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from __future__ import with_statement
from itertools import chain, starmap
import datetime
import sys
import warnings
import time as mod_time
from redis._compat import (b, izip, imap, iteritems, dictkeys, dictvalues,
basestring, long, nativestr, urlparse, bytes)
from redis.connection import ConnectionPool, UnixDomainSocketConnection
from redis.exceptions import (
ConnectionError,
DataError,
RedisError,
ResponseError,
WatchError,
NoScriptError,
ExecAbortError,
)
SYM_EMPTY = b('')
def list_or_args(keys, args):
# returns a single list combining keys and args
try:
iter(keys)
# a string or bytes instance can be iterated, but indicates
# keys wasn't passed as a list
if isinstance(keys, (basestring, bytes)):
keys = [keys]
except TypeError:
keys = [keys]
if args:
keys.extend(args)
return keys
def timestamp_to_datetime(response):
"Converts a unix timestamp to a Python datetime object"
if not response:
return None
try:
response = int(response)
except ValueError:
return None
return datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(response)
def string_keys_to_dict(key_string, callback):
return dict.fromkeys(key_string.split(), callback)
def dict_merge(*dicts):
merged = {}
[merged.update(d) for d in dicts]
return merged
def parse_debug_object(response):
"Parse the results of Redis's DEBUG OBJECT command into a Python dict"
# The 'type' of the object is the first item in the response, but isn't
# prefixed with a name
response = nativestr(response)
response = 'type:' + response
response = dict([kv.split(':') for kv in response.split()])
# parse some expected int values from the string response
# note: this cmd isn't spec'd so these may not appear in all redis versions
int_fields = ('refcount', 'serializedlength', 'lru', 'lru_seconds_idle')
for field in int_fields:
if field in response:
response[field] = int(response[field])
return response
def parse_object(response, infotype):
"Parse the results of an OBJECT command"
if infotype in ('idletime', 'refcount'):
return int(response)
return response
def parse_info(response):
"Parse the result of Redis's INFO command into a Python dict"
info = {}
response = nativestr(response)
def get_value(value):
if ',' not in value or '=' not in value:
try:
if '.' in value:
return float(value)
else:
return int(value)
except ValueError:
return value
else:
sub_dict = {}
for item in value.split(','):
k, v = item.rsplit('=', 1)
sub_dict[k] = get_value(v)
return sub_dict
for line in response.splitlines():
if line and not line.startswith('#'):
key, value = line.split(':')
info[key] = get_value(value)
return info
def pairs_to_dict(response):
"Create a dict given a list of key/value pairs"
it = iter(response)
return dict(izip(it, it))
def zset_score_pairs(response, **options):
"""
If ``withscores`` is specified in the options, return the response as
a list of (value, score) pairs
"""
if not response or not options['withscores']:
return response
score_cast_func = options.get('score_cast_func', float)
it = iter(response)
return list(izip(it, imap(score_cast_func, it)))
def int_or_none(response):
if response is None:
return None
return int(response)
def float_or_none(response):
if response is None:
return None
return float(response)
def parse_client(response, **options):
parse = options['parse']
if parse == 'LIST':
clients = []
for c in nativestr(response).splitlines():
clients.append(dict([pair.split('=') for pair in c.split(' ')]))
return clients
elif parse == 'KILL':
return bool(response)
def parse_config(response, **options):
if options['parse'] == 'GET':
response = [nativestr(i) if i is not None else None for i in response]
return response and pairs_to_dict(response) or {}
return nativestr(response) == 'OK'
def parse_script(response, **options):
parse = options['parse']
if parse in ('FLUSH', 'KILL'):
return response == 'OK'
if parse == 'EXISTS':
return list(imap(bool, response))
return response
class StrictRedis(object):
"""
Implementation of the Redis protocol.
This abstract class provides a Python interface to all Redis commands
and an implementation of the Redis protocol.
Connection and Pipeline derive from this, implementing how
the commands are sent and received to the Redis server
"""
RESPONSE_CALLBACKS = dict_merge(
string_keys_to_dict(
'AUTH DEL EXISTS EXPIRE EXPIREAT HDEL HEXISTS HMSET MOVE MSETNX '
'PERSIST RENAMENX SISMEMBER SMOVE SETEX SETNX SREM ZREM',
bool
),
string_keys_to_dict(
'BITCOUNT DECRBY GETBIT HLEN INCRBY LINSERT LLEN LPUSHX RPUSHX '
'SADD SCARD SDIFFSTORE SETBIT SETRANGE SINTERSTORE STRLEN '
'SUNIONSTORE ZADD ZCARD ZREMRANGEBYRANK ZREMRANGEBYSCORE',
int
),
string_keys_to_dict('INCRBYFLOAT HINCRBYFLOAT', float),
string_keys_to_dict(
# these return OK, or int if redis-server is >=1.3.4
'LPUSH RPUSH',
lambda r: isinstance(r, long) and r or nativestr(r) == 'OK'
),
string_keys_to_dict('ZSCORE ZINCRBY', float_or_none),
string_keys_to_dict(
'FLUSHALL FLUSHDB LSET LTRIM MSET RENAME '
'SAVE SELECT SET SHUTDOWN SLAVEOF WATCH UNWATCH',
lambda r: nativestr(r) == 'OK'
),
string_keys_to_dict('BLPOP BRPOP', lambda r: r and tuple(r) or None),
string_keys_to_dict(
'SDIFF SINTER SMEMBERS SUNION',
lambda r: r and set(r) or set()
),
string_keys_to_dict(
'ZRANGE ZRANGEBYSCORE ZREVRANGE ZREVRANGEBYSCORE',
zset_score_pairs
),
string_keys_to_dict('ZRANK ZREVRANK', int_or_none),
{
'BGREWRITEAOF': (
lambda r: r == 'Background rewriting of AOF file started'
),
'BGSAVE': lambda r: r == 'Background saving started',
'BRPOPLPUSH': lambda r: r and r or None,
'CLIENT': parse_client,
'CONFIG': parse_config,
'DEBUG': parse_debug_object,
'HGETALL': lambda r: r and pairs_to_dict(r) or {},
'INFO': parse_info,
'LASTSAVE': timestamp_to_datetime,
'OBJECT': parse_object,
'PING': lambda r: nativestr(r) == 'PONG',
'RANDOMKEY': lambda r: r and r or None,
'SCRIPT': parse_script,
'TIME': lambda x: (int(x[0]), int(x[1]))
}
)
@classmethod
def from_url(cls, url, db=None, **kwargs):
"""
Return a Redis client object configured from the given URL.
For example::
redis://username:password@localhost:6379/0
If ``db`` is None, this method will attempt to extract the database ID
from the URL path component.
Any additional keyword arguments will be passed along to the Redis
class's initializer.
"""
url = urlparse(url)
# We only support redis:// schemes.
assert url.scheme == 'redis' or not url.scheme
# Extract the database ID from the path component if hasn't been given.
if db is None:
try:
db = int(url.path.replace('/', ''))
except (AttributeError, ValueError):
db = 0
return cls(host=url.hostname, port=url.port, db=db,
password=url.password, **kwargs)
def __init__(self, host='localhost', port=6379,
db=0, password=None, socket_timeout=None,
connection_pool=None, charset='utf-8',
errors='strict', decode_responses=False,
unix_socket_path=None):
if not connection_pool:
kwargs = {
'db': db,
'password': password,
'socket_timeout': socket_timeout,
'encoding': charset,
'encoding_errors': errors,
'decode_responses': decode_responses,
}
# based on input, setup appropriate connection args
if unix_socket_path:
kwargs.update({
'path': unix_socket_path,
'connection_class': UnixDomainSocketConnection
})
else:
kwargs.update({
'host': host,
'port': port
})
connection_pool = ConnectionPool(**kwargs)
self.connection_pool = connection_pool
self.response_callbacks = self.__class__.RESPONSE_CALLBACKS.copy()
def set_response_callback(self, command, callback):
"Set a custom Response Callback"
self.response_callbacks[command] = callback
def pipeline(self, transaction=True, shard_hint=None):
"""
Return a new pipeline object that can queue multiple commands for
later execution. ``transaction`` indicates whether all commands
should be executed atomically. Apart from making a group of operations
atomic, pipelines are useful for reducing the back-and-forth overhead
between the client and server.
"""
return StrictPipeline(
self.connection_pool,
self.response_callbacks,
transaction,
shard_hint)
def transaction(self, func, *watches, **kwargs):
"""
Convenience method for executing the callable `func` as a transaction
while watching all keys specified in `watches`. The 'func' callable
should expect a single arguement which is a Pipeline object.
"""
shard_hint = kwargs.pop('shard_hint', None)
with self.pipeline(True, shard_hint) as pipe:
while 1:
try:
if watches:
pipe.watch(*watches)
func(pipe)
return pipe.execute()
except WatchError:
continue
def lock(self, name, timeout=None, sleep=0.1):
"""
Return a new Lock object using key ``name`` that mimics
the behavior of threading.Lock.
If specified, ``timeout`` indicates a maximum life for the lock.
By default, it will remain locked until release() is called.
``sleep`` indicates the amount of time to sleep per loop iteration
when the lock is in blocking mode and another client is currently
holding the lock.
"""
return Lock(self, name, timeout=timeout, sleep=sleep)
def pubsub(self, shard_hint=None):
"""
Return a Publish/Subscribe object. With this object, you can
subscribe to channels and listen for messages that get published to
them.
"""
return PubSub(self.connection_pool, shard_hint)
#### COMMAND EXECUTION AND PROTOCOL PARSING ####
def execute_command(self, *args, **options):
"Execute a command and return a parsed response"
pool = self.connection_pool
command_name = args[0]
connection = pool.get_connection(command_name, **options)
try:
connection.send_command(*args)
return self.parse_response(connection, command_name, **options)
except ConnectionError:
connection.disconnect()
connection.send_command(*args)
return self.parse_response(connection, command_name, **options)
finally:
pool.release(connection)
def parse_response(self, connection, command_name, **options):
"Parses a response from the Redis server"
response = connection.read_response()
if command_name in self.response_callbacks:
return self.response_callbacks[command_name](response, **options)
return response
#### SERVER INFORMATION ####
def bgrewriteaof(self):
"Tell the Redis server to rewrite the AOF file from data in memory."
return self.execute_command('BGREWRITEAOF')
def bgsave(self):
"""
Tell the Redis server to save its data to disk. Unlike save(),
this method is asynchronous and returns immediately.
"""
return self.execute_command('BGSAVE')
def client_kill(self, address):
"Disconnects the client at ``address`` (ip:port)"
return self.execute_command('CLIENT', 'KILL', address, parse='KILL')
def client_list(self):
"Returns a list of currently connected clients"
return self.execute_command('CLIENT', 'LIST', parse='LIST')
def config_get(self, pattern="*"):
"Return a dictionary of configuration based on the ``pattern``"
return self.execute_command('CONFIG', 'GET', pattern, parse='GET')
def config_set(self, name, value):
"Set config item ``name`` with ``value``"
return self.execute_command('CONFIG', 'SET', name, value, parse='SET')
def dbsize(self):
"Returns the number of keys in the current database"
return self.execute_command('DBSIZE')
def time(self):
"""
Returns the server time as a 2-item tuple of ints:
(seconds since epoch, microseconds into this second).
"""
return self.execute_command('TIME')
def debug_object(self, key):
"Returns version specific metainformation about a give key"
return self.execute_command('DEBUG', 'OBJECT', key)
def delete(self, *names):
"Delete one or more keys specified by ``names``"
return self.execute_command('DEL', *names)
__delitem__ = delete
def echo(self, value):
"Echo the string back from the server"
return self.execute_command('ECHO', value)
def flushall(self):
"Delete all keys in all databases on the current host"
return self.execute_command('FLUSHALL')
def flushdb(self):
"Delete all keys in the current database"
return self.execute_command('FLUSHDB')
def info(self, section=None):
"""
Returns a dictionary containing information about the Redis server
The ``section`` option can be used to select a specific section
of information
The section option is not supported by older versions of Redis Server,
and will generate ResponseError
"""
if section is None:
return self.execute_command('INFO')
else:
return self.execute_command('INFO', section)
def lastsave(self):
"""
Return a Python datetime object representing the last time the
Redis database was saved to disk
"""
return self.execute_command('LASTSAVE')
def object(self, infotype, key):
"Return the encoding, idletime, or refcount about the key"
return self.execute_command('OBJECT', infotype, key, infotype=infotype)
def ping(self):
"Ping the Redis server"
return self.execute_command('PING')
def save(self):
"""
Tell the Redis server to save its data to disk,
blocking until the save is complete
"""
return self.execute_command('SAVE')
def shutdown(self):
"Shutdown the server"
try:
self.execute_command('SHUTDOWN')
except ConnectionError:
# a ConnectionError here is expected
return
raise RedisError("SHUTDOWN seems to have failed.")
def slaveof(self, host=None, port=None):
"""
Set the server to be a replicated slave of the instance identified
by the ``host`` and ``port``. If called without arguements, the
instance is promoted to a master instead.
"""
if host is None and port is None:
return self.execute_command("SLAVEOF", "NO", "ONE")
return self.execute_command("SLAVEOF", host, port)
#### BASIC KEY COMMANDS ####
def append(self, key, value):
"""
Appends the string ``value`` to the value at ``key``. If ``key``
doesn't already exist, create it with a value of ``value``.
Returns the new length of the value at ``key``.
"""
return self.execute_command('APPEND', key, value)
def getrange(self, key, start, end):
"""
Returns the substring of the string value stored at ``key``,
determined by the offsets ``start`` and ``end`` (both are inclusive)
"""
return self.execute_command('GETRANGE', key, start, end)
def bitcount(self, key, start=None, end=None):
"""
Returns the count of set bits in the value of ``key``. Optional
``start`` and ``end`` paramaters indicate which bytes to consider
"""
params = [key]
if start is not None and end is not None:
params.append(start)
params.append(end)
elif (start is not None and end is None) or \
(end is not None and start is None):
raise RedisError("Both start and end must be specified")
return self.execute_command('BITCOUNT', *params)
def bitop(self, operation, dest, *keys):
"""
Perform a bitwise operation using ``operation`` between ``keys`` and
store the result in ``dest``.
"""
return self.execute_command('BITOP', operation, dest, *keys)
def decr(self, name, amount=1):
"""
Decrements the value of ``key`` by ``amount``. If no key exists,
the value will be initialized as 0 - ``amount``
"""
return self.execute_command('DECRBY', name, amount)
def exists(self, name):
"Returns a boolean indicating whether key ``name`` exists"
return self.execute_command('EXISTS', name)
__contains__ = exists
def expire(self, name, time):
"""
Set an expire flag on key ``name`` for ``time`` seconds. ``time``
can be represented by an integer or a Python timedelta object.
"""
if isinstance(time, datetime.timedelta):
time = time.seconds + time.days * 24 * 3600
return self.execute_command('EXPIRE', name, time)
def expireat(self, name, when):
"""
Set an expire flag on key ``name``. ``when`` can be represented
as an integer indicating unix time or a Python datetime object.
"""
if isinstance(when, datetime.datetime):
when = int(mod_time.mktime(when.timetuple()))
return self.execute_command('EXPIREAT', name, when)
def get(self, name):
"""
Return the value at key ``name``, or None if the key doesn't exist
"""
return self.execute_command('GET', name)
def __getitem__(self, name):
"""
Return the value at key ``name``, raises a KeyError if the key
doesn't exist.
"""
value = self.get(name)
if value:
return value
raise KeyError(name)
def getbit(self, name, offset):
"Returns a boolean indicating the value of ``offset`` in ``name``"
return self.execute_command('GETBIT', name, offset)
def getset(self, name, value):
"""
Set the value at key ``name`` to ``value`` if key doesn't exist
Return the value at key ``name`` atomically
"""
return self.execute_command('GETSET', name, value)
def incr(self, name, amount=1):
"""
Increments the value of ``key`` by ``amount``. If no key exists,
the value will be initialized as ``amount``
"""
return self.execute_command('INCRBY', name, amount)
def incrbyfloat(self, name, amount=1.0):
"""
Increments the value at key ``name`` by floating ``amount``.
If no key exists, the value will be initialized as ``amount``
"""
return self.execute_command('INCRBYFLOAT', name, amount)
def keys(self, pattern='*'):
"Returns a list of keys matching ``pattern``"
return self.execute_command('KEYS', pattern)
def mget(self, keys, *args):
"""
Returns a list of values ordered identically to ``keys``
"""
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('MGET', *args)
def mset(self, mapping):
"Sets each key in the ``mapping`` dict to its corresponding value"
items = []
for pair in iteritems(mapping):
items.extend(pair)
return self.execute_command('MSET', *items)
def msetnx(self, mapping):
"""
Sets each key in the ``mapping`` dict to its corresponding value if
none of the keys are already set
"""
items = []
for pair in iteritems(mapping):
items.extend(pair)
return self.execute_command('MSETNX', *items)
def move(self, name, db):
"Moves the key ``name`` to a different Redis database ``db``"
return self.execute_command('MOVE', name, db)
def persist(self, name):
"Removes an expiration on ``name``"
return self.execute_command('PERSIST', name)
def pexpire(self, name, time):
"""
Set an expire flag on key ``name`` for ``time`` milliseconds.
``time`` can be represented by an integer or a Python timedelta
object.
"""
if isinstance(time, datetime.timedelta):
ms = int(time.microseconds / 1000)
time = time.seconds + time.days * 24 * 3600 * 1000 + ms
return self.execute_command('PEXPIRE', name, time)
def pexpireat(self, name, when):
"""
Set an expire flag on key ``name``. ``when`` can be represented
as an integer representing unix time in milliseconds (unix time * 1000)
or a Python datetime object.
"""
if isinstance(when, datetime.datetime):
ms = int(when.microsecond / 1000)
when = int(mod_time.mktime(when.timetuple())) * 1000 + ms
return self.execute_command('PEXPIREAT', name, when)
def pttl(self, name):
"Returns the number of milliseconds until the key ``name`` will expire"
return self.execute_command('PTTL', name)
def randomkey(self):
"Returns the name of a random key"
return self.execute_command('RANDOMKEY')
def rename(self, src, dst):
"""
Rename key ``src`` to ``dst``
"""
return self.execute_command('RENAME', src, dst)
def renamenx(self, src, dst):
"Rename key ``src`` to ``dst`` if ``dst`` doesn't already exist"
return self.execute_command('RENAMENX', src, dst)
def set(self, name, value):
"Set the value at key ``name`` to ``value``"
return self.execute_command('SET', name, value)
__setitem__ = set
def setbit(self, name, offset, value):
"""
Flag the ``offset`` in ``name`` as ``value``. Returns a boolean
indicating the previous value of ``offset``.
"""
value = value and 1 or 0
return self.execute_command('SETBIT', name, offset, value)
def setex(self, name, time, value):
"""
Set the value of key ``name`` to ``value`` that expires in ``time``
seconds. ``time`` can be represented by an integer or a Python
timedelta object.
"""
if isinstance(time, datetime.timedelta):
time = time.seconds + time.days * 24 * 3600
return self.execute_command('SETEX', name, time, value)
def setnx(self, name, value):
"Set the value of key ``name`` to ``value`` if key doesn't exist"
return self.execute_command('SETNX', name, value)
def setrange(self, name, offset, value):
"""
Overwrite bytes in the value of ``name`` starting at ``offset`` with
``value``. If ``offset`` plus the length of ``value`` exceeds the
length of the original value, the new value will be larger than before.
If ``offset`` exceeds the length of the original value, null bytes
will be used to pad between the end of the previous value and the start
of what's being injected.
Returns the length of the new string.
"""
return self.execute_command('SETRANGE', name, offset, value)
def strlen(self, name):
"Return the number of bytes stored in the value of ``name``"
return self.execute_command('STRLEN', name)
def substr(self, name, start, end=-1):
"""
Return a substring of the string at key ``name``. ``start`` and ``end``
are 0-based integers specifying the portion of the string to return.
"""
return self.execute_command('SUBSTR', name, start, end)
def ttl(self, name):
"Returns the number of seconds until the key ``name`` will expire"
return self.execute_command('TTL', name)
def type(self, name):
"Returns the type of key ``name``"
return self.execute_command('TYPE', name)
def watch(self, *names):
"""
Watches the values at keys ``names``, or None if the key doesn't exist
"""
warnings.warn(DeprecationWarning('Call WATCH from a Pipeline object'))
def unwatch(self):
"""
Unwatches the value at key ``name``, or None of the key doesn't exist
"""
warnings.warn(
DeprecationWarning('Call UNWATCH from a Pipeline object'))
#### LIST COMMANDS ####
def blpop(self, keys, timeout=0):
"""
LPOP a value off of the first non-empty list
named in the ``keys`` list.
If none of the lists in ``keys`` has a value to LPOP, then block
for ``timeout`` seconds, or until a value gets pushed on to one
of the lists.
If timeout is 0, then block indefinitely.
"""
if timeout is None:
timeout = 0
if isinstance(keys, basestring):
keys = [keys]
else:
keys = list(keys)
keys.append(timeout)
return self.execute_command('BLPOP', *keys)
def brpop(self, keys, timeout=0):
"""
RPOP a value off of the first non-empty list
named in the ``keys`` list.
If none of the lists in ``keys`` has a value to LPOP, then block
for ``timeout`` seconds, or until a value gets pushed on to one
of the lists.
If timeout is 0, then block indefinitely.
"""
if timeout is None:
timeout = 0
if isinstance(keys, basestring):
keys = [keys]
else:
keys = list(keys)
keys.append(timeout)
return self.execute_command('BRPOP', *keys)
def brpoplpush(self, src, dst, timeout=0):
"""
Pop a value off the tail of ``src``, push it on the head of ``dst``
and then return it.
This command blocks until a value is in ``src`` or until ``timeout``
seconds elapse, whichever is first. A ``timeout`` value of 0 blocks
forever.
"""
if timeout is None:
timeout = 0
return self.execute_command('BRPOPLPUSH', src, dst, timeout)
def lindex(self, name, index):
"""
Return the item from list ``name`` at position ``index``
Negative indexes are supported and will return an item at the
end of the list
"""
return self.execute_command('LINDEX', name, index)
def linsert(self, name, where, refvalue, value):
"""
Insert ``value`` in list ``name`` either immediately before or after
[``where``] ``refvalue``
Returns the new length of the list on success or -1 if ``refvalue``
is not in the list.
"""
return self.execute_command('LINSERT', name, where, refvalue, value)
def llen(self, name):
"Return the length of the list ``name``"
return self.execute_command('LLEN', name)
def lpop(self, name):
"Remove and return the first item of the list ``name``"
return self.execute_command('LPOP', name)
def lpush(self, name, *values):
"Push ``values`` onto the head of the list ``name``"
return self.execute_command('LPUSH', name, *values)
def lpushx(self, name, value):
"Push ``value`` onto the head of the list ``name`` if ``name`` exists"
return self.execute_command('LPUSHX', name, value)
def lrange(self, name, start, end):
"""
Return a slice of the list ``name`` between
position ``start`` and ``end``
``start`` and ``end`` can be negative numbers just like
Python slicing notation
"""
return self.execute_command('LRANGE', name, start, end)
def lrem(self, name, count, value):
"""
Remove the first ``count`` occurrences of elements equal to ``value``
from the list stored at ``name``.
The count argument influences the operation in the following ways:
count > 0: Remove elements equal to value moving from head to tail.
count < 0: Remove elements equal to value moving from tail to head.
count = 0: Remove all elements equal to value.
"""
return self.execute_command('LREM', name, count, value)
def lset(self, name, index, value):
"Set ``position`` of list ``name`` to ``value``"
return self.execute_command('LSET', name, index, value)
def ltrim(self, name, start, end):
"""
Trim the list ``name``, removing all values not within the slice
between ``start`` and ``end``
``start`` and ``end`` can be negative numbers just like
Python slicing notation
"""
return self.execute_command('LTRIM', name, start, end)
def rpop(self, name):
"Remove and return the last item of the list ``name``"
return self.execute_command('RPOP', name)
def rpoplpush(self, src, dst):
"""
RPOP a value off of the ``src`` list and atomically LPUSH it
on to the ``dst`` list. Returns the value.
"""
return self.execute_command('RPOPLPUSH', src, dst)
def rpush(self, name, *values):
"Push ``values`` onto the tail of the list ``name``"
return self.execute_command('RPUSH', name, *values)
def rpushx(self, name, value):
"Push ``value`` onto the tail of the list ``name`` if ``name`` exists"
return self.execute_command('RPUSHX', name, value)
def sort(self, name, start=None, num=None, by=None, get=None,
desc=False, alpha=False, store=None):
"""
Sort and return the list, set or sorted set at ``name``.
``start`` and ``num`` allow for paging through the sorted data
``by`` allows using an external key to weight and sort the items.
Use an "*" to indicate where in the key the item value is located
``get`` allows for returning items from external keys rather than the
sorted data itself. Use an "*" to indicate where int he key
the item value is located
``desc`` allows for reversing the sort
``alpha`` allows for sorting lexicographically rather than numerically
``store`` allows for storing the result of the sort into
the key ``store``
"""
if (start is not None and num is None) or \
(num is not None and start is None):
raise RedisError("``start`` and ``num`` must both be specified")
pieces = [name]
if by is not None:
pieces.append('BY')
pieces.append(by)
if start is not None and num is not None:
pieces.append('LIMIT')
pieces.append(start)
pieces.append(num)
if get is not None:
# If get is a string assume we want to get a single value.
# Otherwise assume it's an interable and we want to get multiple
# values. We can't just iterate blindly because strings are
# iterable.
if isinstance(get, basestring):
pieces.append('GET')
pieces.append(get)
else:
for g in get:
pieces.append('GET')
pieces.append(g)
if desc:
pieces.append('DESC')
if alpha:
pieces.append('ALPHA')
if store is not None:
pieces.append('STORE')
pieces.append(store)
return self.execute_command('SORT', *pieces)
#### SET COMMANDS ####
def sadd(self, name, *values):
"Add ``value(s)`` to set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SADD', name, *values)
def scard(self, name):
"Return the number of elements in set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SCARD', name)
def sdiff(self, keys, *args):
"Return the difference of sets specified by ``keys``"
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SDIFF', *args)
def sdiffstore(self, dest, keys, *args):
"""
Store the difference of sets specified by ``keys`` into a new
set named ``dest``. Returns the number of keys in the new set.
"""
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SDIFFSTORE', dest, *args)
def sinter(self, keys, *args):
"Return the intersection of sets specified by ``keys``"
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SINTER', *args)
def sinterstore(self, dest, keys, *args):
"""
Store the intersection of sets specified by ``keys`` into a new
set named ``dest``. Returns the number of keys in the new set.
"""
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SINTERSTORE', dest, *args)
def sismember(self, name, value):
"Return a boolean indicating if ``value`` is a member of set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SISMEMBER', name, value)
def smembers(self, name):
"Return all members of the set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SMEMBERS', name)
def smove(self, src, dst, value):
"Move ``value`` from set ``src`` to set ``dst`` atomically"
return self.execute_command('SMOVE', src, dst, value)
def spop(self, name):
"Remove and return a random member of set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SPOP', name)
def srandmember(self, name, number=None):
"""
If ``number`` is None, returns a random member of set ``name``.
If ``number`` is supplied, returns a list of ``number`` random
memebers of set ``name``. Note this is only available when running
Redis 2.6+.
"""
args = number and [number] or []
return self.execute_command('SRANDMEMBER', name, *args)
def srem(self, name, *values):
"Remove ``values`` from set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('SREM', name, *values)
def sunion(self, keys, *args):
"Return the union of sets specifiued by ``keys``"
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SUNION', *args)
def sunionstore(self, dest, keys, *args):
"""
Store the union of sets specified by ``keys`` into a new
set named ``dest``. Returns the number of keys in the new set.
"""
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('SUNIONSTORE', dest, *args)
#### SORTED SET COMMANDS ####
def zadd(self, name, *args, **kwargs):
"""
Set any number of score, element-name pairs to the key ``name``. Pairs
can be specified in two ways:
As *args, in the form of: score1, name1, score2, name2, ...
or as **kwargs, in the form of: name1=score1, name2=score2, ...
The following example would add four values to the 'my-key' key:
redis.zadd('my-key', 1.1, 'name1', 2.2, 'name2', name3=3.3, name4=4.4)
"""
pieces = []
if args:
if len(args) % 2 != 0:
raise RedisError("ZADD requires an equal number of "
"values and scores")
pieces.extend(args)
for pair in iteritems(kwargs):
pieces.append(pair[1])
pieces.append(pair[0])
return self.execute_command('ZADD', name, *pieces)
def zcard(self, name):
"Return the number of elements in the sorted set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('ZCARD', name)
def zcount(self, name, min, max):
return self.execute_command('ZCOUNT', name, min, max)
def zincrby(self, name, value, amount=1):
"Increment the score of ``value`` in sorted set ``name`` by ``amount``"
return self.execute_command('ZINCRBY', name, amount, value)
def zinterstore(self, dest, keys, aggregate=None):
"""
Intersect multiple sorted sets specified by ``keys`` into
a new sorted set, ``dest``. Scores in the destination will be
aggregated based on the ``aggregate``, or SUM if none is provided.
"""
return self._zaggregate('ZINTERSTORE', dest, keys, aggregate)
def zrange(self, name, start, end, desc=False, withscores=False,
score_cast_func=float):
"""
Return a range of values from sorted set ``name`` between
``start`` and ``end`` sorted in ascending order.
``start`` and ``end`` can be negative, indicating the end of the range.
``desc`` a boolean indicating whether to sort the results descendingly
``withscores`` indicates to return the scores along with the values.
The return type is a list of (value, score) pairs
``score_cast_func`` a callable used to cast the score return value
"""
if desc:
return self.zrevrange(name, start, end, withscores,
score_cast_func)
pieces = ['ZRANGE', name, start, end]
if withscores:
pieces.append('withscores')
options = {
'withscores': withscores, 'score_cast_func': score_cast_func}
return self.execute_command(*pieces, **options)
def zrangebyscore(self, name, min, max, start=None, num=None,
withscores=False, score_cast_func=float):
"""
Return a range of values from the sorted set ``name`` with scores
between ``min`` and ``max``.
If ``start`` and ``num`` are specified, then return a slice
of the range.
``withscores`` indicates to return the scores along with the values.
The return type is a list of (value, score) pairs
`score_cast_func`` a callable used to cast the score return value
"""
if (start is not None and num is None) or \
(num is not None and start is None):
raise RedisError("``start`` and ``num`` must both be specified")
pieces = ['ZRANGEBYSCORE', name, min, max]
if start is not None and num is not None:
pieces.extend(['LIMIT', start, num])
if withscores:
pieces.append('withscores')
options = {
'withscores': withscores, 'score_cast_func': score_cast_func}
return self.execute_command(*pieces, **options)
def zrank(self, name, value):
"""
Returns a 0-based value indicating the rank of ``value`` in sorted set
``name``
"""
return self.execute_command('ZRANK', name, value)
def zrem(self, name, *values):
"Remove member ``values`` from sorted set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('ZREM', name, *values)
def zremrangebyrank(self, name, min, max):
"""
Remove all elements in the sorted set ``name`` with ranks between
``min`` and ``max``. Values are 0-based, ordered from smallest score
to largest. Values can be negative indicating the highest scores.
Returns the number of elements removed
"""
return self.execute_command('ZREMRANGEBYRANK', name, min, max)
def zremrangebyscore(self, name, min, max):
"""
Remove all elements in the sorted set ``name`` with scores
between ``min`` and ``max``. Returns the number of elements removed.
"""
return self.execute_command('ZREMRANGEBYSCORE', name, min, max)
def zrevrange(self, name, start, num, withscores=False,
score_cast_func=float):
"""
Return a range of values from sorted set ``name`` between
``start`` and ``num`` sorted in descending order.
``start`` and ``num`` can be negative, indicating the end of the range.
``withscores`` indicates to return the scores along with the values
The return type is a list of (value, score) pairs
``score_cast_func`` a callable used to cast the score return value
"""
pieces = ['ZREVRANGE', name, start, num]
if withscores:
pieces.append('withscores')
options = {
'withscores': withscores, 'score_cast_func': score_cast_func}
return self.execute_command(*pieces, **options)
def zrevrangebyscore(self, name, max, min, start=None, num=None,
withscores=False, score_cast_func=float):
"""
Return a range of values from the sorted set ``name`` with scores
between ``min`` and ``max`` in descending order.
If ``start`` and ``num`` are specified, then return a slice
of the range.
``withscores`` indicates to return the scores along with the values.
The return type is a list of (value, score) pairs
``score_cast_func`` a callable used to cast the score return value
"""
if (start is not None and num is None) or \
(num is not None and start is None):
raise RedisError("``start`` and ``num`` must both be specified")
pieces = ['ZREVRANGEBYSCORE', name, max, min]
if start is not None and num is not None:
pieces.extend(['LIMIT', start, num])
if withscores:
pieces.append('withscores')
options = {
'withscores': withscores, 'score_cast_func': score_cast_func}
return self.execute_command(*pieces, **options)
def zrevrank(self, name, value):
"""
Returns a 0-based value indicating the descending rank of
``value`` in sorted set ``name``
"""
return self.execute_command('ZREVRANK', name, value)
def zscore(self, name, value):
"Return the score of element ``value`` in sorted set ``name``"
return self.execute_command('ZSCORE', name, value)
def zunionstore(self, dest, keys, aggregate=None):
"""
Union multiple sorted sets specified by ``keys`` into
a new sorted set, ``dest``. Scores in the destination will be
aggregated based on the ``aggregate``, or SUM if none is provided.
"""
return self._zaggregate('ZUNIONSTORE', dest, keys, aggregate)
def _zaggregate(self, command, dest, keys, aggregate=None):
pieces = [command, dest, len(keys)]
if isinstance(keys, dict):
keys, weights = dictkeys(keys), dictvalues(keys)
else:
weights = None
pieces.extend(keys)
if weights:
pieces.append('WEIGHTS')
pieces.extend(weights)
if aggregate:
pieces.append('AGGREGATE')
pieces.append(aggregate)
return self.execute_command(*pieces)
#### HASH COMMANDS ####
def hdel(self, name, *keys):
"Delete ``keys`` from hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HDEL', name, *keys)
def hexists(self, name, key):
"Returns a boolean indicating if ``key`` exists within hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HEXISTS', name, key)
def hget(self, name, key):
"Return the value of ``key`` within the hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HGET', name, key)
def hgetall(self, name):
"Return a Python dict of the hash's name/value pairs"
return self.execute_command('HGETALL', name)
def hincrby(self, name, key, amount=1):
"Increment the value of ``key`` in hash ``name`` by ``amount``"
return self.execute_command('HINCRBY', name, key, amount)
def hincrbyfloat(self, name, key, amount=1.0):
"""
Increment the value of ``key`` in hash ``name`` by floating ``amount``
"""
return self.execute_command('HINCRBYFLOAT', name, key, amount)
def hkeys(self, name):
"Return the list of keys within hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HKEYS', name)
def hlen(self, name):
"Return the number of elements in hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HLEN', name)
def hset(self, name, key, value):
"""
Set ``key`` to ``value`` within hash ``name``
Returns 1 if HSET created a new field, otherwise 0
"""
return self.execute_command('HSET', name, key, value)
def hsetnx(self, name, key, value):
"""
Set ``key`` to ``value`` within hash ``name`` if ``key`` does not
exist. Returns 1 if HSETNX created a field, otherwise 0.
"""
return self.execute_command("HSETNX", name, key, value)
def hmset(self, name, mapping):
"""
Sets each key in the ``mapping`` dict to its corresponding value
in the hash ``name``
"""
if not mapping:
raise DataError("'hmset' with 'mapping' of length 0")
items = []
for pair in iteritems(mapping):
items.extend(pair)
return self.execute_command('HMSET', name, *items)
def hmget(self, name, keys, *args):
"Returns a list of values ordered identically to ``keys``"
args = list_or_args(keys, args)
return self.execute_command('HMGET', name, *args)
def hvals(self, name):
"Return the list of values within hash ``name``"
return self.execute_command('HVALS', name)
def publish(self, channel, message):
"""
Publish ``message`` on ``channel``.
Returns the number of subscribers the message was delivered to.
"""
return self.execute_command('PUBLISH', channel, message)
def eval(self, script, numkeys, *keys_and_args):
"""
Execute the LUA ``script``, specifying the ``numkeys`` the script
will touch and the key names and argument values in ``keys_and_args``.
Returns the result of the script.
In practice, use the object returned by ``register_script``. This
function exists purely for Redis API completion.
"""
return self.execute_command('EVAL', script, numkeys, *keys_and_args)
def evalsha(self, sha, numkeys, *keys_and_args):
"""
Use the ``sha`` to execute a LUA script already registered via EVAL
or SCRIPT LOAD. Specify the ``numkeys`` the script will touch and the
key names and argument values in ``keys_and_args``. Returns the result
of the script.
In practice, use the object returned by ``register_script``. This
function exists purely for Redis API completion.
"""
return self.execute_command('EVALSHA', sha, numkeys, *keys_and_args)
def script_exists(self, *args):
"""
Check if a script exists in the script cache by specifying the SHAs of
each script as ``args``. Returns a list of boolean values indicating if
if each already script exists in the cache.
"""
options = {'parse': 'EXISTS'}
return self.execute_command('SCRIPT', 'EXISTS', *args, **options)
def script_flush(self):
"Flush all scripts from the script cache"
options = {'parse': 'FLUSH'}
return self.execute_command('SCRIPT', 'FLUSH', **options)
def script_kill(self):
"Kill the currently executing LUA script"
options = {'parse': 'KILL'}
return self.execute_command('SCRIPT', 'KILL', **options)
def script_load(self, script):
"Load a LUA ``script`` into the script cache. Returns the SHA."
options = {'parse': 'LOAD'}
return self.execute_command('SCRIPT', 'LOAD', script, **options)
def register_script(self, script):
"""
Register a LUA ``script`` specifying the ``keys`` it will touch.
Returns a Script object that is callable and hides the complexity of
deal with scripts, keys, and shas. This is the preferred way to work
with LUA scripts.
"""
return Script(self, script)
class Redis(StrictRedis):
"""
Provides backwards compatibility with older versions of redis-py that
changed arguments to some commands to be more Pythonic, sane, or by
accident.
"""
# Overridden callbacks
RESPONSE_CALLBACKS = dict_merge(
StrictRedis.RESPONSE_CALLBACKS,
{
'TTL': lambda r: r != -1 and r or None,
'PTTL': lambda r: r != -1 and r or None,
}
)
def pipeline(self, transaction=True, shard_hint=None):
"""
Return a new pipeline object that can queue multiple commands for
later execution. ``transaction`` indicates whether all commands
should be executed atomically. Apart from making a group of operations
atomic, pipelines are useful for reducing the back-and-forth overhead
between the client and server.
"""
return Pipeline(
self.connection_pool,
self.response_callbacks,
transaction,
shard_hint)
def setex(self, name, value, time):
"""
Set the value of key ``name`` to ``value`` that expires in ``time``
seconds. ``time`` can be represented by an integer or a Python
timedelta object.
"""
if isinstance(time, datetime.timedelta):
time = time.seconds + time.days * 24 * 3600
return self.execute_command('SETEX', name, time, value)
def lrem(self, name, value, num=0):
"""
Remove the first ``num`` occurrences of elements equal to ``value``
from the list stored at ``name``.
The ``num`` argument influences the operation in the following ways:
num > 0: Remove elements equal to value moving from head to tail.
num < 0: Remove elements equal to value moving from tail to head.
num = 0: Remove all elements equal to value.
"""
return self.execute_command('LREM', name, num, value)
def zadd(self, name, *args, **kwargs):
"""
NOTE: The order of arguments differs from that of the official ZADD
command. For backwards compatability, this method accepts arguments
in the form of name1, score1, name2, score2, while the official Redis
documents expects score1, name1, score2, name2.
If you're looking to use the standard syntax, consider using the
StrictRedis class. See the API Reference section of the docs for more
information.
Set any number of element-name, score pairs to the key ``name``. Pairs
can be specified in two ways:
As *args, in the form of: name1, score1, name2, score2, ...
or as **kwargs, in the form of: name1=score1, name2=score2, ...
The following example would add four values to the 'my-key' key:
redis.zadd('my-key', 'name1', 1.1, 'name2', 2.2, name3=3.3, name4=4.4)
"""
pieces = []
if args:
if len(args) % 2 != 0:
raise RedisError("ZADD requires an equal number of "
"values and scores")
pieces.extend(reversed(args))
for pair in iteritems(kwargs):
pieces.append(pair[1])
pieces.append(pair[0])
return self.execute_command('ZADD', name, *pieces)
class PubSub(object):
"""
PubSub provides publish, subscribe and listen support to Redis channels.
After subscribing to one or more channels, the listen() method will block
until a message arrives on one of the subscribed channels. That message
will be returned and it's safe to start listening again.
"""
def __init__(self, connection_pool, shard_hint=None):
self.connection_pool = connection_pool
self.shard_hint = shard_hint
self.connection = None
self.channels = set()
self.patterns = set()
self.subscription_count = 0
self.subscribe_commands = set(
('subscribe', 'psubscribe', 'unsubscribe', 'punsubscribe')
)
def __del__(self):
try:
# if this object went out of scope prior to shutting down
# subscriptions, close the connection manually before
# returning it to the connection pool
if self.connection and (self.channels or self.patterns):
self.connection.disconnect()
self.reset()
except:
pass
def reset(self):
if self.connection:
self.connection.disconnect()
self.connection_pool.release(self.connection)
self.connection = None
def close(self):
self.reset()
def execute_command(self, *args, **kwargs):
"Execute a publish/subscribe command"
# NOTE: don't parse the response in this function. it could pull a
# legitmate message off the stack if the connection is already
# subscribed to one or more channels
if self.connection is None:
self.connection = self.connection_pool.get_connection(
'pubsub',
self.shard_hint
)
connection = self.connection
try:
connection.send_command(*args)
except ConnectionError:
connection.disconnect()
# Connect manually here. If the Redis server is down, this will
# fail and raise a ConnectionError as desired.
connection.connect()
# resubscribe to all channels and patterns before
# resending the current command
for channel in self.channels:
self.subscribe(channel)
for pattern in self.patterns:
self.psubscribe(pattern)
connection.send_command(*args)
def parse_response(self):
"Parse the response from a publish/subscribe command"
response = self.connection.read_response()
if nativestr(response[0]) in self.subscribe_commands:
self.subscription_count = response[2]
# if we've just unsubscribed from the remaining channels,
# release the connection back to the pool
if not self.subscription_count:
self.reset()
return response
def psubscribe(self, patterns):
"Subscribe to all channels matching any pattern in ``patterns``"
if isinstance(patterns, basestring):
patterns = [patterns]
for pattern in patterns:
self.patterns.add(pattern)
return self.execute_command('PSUBSCRIBE', *patterns)
def punsubscribe(self, patterns=[]):
"""
Unsubscribe from any channel matching any pattern in ``patterns``.
If empty, unsubscribe from all channels.
"""
if isinstance(patterns, basestring):
patterns = [patterns]
for pattern in patterns:
try:
self.patterns.remove(pattern)
except KeyError:
pass
return self.execute_command('PUNSUBSCRIBE', *patterns)
def subscribe(self, channels):
"Subscribe to ``channels``, waiting for messages to be published"
if isinstance(channels, basestring):
channels = [channels]
for channel in channels:
self.channels.add(channel)
return self.execute_command('SUBSCRIBE', *channels)
def unsubscribe(self, channels=[]):
"""
Unsubscribe from ``channels``. If empty, unsubscribe
from all channels
"""
if isinstance(channels, basestring):
channels = [channels]
for channel in channels:
try:
self.channels.remove(channel)
except KeyError:
pass
return self.execute_command('UNSUBSCRIBE', *channels)
def listen(self):
"Listen for messages on channels this client has been subscribed to"
while self.subscription_count or self.channels or self.patterns:
r = self.parse_response()
msg_type = nativestr(r[0])
if msg_type == 'pmessage':
msg = {
'type': msg_type,
'pattern': nativestr(r[1]),
'channel': nativestr(r[2]),
'data': r[3]
}
else:
msg = {
'type': msg_type,
'pattern': None,
'channel': nativestr(r[1]),
'data': r[2]
}
yield msg
class BasePipeline(object):
"""
Pipelines provide a way to transmit multiple commands to the Redis server
in one transmission. This is convenient for batch processing, such as
saving all the values in a list to Redis.
All commands executed within a pipeline are wrapped with MULTI and EXEC
calls. This guarantees all commands executed in the pipeline will be
executed atomically.
Any command raising an exception does *not* halt the execution of
subsequent commands in the pipeline. Instead, the exception is caught
and its instance is placed into the response list returned by execute().
Code iterating over the response list should be able to deal with an
instance of an exception as a potential value. In general, these will be
ResponseError exceptions, such as those raised when issuing a command
on a key of a different datatype.
"""
UNWATCH_COMMANDS = set(('DISCARD', 'EXEC', 'UNWATCH'))
def __init__(self, connection_pool, response_callbacks, transaction,
shard_hint):
self.connection_pool = connection_pool
self.connection = None
self.response_callbacks = response_callbacks
self.transaction = transaction
self.shard_hint = shard_hint
self.watching = False
self.reset()
def __enter__(self):
return self
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
self.reset()
def __del__(self):
try:
self.reset()
except:
pass
def __len__(self):
return len(self.command_stack)
def reset(self):
self.command_stack = []
self.scripts = set()
# make sure to reset the connection state in the event that we were
# watching something
if self.watching and self.connection:
try:
# call this manually since our unwatch or
# immediate_execute_command methods can call reset()
self.connection.send_command('UNWATCH')
self.connection.read_response()
except ConnectionError:
# disconnect will also remove any previous WATCHes
self.connection.disconnect()
# clean up the other instance attributes
self.watching = False
self.explicit_transaction = False
# we can safely return the connection to the pool here since we're
# sure we're no longer WATCHing anything
if self.connection:
self.connection_pool.release(self.connection)
self.connection = None
def multi(self):
"""
Start a transactional block of the pipeline after WATCH commands
are issued. End the transactional block with `execute`.
"""
if self.explicit_transaction:
raise RedisError('Cannot issue nested calls to MULTI')
if self.command_stack:
raise RedisError('Commands without an initial WATCH have already '
'been issued')
self.explicit_transaction = True
def execute_command(self, *args, **kwargs):
if (self.watching or args[0] == 'WATCH') and \
not self.explicit_transaction:
return self.immediate_execute_command(*args, **kwargs)
return self.pipeline_execute_command(*args, **kwargs)
def immediate_execute_command(self, *args, **options):
"""
Execute a command immediately, but don't auto-retry on a
ConnectionError if we're already WATCHing a variable. Used when
issuing WATCH or subsequent commands retrieving their values but before
MULTI is called.
"""
command_name = args[0]
conn = self.connection
# if this is the first call, we need a connection
if not conn:
conn = self.connection_pool.get_connection(command_name,
self.shard_hint)
self.connection = conn
try:
conn.send_command(*args)
return self.parse_response(conn, command_name, **options)
except ConnectionError:
conn.disconnect()
# if we're not already watching, we can safely retry the command
# assuming it was a connection timeout
if not self.watching:
conn.send_command(*args)
return self.parse_response(conn, command_name, **options)
self.reset()
raise
def pipeline_execute_command(self, *args, **options):
"""
Stage a command to be executed when execute() is next called
Returns the current Pipeline object back so commands can be
chained together, such as:
pipe = pipe.set('foo', 'bar').incr('baz').decr('bang')
At some other point, you can then run: pipe.execute(),
which will execute all commands queued in the pipe.
"""
self.command_stack.append((args, options))
return self
def _execute_transaction(self, connection, commands, raise_on_error):
cmds = chain([(('MULTI', ), {})], commands, [(('EXEC', ), {})])
all_cmds = SYM_EMPTY.join(
starmap(connection.pack_command,
[args for args, options in cmds]))
connection.send_packed_command(all_cmds)
# parse off the response for MULTI
self.parse_response(connection, '_')
# and all the other commands
errors = []
for i, _ in enumerate(commands):
try:
self.parse_response(connection, '_')
except ResponseError:
errors.append((i, sys.exc_info()[1]))
# parse the EXEC.
try:
response = self.parse_response(connection, '_')
except ExecAbortError:
self.immediate_execute_command('DISCARD')
if errors:
raise errors[0][1]
raise sys.exc_info()[1]
if response is None:
raise WatchError("Watched variable changed.")
# put any parse errors into the response
for i, e in errors:
response.insert(i, e)
if len(response) != len(commands):
raise ResponseError("Wrong number of response items from "
"pipeline execution")
# find any errors in the response and raise if necessary
if raise_on_error:
self.raise_first_error(response)
# We have to run response callbacks manually
data = []
for r, cmd in izip(response, commands):
if not isinstance(r, Exception):
args, options = cmd
command_name = args[0]
if command_name in self.response_callbacks:
r = self.response_callbacks[command_name](r, **options)
data.append(r)
return data
def _execute_pipeline(self, connection, commands, raise_on_error):
# build up all commands into a single request to increase network perf
all_cmds = SYM_EMPTY.join(
starmap(connection.pack_command,
[args for args, options in commands]))
connection.send_packed_command(all_cmds)
response = [self.parse_response(connection, args[0], **options)
for args, options in commands]
if raise_on_error:
self.raise_first_error(response)
return response
def raise_first_error(self, response):
for r in response:
if isinstance(r, ResponseError):
raise r
def parse_response(self, connection, command_name, **options):
result = StrictRedis.parse_response(
self, connection, command_name, **options)
if command_name in self.UNWATCH_COMMANDS:
self.watching = False
elif command_name == 'WATCH':
self.watching = True
return result
def load_scripts(self):
# make sure all scripts that are about to be run on this pipeline exist
scripts = list(self.scripts)
immediate = self.immediate_execute_command
shas = [s.sha for s in scripts]
exists = immediate('SCRIPT', 'EXISTS', *shas, **{'parse': 'EXISTS'})
if not all(exists):
for s, exist in izip(scripts, exists):
if not exist:
immediate('SCRIPT', 'LOAD', s.script, **{'parse': 'LOAD'})
def execute(self, raise_on_error=True):
"Execute all the commands in the current pipeline"
if self.scripts:
self.load_scripts()
stack = self.command_stack
if self.transaction or self.explicit_transaction:
execute = self._execute_transaction
else:
execute = self._execute_pipeline
conn = self.connection
if not conn:
conn = self.connection_pool.get_connection('MULTI',
self.shard_hint)
# assign to self.connection so reset() releases the connection
# back to the pool after we're done
self.connection = conn
try:
return execute(conn, stack, raise_on_error)
except ConnectionError:
conn.disconnect()
# if we were watching a variable, the watch is no longer valid
# since this connection has died. raise a WatchError, which
# indicates the user should retry his transaction. If this is more
# than a temporary failure, the WATCH that the user next issue
# will fail, propegating the real ConnectionError
if self.watching:
raise WatchError("A ConnectionError occured on while watching "
"one or more keys")
# otherwise, it's safe to retry since the transaction isn't
# predicated on any state
return execute(conn, stack, raise_on_error)
finally:
self.reset()
def watch(self, *names):
"Watches the values at keys ``names``"
if self.explicit_transaction:
raise RedisError('Cannot issue a WATCH after a MULTI')
return self.execute_command('WATCH', *names)
def unwatch(self):
"Unwatches all previously specified keys"
return self.watching and self.execute_command('UNWATCH') or True
def script_load_for_pipeline(self, script):
"Make sure scripts are loaded prior to pipeline execution"
self.scripts.add(script)
class StrictPipeline(BasePipeline, StrictRedis):
"Pipeline for the StrictRedis class"
pass
class Pipeline(BasePipeline, Redis):
"Pipeline for the Redis class"
pass
class Script(object):
"An executable LUA script object returned by ``register_script``"
def __init__(self, registered_client, script):
self.registered_client = registered_client
self.script = script
self.sha = registered_client.script_load(script)
def __call__(self, keys=[], args=[], client=None):
"Execute the script, passing any required ``args``"
client = client or self.registered_client
args = tuple(keys) + tuple(args)
# make sure the Redis server knows about the script
if isinstance(client, BasePipeline):
# make sure this script is good to go on pipeline
client.script_load_for_pipeline(self)
try:
return client.evalsha(self.sha, len(keys), *args)
except NoScriptError:
# Maybe the client is pointed to a differnet server than the client
# that created this instance?
self.sha = client.script_load(self.script)
return client.evalsha(self.sha, len(keys), *args)
class LockError(RedisError):
"Errors thrown from the Lock"
pass
class Lock(object):
"""
A shared, distributed Lock. Using Redis for locking allows the Lock
to be shared across processes and/or machines.
It's left to the user to resolve deadlock issues and make sure
multiple clients play nicely together.
"""
LOCK_FOREVER = float(2 ** 31 + 1) # 1 past max unix time
def __init__(self, redis, name, timeout=None, sleep=0.1):
"""
Create a new Lock instnace named ``name`` using the Redis client
supplied by ``redis``.
``timeout`` indicates a maximum life for the lock.
By default, it will remain locked until release() is called.
``sleep`` indicates the amount of time to sleep per loop iteration
when the lock is in blocking mode and another client is currently
holding the lock.
Note: If using ``timeout``, you should make sure all the hosts
that are running clients have their time synchronized with a network
time service like ntp.
"""
self.redis = redis
self.name = name
self.acquired_until = None
self.timeout = timeout
self.sleep = sleep
if self.timeout and self.sleep > self.timeout:
raise LockError("'sleep' must be less than 'timeout'")
def __enter__(self):
return self.acquire()
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
self.release()
def acquire(self, blocking=True):
"""
Use Redis to hold a shared, distributed lock named ``name``.
Returns True once the lock is acquired.
If ``blocking`` is False, always return immediately. If the lock
was acquired, return True, otherwise return False.
"""
sleep = self.sleep
timeout = self.timeout
while 1:
unixtime = int(mod_time.time())
if timeout:
timeout_at = unixtime + timeout
else:
timeout_at = Lock.LOCK_FOREVER
timeout_at = float(timeout_at)
if self.redis.setnx(self.name, timeout_at):
self.acquired_until = timeout_at
return True
# We want blocking, but didn't acquire the lock
# check to see if the current lock is expired
existing = float(self.redis.get(self.name) or 1)
if existing < unixtime:
# the previous lock is expired, attempt to overwrite it
existing = float(self.redis.getset(self.name, timeout_at) or 1)
if existing < unixtime:
# we successfully acquired the lock
self.acquired_until = timeout_at
return True
if not blocking:
return False
mod_time.sleep(sleep)
def release(self):
"Releases the already acquired lock"
if self.acquired_until is None:
raise ValueError("Cannot release an unlocked lock")
existing = float(self.redis.get(self.name) or 1)
# if the lock time is in the future, delete the lock
if existing >= self.acquired_until:
self.redis.delete(self.name)
self.acquired_until = None
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