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Awesome Cryptoeconomics Awesome

A curated list of awesome resources for Cryptoeconomics research

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Table of Contents



  1. Cryptoeconomics for dummies
  2. Cryptoeconomics 101
  3. Making Sense of Cryptoeconomics Making Sense of Cryptoeconomics by Josh Stark
  4. What is Cryptoeconomics What is Cryptoeconomics, a guide by BlockGeeks
  5. How Society Will Be Transformed By Cryptoeconomics
  6. Paving the Future of Blockchain Technology
  7. Vivek Singh's Cryptoeconomics in context
  8. The Blockchain Economy: A beginner’s guide to institutional cryptoeconomics by RMIT Blockchain Innovation Hub
  9. Cryptoeconomics is Hard Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 by Aleksandr Bulkin
  10. Behavioural Crypto-Economics the challenge and promise of Blockchain Incentive Design by Elad Verbin
  11. Introduction to Blockchain through Cryptoeconomics by Zubin Koticha
  12. The need for an Incentive scheme in Algorand by Alexis Guaba, Zubin Koticha
  13. A free and open source book & course on Cryptoeconomics
  14. Tokenomics An introduction to token economics

Game Theory

  1. Introduction to Game Theory Part one of a series by Devin Soni
  2. Schelling Point Introduction to the concept of Schelling Point
  3. Nash Equilibria and Schelling Points
  4. The strategy of conflict book The Strategy of Conflict
  5. Mechanism design (deck) Mechanism design theory examples and complexity
  6. Standford's Algorithmic Game Theory lecture series
  7. Cryptocurrency Game Theory What is Cryptocurrency Game Theory: A Basic introduction
  8. Correlated Equilibria In Game Theory, No Clear Path to Equilibrium
  9. Incentives structures
  10. The Art Of Designing Great Incentives A framework to help community leaders encourage collaboration through Social Tokens

Mechanism Design

  1. A Crash Course in Mechanism Design for Cryptoeconomic Applications
  2. Mechanism Theory paper by Matthew O. Jackson
  3. Mechanism Design Theory
  4. Mechanism Design and Approximation

Cryptographic Primitives

  1. Cryptographic Primitives as described in Wikipedia
  2. A Graduate Course in Applied Cryptography by Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup
  3. Ethereum: Signing and Validating
  4. Merkling in Ethereum by Vitalik Buterin
  5. Bitcoin's Academic Pedigree by Arvind Narayanan and Jeremy Clark

Consensus Mechanisms

PoW - Proof of Work

  1. PoW and Blockchains presentation by Prof. Ittay Eyal (IC3)
  2. An Economic Analysis of Difficulty Adjustment Algorithms in PoW Blockchain Systems by Noda et al.
  3. The PoW concept article by the Nakamoto Institute
  4. ConsensusPedia - An Encylopedia of 29 consensus algorithms article by Vasa
  5. Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake by BlockGeeks
  6. Vulnerability: Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake

PoS - Proof of Stake

  1. Strengths and Weaknesses of PoS Vitalik Buterin's article on the strengths and weaknesses of staking contrasting to PoW algorithms
  2. PoS Design Philosophy A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy by Vitalik Buterin
  3. Ethereum PoS
  4. The evolution of PoS Article on the evolution of PoS by Coin Telegraph
  5. Weak Subjectivity in PoS Weak Subjectivity in PoS by Vitalik Buterin
  6. The History of Casper - Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5 Vlad Zamfir's series on the history of Casper
  7. On Stake and Consensus
  8. Critic on the PoS Philosophy by Tuur Demeester
  9. Extended Summary on Casper by Jon Choi
  10. The Economics of the PoS consensus algorithm
  11. Casper vs Tendermint
  12. Minimal Slashing condition in Ethereum

DPoS - Delegated Proof of Stake

  1. DPoS Introduction Introduction to DPoS by Bitshares
  2. DPoS vs PoW Article by Daniel Larimer from Bitshares
  3. Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS by Tendermint
  4. Seeking Consensus on Consensus Delegated Proof of Stake and the Two Generals' Problem

dBFT - Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance

  1. Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems by Prof. Kenneth Goodwin
  2. dBFT vs PoW and PoS Antshare's (now NEO) views on consensus
  3. Intro to Ethermint BFT

Network Effects

  1. A Note on Metcalfe's Law, Externalities and Ecosystem Splits by Vitalik Buterin
  2. Continuous Token Models: Towards a Million Networks of Value by Simon de la Rouviere
  3. Crypto Tokens: A breakthrough in open network design by Chris Dixon
  4. Bitcoin Network Effects
  5. Keepers — Workers that Maintain Blockchain Networks
  6. Smart Contract Network Effect Fallacy


  1. The Consensus Series, Part I: The Basics of Collectivity by Aleksandr Bulkin
  2. Governance and Network Effects
  3. Notes on Blockchain Governance by Vitalik Buterin
  4. Against On-Chain Governance by Vlad Zamfir
  5. On Public vs Private Blockchains by Vitalik Buterin

Cryptoeconomic Security

  1. Intro to Cryptoeconomic security Basic intro to cryptoeconomic security
  2. Anti-fragile Cryptoeconomic systems Anti-fragile cryptoeconomic Systems through game theory
  3. Triangle of harm by Vitalik Buterin
  4. On Inflation, Transaction Fees and Cryptocurrency Monetary Policy Vitalik Buterin's article on the role of cryptoeconomics in blockchain security
  5. Settlement Finality Vitalik Buterin's article on the elusive topic of economic finality
  6. Bancor is flawed Bancor's review by Hacking Distributed
  7. To sink front-runners, send submarines Bancor's front-running woes by Hacking Distributed
  8. Bitcoin's security model by Jameson Lopp


  1. General article on how attacks work in PoW - Part 1 and Part 2
  2. Long range attacks
  3. Censorship attacks
  4. P + epsilon attack
  5. Coordination problems
  6. The Miners dilemma
  7. Dealing with failure in cryptocurrency Vlad Zamfir's article on dealing with failure in cryptocurrency
  8. Model of an internal PoW attacker Vlad Zamfir's article on PoW attackers
  9. Cryptoeconomics and X-Risk researchers should listen to each other more Vitalik Buterin's article on how cryptoeconomics and existential risk researchers could apply blockchain technology in global coordination challenges Part 2
  10. Presentation on most common attacks in Bitcoin
  11. 51% Attack Wiki explanation
  12. Selfish Mining a 25% attack against Bitcoin
  13. Sybil attack as described in Wikipedia
  14. Nothing at Stake and Long-range attacks in PoS
  15. $5 wrench Attack XKCD comic on the cheapest attack on cryptography
  16. An Exploration of Attack Vectors in Proof-of-Stake Mechanism Labs

Token Engineering

  1. The Emergence of Cryptoeconomic Primitives
  2. History Is Rhyming: Fitness Functions & Comparing Blockchain Tokens To The Web by Simon de la Rouviere
  3. Introducing Curation Markets: Trade Popularity of Memes & Information by Simon de la Rouviere
  4. Can Blockchains Go Rogue? by Trent McConaghy
  5. Towards a Practice of Token Engineering, with presentation deck here by Trent McConaghy
  6. Token Engineering Case Studies Analysis of Bitcoin, Design of Ocean Protocol by Trent McConaghy

Cryptoeconomic Primitives

  1. The Emergence of Cryptoeconomic Primitives by Jacob Horne
  2. Token Curated Registries 1.0 by Mike Goldin
  3. Continuous Token-Curated Registries: The Infinity of Lists by Simon de la Rouviere
  4. Tokens 2.0: Curved Token Bonding in Curation Markets by Simon de la Rouviere
  5. Solving Price Discovery Of Non-Rivalrous Goods (with Curved Bonding) by Simon de la Rouviere
  6. Hashtag Markets by Simon de la Rouviere
  7. How to Make Bonding Curves for Continuous Token Models
  8. Re-Fungible Token (RFT) by Billy Rennekamp


  1. Token sales models Token sales models by Vitalik Buterin
  2. A business guide to Tokenomics by William Mougayar
  3. Cryptoasset Valuations by Chris Burniske
  4. Understanding Token Velocity
  5. On Value, Velocity and Monetary Theory
  6. The Token Classification Framework a multi-dimensional tool for understanding and classifying crypto tokens
  7. MV = PQ isn't right for crypto a case made by Austere Capital
  8. The quantitative theory of money for tokens a rebuttal of the MV = PQ theory by Warren Weber
  9. NVT - network value to transactions ratio a market to transaction value proposal by Coinmetrics
  10. New Models For Utility Tokens by Kyle Samani
  11. Understanding Token Economics A study of economic models and token distributions in the cryptocurrency market
  12. The Pillars of Tokenomics The ve Token Model
  13. All You Need to Know About Tokenomics
  14. Designing Token Economies
  15. Tokenomics 101 The Basics of Evaluating Cryptocurrencies
  16. Tokenomics 102 Digging Deeper on Supply
  17. Tokenomics 103 Evaluating Token Utility
  18. Tokenomics 104 How to Launch a Token
  19. Social Token Three things Creators need to know before making a Social Token for their community


  1. Ethereum Madrid's Cryptoeconomics 101 presentation on Stablecoins by Sandra Becker of Ethereum Madrid
  2. An Overview of stablecoins
  3. Stablecoins: A Holy Grail in digital cryptocurrencies
  4. Volatility and Mass Adoption: 2 reasons we would benefit from a stablecoin
  5. The search for a stable cryptocurrency
  6. Maker for Dummies: A Plain English Explanation of the Dai Stablecoin
  7. Designing a price stable currency by Haseeb Qureshi
  8. A skeptic view of stablecoins

State Channels

  1. Compact and very well explained definition
  2. Overview on the Raiden Network
  3. Generalised State Channels on Ethereum
  4. Introducing multi-party state-channels
  5. A state-channels adventure with Counterfactual Rick by SpankChain (SFW!)

Empirical Cryptoeconomics

  1. How manipulation-resistant are Prediction Markets? How manipulation-resistant are Prediction Markets? Our Undertaking in Empirical Cryptoeconomics by Gnosis
  2. Empirical Cryptoeconomics Vitalik Buterin's post on empirical cryptoeconomics
  3. Testing mechanism design with AI agents Tool for Smart Contract testing with concept paper and intro

Case studies

  1. Tokenomics 101 by Tokenomics DAO
  2. Olympus DAO by Nat Eliason
  3. Alchemix The Mind-Bending Magic of Self-Paying Loans
  4. The Curve Wars DeFi’s Fight for Liquidity
  5. StepN Will STEPN Bring Crypto to the Masses?
  6. Crypto Raiders Crypto Raiders Tokenomics and Economy Launch Plan
  7. EigenLayer Restaking Effect on Ethereum's Security and Rewarding Mechanisms


  1. Considerations for Regulating Crypto


Consensus Protocols

  1. Consensus Algorithms Andreas Antonopoulos
  2. Intro to Casper Karl Floersch presenting Ethereum's Casper PoS
  3. PoS roundtable PoS roundtable with Joseph Poon, Vitalik Buterin, Vlad Zamfir, Dominic Williams, Zack Hess at Cryptoeconomicon 2015
  4. PoW roundtable PoW roundtable with Tim Swanson, Vitalik Buterin and Peter Todd at Cryptoeconomicon 2015
  5. Proof of Stake - Technion Cyber and Computer Security Summer School and presentation deck
  6. CESC2017 - Casper Proof of Stake
  7. Hangout - Ethereum PoS: Casper FFG In Depth and the presentation
  8. Hangout - Ethereum PoS: Casper & Smart Contract Consensus Overview and the presentation deck


  1. Game Theory in Bitcoin Game Theory approach behind the motivation for Bitcoin mining
  2. CESC2017 - Cryptoeconomics in Casper
  3. What is Cryptoeconomics Vlad Zamfir introducing Cryptoeconomics
  4. Introduction to Cryptoeconomics Vitalik Buterin introducing Cryptoeconomics. The corresponding presentation deck is available here
  5. Hard problems in Cryptoeconomics Vitalik Buterin discussing hard problems with cryptoeconomics
  6. The Cryptoeconomic way Vitalik Buterin discussing cryptoeconomics.
  7. Cryptoeconomic Protocols In the Context of Wider Society Vitalik Buterin discussing cryptoeconomics. The corresponding presentation deck is available here
  8. The current state of Cryptoeconomics The current state of Cryptoeconomics by Vlad Zamfir
  9. Programmable Incentives by Karl Floersch at Devcon 3
  10. Hard problems in cryptoeconomics by Vitalik Buterin
  11. Cryptoeconomic Primitives
  12. Global Scale Research Networks and Cryptoeconomics
  13. Towards a Practice of Token Engineering by Trent McConaghy
  14. Cryptoeconomic Theory part 1, part 2, part 3 and part 4 an on-going series by Viktor Makarskyy

State Channels

  1. The Raiden Network, a technical introduction
  2. Short introduction to the The Raiden Network by Lefteris Karapetsas
  3. State Channels explained in detail by Ameen Soleimani

Cryptoeconomic Security

  1. The costs of hacking Bitcoin Sybil attacks explained
  2. Game theory and Network Attacks- How to destroy Bitcoin by by Max Fang 03/2017
  3. Game theory and Network Attacks- How to destroy Bitcoin by Nadir Akhtar and Aparna Krishnan 11/2017
  4. 51% Attacks: Pools and Game Theory
  5. Nothing at stake Introducing the nothing at stake attack
  6. Security Considerations of the Casper Protocol Vlad Zamfir at Standford's Blockchain Protocol Analysis and Security Engineering 2017


  1. Cryptography for Cryptocurrency
  2. Bitcoin - Cryptographic hash functions
  3. Hashed based signatures An illustrated primer


  1. Q&A on Casper Vlad Zamfir answering questions regarding Ethereum's Casper PoS
  2. PoW attacks Podcast from 2015 on PoW attacks
  3. Cryptoeconomics, Stablecoins, Casper with Vlad Zamfir, and corresponding transcript is available here
  4. Fintech Podcast - Episode 151 Cryptoeconomics as explained by Dr Chris Berg


  1. Bitcoin Whitepaper
  2. Ethereum Whitepaper
  3. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild
  4. dBFT Whitepaper The Quest for Scalable Blockchain Fabric: Proof-of-Work vs. BFT Replication by IBM Research
  5. Federated Byzantine Agreements by Stellar Development Foundation's David Mazieres
  6. Research Paper on PoS vs. Pow by Bitfury
  7. Demystifying Incentives in the Consensus Computer
  8. Game Theory approach behind Bitcoin mining
  9. Research Paper on the security model in PoW by ETH Zurich and others
  10. A Note on Limits on Incentive Compatibility and Griefing Factors
  11. Research Paper on eclipse attacks on the Bitcoin Network
  12. Research Paper on eclipse attacks on the Ethereum Network
  13. Research paper on hashrate-based double spend attack
  14. Satoshi Risk Tables
  15. MakerDAO Purple Paper
  16. Sweetbridge Liquidity Protocol
  17. Bancor Protocol
  18. Maker Dai Stablecoin
  19. Curation Markets by Simon de la Rouviere
  20. The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation This paper analyses the relationship between Bitcoin price and supply-demand fundamentals of Bitcoin
  21. A Cost of Production Model for Bitcoin
  22. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Analysis and Applications
  23. Cryptocurrencies without PoW
  24. Some Simple Economics of the Blockchain
  25. Crypto-Economics of the Nervos Common Knowledge Base

Other Resources

  1. Evolution of Trust fun interactive game by Nicky Case showing the evolution of group trust over time
  2. Casper research topic
  3. CECS - CryptoEconomics Security Conference
  4. Reddit subgroup
  5. Telegram Group
  6. RIAT - Institute for Future Cryptoeconomics a research group from Austria
  7. Cryptoeconomics Asia is an independent research firm
  8. Cryptoeconomics at RMIT University a research group of economists in Australia
  9. Research Institute for Cryptoeconomics Vienna University of Economics and Business
  10. MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab MIT's first cryptoeconomics lab

Blockchain Hacks and Post-mortems


  1. The DAO can turn into a naturally arising Ponzi prescient article by Hacking Distributed
  2. Analysis of the DAO Exploit by Hacking Distributed
  3. Thoughts on the DAO hack by Hacking Distributed

Parity MultiSig

  1. Parity's Post-mortem
  2. Deep dive into the Parity hack


  1. Front-running Bancor in 150 lines of Python

King of Ether

  1. King of Ether Post-mortem


  1. Attacking a public RNG article by Martin Swende on attacking a smart contract that used a public Random Number Generator

Additional information and related topics

Behavioural Economics

  1. BE Ted Talk Prof. Dan Ariely's Ted Talk on Behavioural Economics
  2. Predictably Irrational book Predictably Irrational by Prof. Dan Ariely
  3. The Honest Truth About Dishonesty book The Honest Truth About Dishonesty by Prof. Dan Ariely


  1. Awesome Economics


  1. Awesome Cryptography



To the extent possible under law, Joaquim Pedro Antunes has waived all copyright and related or neighbouring rights to this work.