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Snakebird Solver

This repository contains a C++ breadth-first solver for the delightful puzzle game Snakebird. Theb code is licensed under the MIT license, except for files under third-party/src. For those files, see the files for licensing information.

Thanks to apocalyptech/snakebirdsolver for the idea on how to represent the Snakes in ASCII graphics in the puzzle definitions and pretty-printing, and for the level definitions.


The solver has a very optimized internal representation for game states, and for processing the game physics. Generating all the output states for an average state in the hardest puzzles of the game takes roughly 1-2 microseconds on an i7-6700k. The bulk of the program running time is spent in determining which of the output states had already been visited.

The representation of an individual state is usually about 8-10 bytes, but a data format + a combination of compression techniques compresses that down to an average of 0.7 bits.

All memory access patterns are optimized with the assumption that the state will eventually spill to disk. So performance will not fall completely off the cliff even if the working set does not fit full in RAM. But the practical RAM requirements are actually pretty small even for the larger puzzles.

To keep the state state manageable, the states are canonicalized in a way that eliminates as many symmetries as possible. In particular, the identity of objects or snakes is not tracked across states; the only things that matter are their shapes and locations. This canonicalization can have a dramatic effect on some puzzles.

For example finding the solution to the star4 puzzle requires visiting about 36M states in its original state, but only 3.3M states after canonicalization.


A brute force solver for Snakebird, a puzzle game







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