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Scaling the Ethereum Network

Ethereum community proposals to scale, background on scaling in the tech industry, scaling in theory.

Scaling in General

Why I love databases by Jeeyoung Kim

How sharding works by Jeeyoung Kim

Making Sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 Scaling Solutions: State Channels, Plasma, and Truebit

Scaling Ethereum in 2018 (video), a presentation by Lane Rettig

Scaling Blockchains

Naive to tackle distributed systems and incentive mechanism design separately tweet by Vlad Zamfir

SoK: Consensus in the Age of Blockchains (PDF)

Scalability of Blockchains Summary of Knowledge - Mechanism Labs paper under development

Ethereum Roadmap

A rollup-centric ethereum roadmap by Vitalik Buterin, Oct. 2020

"the Ethereum ecosystem is likely to be all-in on rollups (plus some plasma and channels) as a scaling strategy for the near and mid-term future"

Lets shard the blockchain using sidechains by Syed Jafar Naqvi

General Strategies for Scaling the Ethereum Network

  1. Network Bifurcation — separate blockchains (strategies 1–5 directly involve the Ethereum blockchain)

  2. Vertical partitioning — endpoints for txn queues, relays,“JSON-RPC APIs”

  3. Software optimization — bigger block sizes

  4. Network topology optimization

  5. Horizontal partitioning via algorithmic sharding — plasmas, state channels, “Layer 2”

  6. Horizontal partitioning via dynamic sharding — “Ethereum Sharding”

From 5 Strategies to Scale Ethereum by Jamie Pitts

Retro or Bootstrap Scaling Solutions

Infura web API - gateway to Ethereum and other networks

L2s and Side Chains Available Now

Spreadsheet summary of scaling solutions - organized by the Web3 Foundation / ScalingNOW initiative





Matic Network

Connext Network

Raiden Network


POA Network

L1s that bridge to Ethereum mainnet

Cosmos Hub


Under Development / Testnets

Not ready for use w/ mainnet Ethereum dapps, but getting closer.

Eth2 Phase 0



Fuel Labs

Aztec 2.0


Plasma Chamber


Still in R&D / Prototypes

Eth2 / Ethereum Sharding Project - Phase 1 and 2, General Protocol

Nitro Protocol

Smart Contracts and "compute" in Filecoin

Research Work

Ethereum Community R&D

  • EthResearch is where discussions about scaling Ethereum generally happen

Stateless Ethereum / Eth1x

State Channels

Plasma Framework


Optimistic Rollups


Virtual Payment Channels

Reddit's Scaling Bake-off Submissions

NEAR Protocol team submission

Raiden team submission

OMG Network team submission

Fuel Labs team submission

Celer Network team submission

Connect / Spacefold team submission

Recently Reoriented

LeapDAO / Plasma

Matter Labs / Plasma

Plasma Group

Abandoned / What's Happening?

Recently not enough information, GitHub updates, etc. to determine status


Loom Network


G-Bridge / ScalingNOW