------
The name of the tuntap interface is specified in 'Interface'. Next to
the *ip options*, the following are understood for connections of the
`tuntap' type:
'Mode='::
Either `tun', or `tap'.
'User='::
The owning user of the tun/tap interface.
'Group='::
The owning group of the tun/tap interface.
OPTIONS FOR `vlan' CONNECTIONS
------------------------------
The name of the vlan interface is specified in 'Interface'. The
underlying physical interface is specified in 'BindsToInterfaces'.
Hence, for vlan profiles, 'BindsToInterfaces' contains the name of a
single network interface.
All options for connections of the `ethernet' type are understood for
connections of the `vlan' type. Additionally, connections of the `vlan'
type must set a vlan identifier using 'VLANID='. See *ip*(8) for
details.
OPTIONS FOR `macvlan' CONNECTIONS
---------------------------------
The name of the macvlan interface is specified in 'Interface'. The
underlying physical interface is specified in 'BindsToInterfaces'.
Hence, for macvlan profiles, 'BindsToInterfaces' contains the name of a
single network interface.
All options for connections of the `ethernet' type are understood for
connections of the `macvlan' type. Next to the *ip options*, the
following are understood for connections of the `macvlan' type:
'Mode='::
Either `bridge', `vepa', `private', or `passthru'. See *ip*(8) for
details.
'MACAddress='::
Optional static MAC address for the `macvlan' type link.
SPECIAL QUOTING RULES
---------------------
Configuration files for *wpa_supplicant* use non-standard quoting.
Therefore, non-standard quoting rules exist for some variables for
connections of the `wireless' type. In particular, these variables are
'ESSID', and 'Key'.
A variable is considered *quoted* by *wpa_supplicant* if it is enclosed
in double quotes ("). A variable is considered *non-quoted* by
*wpa_supplicant* if it does not start with a double quote. Hexadecimal
values are specified *non-quoted* in configuration files of
*wpa_supplicant*. In *netctl*, variables are written to *wpa_supplicant*
configuration files *quoted* by default. When special quoting rules
apply, it is possible to specify an unquoted (hexadecimal) value using a
special syntax.
The special quoting rules of *netctl* are as follows. A string that
starts with a literal double quote is considered *non-quoted*. Any other
string is considered *quoted*. It is possible to specify quoted strings
that start with a double quote by quoting manually. An extreme example
is the specification of a *quoted* double quote: '`X='""""'`'. On the
other end of the spectrum there is the *non-quoted* backslash:
'`X=\"\\`'.
Further examples of *quoted* strings (all equivalent):
-------------
X=string
X="string"
X='""string"'
-------------
Further examples of *non-quoted* strings (all equivalent):
------------
X=\"string
X="\"string"
X='"string'
------------
A mnemonic is to think of the prefix ``\"`' as saying `non'-`quote'.
SEE ALSO
--------
*netctl*(1), *resolvconf.conf*(5)
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