Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with HTTPS or Subversion.

Download ZIP
Newer
Older
100644 397 lines (242 sloc) 20.907 kb
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
1 Paris
2 =====
3
d47143f @j4mie Add link to website
j4mie authored
4 [http://j4mie.github.com/idiormandparis/](http://j4mie.github.com/idiormandparis/)
5
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
6 A lightweight Active Record implementation for PHP5.
7
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
8 Built on top of [Idiorm](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/).
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
9
6e95dce @j4mie Add note about PHP version compatibility
j4mie authored
10 Tested on PHP 5.2.0+ - may work on earlier versions with PDO and the correct database drivers.
11
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
12 Released under a [BSD license](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_licenses).
13
84cf78f @j4mie Add "Features" section to README
j4mie authored
14 Features
15 --------
16
17 * Extremely simple configuration.
18 * Exposes the full power of [Idiorm](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/)'s fluent query API.
19 * Supports associations.
20 * Simple mechanism to encapsulate common queries in filter methods.
21 * Built on top of [PDO](http://php.net/pdo).
22 * Uses [prepared statements](http://uk.php.net/manual/en/pdo.prepared-statements.php) throughout to protect against [SQL injection](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQL_injection) attacks.
23 * Database agnostic. Currently supports SQLite and MySQL. May support others, please give it a try!
24
3fb68ee @j4mie Add changelog
j4mie authored
25 Changelog
26 ---------
27
28 #### 1.0.0 - released 2010-12-01
29
30 * Initial release
31
2070e5c @j4mie Correct version
j4mie authored
32 #### 1.1.0 - released 2011-01-24
3fb68ee @j4mie Add changelog
j4mie authored
33
34 * Add `is_dirty` method
35
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
36 Philosophy
37 ----------
38
7dcf73e @j4mie Add custom filter functionality and documentation
j4mie authored
39 Paris is built with the same *less is more* philosophy as [Idiorm](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/).
ca39b6f @j4mie Initial commit
j4mie authored
40
41 Let's See Some Code
42 -------------------
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
43
44 ### Setup ###
45
46 Paris requires [Idiorm](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/). Install Idiorm and Paris somewhere in your project directory, and `require` both.
47
48 require_once 'your/path/to/idiorm.php';
49 require_once 'your/path/to/paris.php';
50
51 Then, you need to tell Idiorm how to connect to your database. **For full details of how to do this, see [Idiorm's documentation](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/).**
52
53 Briefly, you need to pass a *Data Source Name* connection string to the `configure` method of the ORM class.
54
55 ORM::configure('sqlite:./example.db');
56
84930c3 @j4mie Add MySQL connection example. Thanks to jordanlev for the suggestion
j4mie authored
57 You may also need to pass a username and password to your database driver, using the `username` and `password` configuration options. For example, if you are using MySQL:
58
59 ORM::configure('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=my_database');
60 ORM::configure('username', 'database_user');
61 ORM::configure('password', 'top_secret');
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
62
63 ### Model Classes ###
64
65 You should create a model class for each entity in your application. For example, if you are building an application that requires users, you should create a `User` class. Your model classes should extend the base `Model` class:
66
67 class User extends Model {
68 }
69
70 Paris takes care of creating instances of your model classes, and populating them with *data* from the database. You can then add *behaviour* to this class in the form of public methods which implement your application logic. This combination of data and behaviour is the essence of the [Active Record pattern](http://martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/activeRecord.html).
71
72 ### Database Tables ###
73
74 Your `User` class should have a corresponding `user` table in your database to store its data.
75
76 By default, Paris assumes your class names are in *CapWords* style, and your table names are in *lowercase_with_underscores* style. It will convert between the two automatically. For example, if your class is called `CarTyre`, Paris will look for a table named `car_tyre`.
77
78 To override this default behaviour, add a **public static** property to your class called `$_table`:
79
80 class User extends Model {
81 public static $_table = 'my_user_table';
82 }
83
328dda6 @j4mie Add support for specifying custom ID column on classes
j4mie authored
84 ### ID Column ###
85
86 Paris requires that your database tables have a unique primary key column. By default, Paris will use a column called `id`. To override this default behaviour, add a **public static** property to your class called `$_id_column`:
87
88 class User extends Model {
89 public static $_id_column = 'my_id_column';
90 }
91
7e08e7e @j4mie Add note about Paris not respecting Idiorm's ID column configuration
j4mie authored
92 **Note** - Paris has its *own* default ID column name mechanism, and does not respect column names specified in Idiorm's configuration.
93
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
94 ### Querying ###
95
96 Querying allows you to select data from your database and populate instances of your model classes. Queries start with a call to a static *factory method* on the base `Model` class that takes a single argument: the name of the model class you wish to use for your query. This factory method is then used as the start of a *method chain* which gives you full access to [Idiorm](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/)'s fluent query API. **See Idiorm's documentation for details of this API.**
97
98 For example:
99
100 $users = Model::factory('User')
101 ->where('name', 'Fred')
102 ->where_gte('age', 20)
103 ->find_many();
104
105 You can also use the same shortcut provided by Idiorm when looking up a record by its primary key ID:
106
107 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($id);
108
109 The only differences between using Idiorm and using Paris for querying are as follows:
110
111 1. You do not need to call the `for_table` method to specify the database table to use. Paris will supply this automatically based on the class name (or the `$_table` static property, if present).
112
113 2. The `find_one` and `find_many` methods will return instances of *your model subclass*, instead of the base `ORM` class. Like Idiorm, `find_one` will return a single instance or `false` if no rows matched your query, while `find_many` will return an array of instances, which may be empty if no rows matched.
114
7dcf73e @j4mie Add custom filter functionality and documentation
j4mie authored
115 3. Custom filtering, see next section.
116
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
117 You may also retrieve a count of the number of rows returned by your query. This method behaves exactly like Idiorm's `count` method:
118
119 $count = Model::factory('User')->where_lt('age', 20)->count();
120
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
121 ### Associations ###
122
123 Paris provides a simple API for one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many relationships (associations) between models. It takes a different approach to many other ORMs, which use associative arrays to add configuration metadata about relationships to model classes. These arrays can often be deeply nested and complex, and are therefore quite error-prone.
124
125 Instead, Paris treats the act of querying across a relationship as a *behaviour*, and supplies a family of helper methods to help generate such queries. These helper methods should be called from within *methods* on your model classes which are named to describe the relationship. These methods return ORM instances (rather than actual Model instances) and so, if necessary, the relationship query can be modified and added to before it is run.
126
127 #### Summary ####
128
129 The following list summarises the associations provided by Paris, and explains which helper method supports each type of association:
130
131 ##### One-to-one #####
132
133 Use `has_one` in the base, and `belongs_to` in the associated model.
134
135 ##### One-to-many #####
136
137 Use `has_many` in the base, and `belongs_to` in the associated model.
138
139 ##### Many-to-many #####
140
141 Use `has_many_through` in both the base and associated models.
142
e591289 @j4mie README tweaks
j4mie authored
143 Below, each association helper method is discussed in detail.
144
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
145 #### Has-one ####
146
147 One-to-one relationships are implemented using the `has_one` method. For example, say we have a `User` model. Each user has a single `Profile`, and so the `user` table should be associated with the `profile` table. To be able to find the profile for a particular user, we should add a method called `profile` to the `User` class (note that the method name here is arbitrary, but should describe the relationship). This method calls the protected `has_one` method provided by Paris, passing in the class name of the related object. The `profile` method should return an ORM instance ready for (optional) further filtering.
148
149 class Profile extends Model {
150 }
151
152 class User extends Model {
153 public function profile() {
154 return $this->has_one('Profile');
155 }
156 }
157
158 The API for this method works as follows:
159
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
160 // Select a particular user from the database
161 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($user_id);
162
163 // Find the profile associated with the user
164 $profile = $user->profile()->find_one();
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
165
166 By default, Paris assumes that the foreign key column on the related table has the same name as the current (base) table, with `_id` appended. In the example above, Paris will look for a foreign key column called `user_id` on the table used by the `Profile` class. To override this behaviour, add a second argument to your `has_one` call, passing the name of the column to use.
167
e591289 @j4mie README tweaks
j4mie authored
168 #### Has many ####
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
169
170 One-to-many relationships are implemented using the `has_many` method. For example, say we have a `User` model. Each user has several `Post` objects. The `user` table should be associated with the `post` table. To be able to find the posts for a particular user, we should add a method called `posts` to the `User` class (note that the method name here is arbitrary, but should describe the relationship). This method calls the protected `has_many` method provided by Paris, passing in the class name of the related objects. **Pass the model class name literally, not a pluralised version**. The `posts` method should return an ORM instance ready for (optional) further filtering.
171
172 class Post extends Model {
173 }
174
175 class User extends Model {
176 public function posts() {
177 return $this->has_many('Post'); // Note we use the model name literally - not a pluralised version
178 }
179 }
180
181 The API for this method works as follows:
182
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
183 // Select a particular user from the database
184 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($user_id);
185
186 // Find the posts associated with the user
187 $posts = $user->posts()->find_many();
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
188
189 By default, Paris assumes that the foreign key column on the related table has the same name as the current (base) table, with `_id` appended. In the example above, Paris will look for a foreign key column called `user_id` on the table used by the `Post` class. To override this behaviour, add a second argument to your `has_many` call, passing the name of the column to use.
190
e591289 @j4mie README tweaks
j4mie authored
191 #### Belongs to ####
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
192
193 The 'other side' of `has_one` and `has_many` is `belongs_to`. This method call takes identical parameters as these methods, but assumes the foreign key is on the *current* (base) table, not the related table.
194
195 class Profile extends Model {
196 public function user() {
197 return $this->belongs_to('User');
198 }
199 }
200
201 class User extends Model {
202 }
203
204 The API for this method works as follows:
205
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
206 // Select a particular profile from the database
207 $profile = Model::factory('Profile')->find_one($profile_id);
208
209 // Find the user associated with the profile
210 $user = $profile->user()->find_one();
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
211
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
212 Again, Paris makes an assumption that the foreign key on the current (base) table has the same name as the related table with `_id` appended. In the example above, Paris will look for a column named `user_id`. To override this behaviour, pass a second argument to the `belongs_to` method, specifying the name of the column on the current (base) table to use.
213
e591289 @j4mie README tweaks
j4mie authored
214 #### Has many through ####
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
215
216 Many-to-many relationships are implemented using the `has_many_through` method. This method has only one required argument: the name of the related model. Supplying further arguments allows us to override default behaviour of the method.
217
218 For example, say we have a `Book` model. Each `Book` may have several `Author` objects, and each `Author` may have written several `Books`. To be able to find the authors for a particular book, we should first create an intermediary model. The name for this model should be constructed by concatenating the names of the two related classes, in alphabetical order. In this case, our classes are called `Author` and `Book`, so the intermediate model should be called `AuthorBook`.
219
77adca7 @j4mie Add note about validation to README. See issue #2
j4mie authored
220 We should then add a method called `authors` to the `Book` class (note that the method name here is arbitrary, but should describe the relationship). This method calls the protected `has_many_through` method provided by Paris, passing in the class name of the related objects. **Pass the model class name literally, not a pluralised version**. The `authors` method should return an ORM instance ready for (optional) further filtering.
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
221
222 class Author extends Model {
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
223 public function books() {
224 return $this->has_many_through('Book');
225 }
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
226 }
227
228 class Book extends Model {
229 public function authors() {
230 return $this->has_many_through('Author');
231 }
232 }
233
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
234 class AuthorBook extends Model {
235 }
236
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
237 The API for this method works as follows:
238
f4103cc @j4mie Improve associations docs
j4mie authored
239 // Select a particular book from the database
240 $book = Model::factory('Book')->find_one($book_id);
241
242 // Find the authors associated with the book
243 $authors = $book->authors()->find_many();
244
245 // Get the first author
246 $first_author = $authors[0];
247
248 // Find all the books written by this author
249 $first_author_books = $first_author->books()->find_many();
65bd387 @j4mie Add has_many_through method. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
250
251 ##### Overriding defaults #####
252
253 The `has_many_through` method takes up to four arguments, which allow us to progressively override default assumptions made by the method.
254
255 **First argument: associated model name** - this is mandatory and should be the name of the model we wish to select across the association.
256
257 **Second argument: intermediate model name** - this is optional and defaults to the names of the two associated models, sorted alphabetically and concatenated.
258
259 **Third argument: custom key to base table on intermediate table** - this is optional, and defaults to the name of the base table with `_id` appended.
260
261 **Fourth argument: custom key to associated table on intermediate table** - this is optional, and defaults to the name of the associated table with `_id` appended.
67174ae @j4mie Add has_one, has_many and belongs_to associations. Code, docs, tests.
j4mie authored
262
27cfbca @j4mie Custom filters can now accept arguments. Improve filter docs
j4mie authored
263 ### Filters ###
7dcf73e @j4mie Add custom filter functionality and documentation
j4mie authored
264
14fe7fa @j4mie Another typo in docs
j4mie authored
265 It is often desirable to create reusable queries that can be used to extract particular subsets of data without repeating large sections of code. Paris allows this by providing a method called `filter` which can be chained in queries alongside the existing Idiorm query API. The filter method takes the name of a **public static** method on the current Model subclass as an argument. The supplied method will be called at the point in the chain where `filter` is called, and will be passed the `ORM` object as the first parameter. It should return the ORM object after calling one or more query methods on it. The method chain can then be continued if necessary.
7dcf73e @j4mie Add custom filter functionality and documentation
j4mie authored
266
27cfbca @j4mie Custom filters can now accept arguments. Improve filter docs
j4mie authored
267 It is easiest to illustrate this with an example. Imagine an application in which users can be assigned a role, which controls their access to certain pieces of functionality. In this situation, you may often wish to retrieve a list of users with the role 'admin'. To do this, add a static method called (for example) `admins` to your Model class:
7dcf73e @j4mie Add custom filter functionality and documentation
j4mie authored
268
269 class User extends Model {
270 public static function admins($orm) {
271 return $orm->where('role', 'admin');
272 }
273 }
274
275 You can then use this filter in your queries:
276
277 $admin_users = Model::factory('User')->filter('admins')->find_many();
278
279 You can also chain it with other methods as normal:
280
281 $young_admins = Model::factory('User')
282 ->filter('admins')
283 ->where_lt('age', 18)
284 ->find_many();
285
27cfbca @j4mie Custom filters can now accept arguments. Improve filter docs
j4mie authored
286 #### Filters with arguments ####
287
288 You can also pass arguments to custom filters. Any additional arguments passed to the `filter` method (after the name of the filter to apply) will be passed through to your custom filter as additional arguments (after the ORM instance).
289
290 For example, let's say you wish to generalise your role filter (see above) to allow you to retrieve users with any role. You can pass the role name to the filter as an argument:
291
292 class User extends Model {
293 public static function has_role($orm, $role) {
294 return $orm->where('role', $role);
295 }
296 }
297
298 $admin_users = Model::factory('User')->filter('has_role', 'admin')->find_many();
299 $guest_users = Model::factory('User')->filter('has_role', 'guest')->find_many();
300
d6d24fa @j4mie Tiny typo in docs
j4mie authored
301 These examples may seem simple (`filter('has_role', 'admin')` could just as easily be achieved using `where('role', 'admin')`), but remember that filters can contain arbitrarily complex code - adding `raw_where` clauses or even complete `raw_query` calls to perform joins, etc. Filters provide a powerful mechanism to hide complexity in your model's query API.
27cfbca @j4mie Custom filters can now accept arguments. Improve filter docs
j4mie authored
302
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
303 ### Getting data from objects, updating and inserting data ###
304
305 The model instances returned by your queries now behave exactly as if they were instances of Idiorm's raw `ORM` class.
306
307 You can access data:
308
309 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($id);
310 echo $user->name;
311
312 Update data and save the instance:
313
314 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($id);
315 $user->name = 'Paris';
316 $user->save();
317
cd41103 @j4mie Add documentation on creating new (empty) model instances. Closes issue ...
j4mie authored
318 To create a new (empty) instance, use the `create` method:
319
320 $user = Model::factory('User')->create();
321 $user->name = 'Paris';
322 $user->save();
323
6ad585d @j4mie Add is_dirty method
j4mie authored
324 To check whether a property has been changed since the object was created (or last saved), call the `is_dirty` method:
325
326 $name_has_changed = $person->is_dirty('name'); // Returns true or false
327
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
328 Of course, because these objects are instances of your base model classes, you can also call methods that you have defined on them:
329
330 class User extends Model {
331 public function full_name() {
332 return $this->first_name . ' ' . $this->last_name;
333 }
334 }
335
336 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($id);
337 echo $user->full_name();
338
339 To delete the database row associated with an instance of your model, call its `delete` method:
340
341 $user = Model::factory('User')->find_one($id);
342 $user->delete();
343
b961e70 @j4mie Add wrappers for as_array method to base Model class
j4mie authored
344 You can also get the all the data wrapped by a model subclass instance using the `as_array` method. This will return an associative array mapping column names (keys) to their values.
345
346 The `as_array` method takes column names as optional arguments. If one or more of these arguments is supplied, only matching column names will be returned.
347
348 class Person extends Model {
349 }
350
351 $person = Model::factory('Person')->create();
352
353 $person->first_name = 'Fred';
354 $person->surname = 'Bloggs';
355 $person->age = 50;
356
357 // Returns array('first_name' => 'Fred', 'surname' => 'Bloggs', 'age' => 50)
358 $data = $person->as_array();
359
360 // Returns array('first_name' => 'Fred', 'age' => 50)
361 $data = $person->as_array('first_name', 'age');
362
77adca7 @j4mie Add note about validation to README. See issue #2
j4mie authored
363 ### A word on validation ###
364
365 It's generally considered a good idea to centralise your data validation in a single place, and a good place to do this is inside your model classes. This is preferable to handling validation alongside form handling code, for example. Placing validation code inside models means that if you extend your application in the future to update your model via an alternative route (say a REST API rather than a form) you can re-use the same validation code.
366
367 Despite this, Paris doesn't provide any built-in support for validation. This is because validation is potentially quite complex, and often very application-specific. Paris is deliberately quite ignorant about your actual data - it simply executes queries, and gives you the responsibility of making sure the data inside your models is valid and correct. Adding a full validation framework to Paris would probably require more code than Paris itself!
368
369 However, there are several simple ways that you could add validation to your models without any help from Paris. You could override the `save()` method, check the data is valid, and return `false` on failure, or call `parent::save()` on success. You could create your own subclass of the `Model` base class and add your own generic validation methods. Or you could write your own external validation framework which you pass model instances to for checking. Choose whichever approach is most suitable for your own requirements.
370
459e25c @j4mie Documentation
j4mie authored
371 ### Configuration ###
372
daba5a5 @j4mie Correct configuration section of README
j4mie authored
373 The only configuration options provided by Paris itself are the `$_table` and `$_id_column` static properties on model classes. To configure the database connection, you should use Idiorm's configuration system via the `ORM::configure` method. **See [Idiorm's documentation](http://github.com/j4mie/idiorm/) for full details.**
bc9e549 @j4mie Add note about logging to README
j4mie authored
374
d0f31e3 @j4mie Add documentation on transactions. Closes issue #8
j4mie authored
375 ### Transactions ###
376
377 Paris (or Idiorm) doesn't supply any extra methods to deal with transactions, but it's very easy to use PDO's built-in methods:
378
379 // Start a transaction
380 ORM::get_db()->beginTransaction();
381
382 // Commit a transaction
383 ORM::get_db()->commit();
384
385 // Roll back a transaction
386 ORM::get_db()->rollBack();
387
388 For more details, see [the PDO documentation on Transactions](http://www.php.net/manual/en/pdo.transactions.php).
389
bc9e549 @j4mie Add note about logging to README
j4mie authored
390 ### Query logging ###
391
392 Idiorm can log all queries it executes. To enable query logging, set the `logging` option to `true` (it is `false` by default).
393
394 ORM::configure('logging', true);
395
396 When query logging is enabled, you can use two static methods to access the log. `ORM::get_last_query()` returns the most recent query executed. `ORM::get_query_log()` returns an array of all queries executed.
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.