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$NetBSD: UPDATING,v 2004/08/03 22:32:12 jmc Exp $
This file is intended to be a brief introduction to the build
process and a reference on what to do if something doesn't work.
For a more detailed description see Makefile.
Recent changes:
The rc.d/sendmail script now uses a heuristic to determine
if sendmail should be started at boot time. It checks the
contents of /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/mail/, and the
owner and mode of the sendmail binary to see if any changes
to the mail infrastructure have been made. If no changes
are detected, it will start an SMTP listener.
Setting sendmail=NO in /etc/rc.conf will override this.
If you are only using sendmail by default and only for
local delivery, it is important that you also update your so that the SMTP listener only listens on the
loopback interface.
The method by which athhal-elf.o gets pulled into i386
kernel builds has been changed again. The latest version
of is no longer required.
Support for the original dynamic sysctl node structure has
been removed in favor of the newer layout. This affects
consumers of the create and delete interface, as well as
the dynamic discovery mechanism. This is believed only to
be the sysctl(8) binary itself, at this point in time, so
the only effect of this should be that a sysctl binary
built from sources dated between 2003/12/04 and 2004/03/24
will not work on a kernel built from sources dated after
2004/04/25. If you need a new sysctl binary but
does not work, make sure that your revision of
src/sys/sys/sysctl.h is 1.112 (or later), and then the
do the following:
cd /usr/src (or wherever your source tree is)
make USETOOLS=no includes
cd lib/libc
make USETOOLS=no dependall install
cd ../../sbin/sysctl
make USETOOLS=no dependall install
If you are using older sysctl binary, GNU autoconf would fail to
identify your machine architecture, and tries to build binary for
"unknown-unknown-netbsd20F" or something like that. if that happens,
make sure to follow the above steps.
The method by which athhal-elf.o gets pulled into i386 kernel builds
has been changed. The file is now stored as a uuencode file in CVS
and the generated Makefile will use the new .uue rules from
to build it.
This means you must have the latest installed when
building a kernel without USETOOLS=yes.
A bug in the cgd(4) blowfish code was corrected, without
provision of backwards compatibility, after several public
notices over several months. Users of cgd with blowfish cipher
ONLY must dump their data before updating their kernels, and
recreate cgd's and restore data using the new kernel. See
(recent message to current-users, URL when mail-index has updated)
On acorn32, the opms and qms drivers have been withdrawn, and
the old wsqms driver is now called qms. Kernel config files
will need updating. See the ones in sys/arch/acorn32/conf
for examples.
On acorn32, the beep and sysbeep devices are no longer
needed, and will need to be deleted from kernel configuration
Compatibility for old ffs superblock layouts has been
added, and the restrictive fsck checks have been reenabled
when using those layouts. If you have been using -current
since 20030402, you may find that fsck again signals fatal
superblock mismatches. To repair, make sure you have
an updated fsck_ffs and then you can use fsck_ffs -b 16 -c 4
to complete the filesystem upgrade. A message has
been added to the kernel which should detect this problem.
See the following discussion for more information:
New binutils builds may fail due to old dependencies.
It's necessary to "make cleandir" to ensure that
the dependencies will be rebuilt correctly.
A newer mkdep is needed. Error noting that is
cc: Ambiguous abbreviation --
/usr/include/sys/disklabel_mbr.h was removed.
It's necessary to "make cleandir" to ensure that
the dependencies will be rebuilt correctly.
A sign exension bug was fixed which set all the high bits
of our newly expanded ffs fs_flags. This should only
affect users who installed or upgraded in September of 2003.
A small utility program was posted to tech-kern which
should fix this problem, and a warning message was added
to the kernel which should discover and warn about it. See
With the addition of siginfo support the old signal trampoline
code has been deprecated to COMPAT_16. Make sure that your running
kernel has COMPAT_16 enabled before building userland.
With the new openssl, there is some header and library shuffling.
rm -f /usr/include/des.h /usr/include/kerberosIV/* /lib/libdes* \
/usr/lib/libdes* before building.
Texinfo was updated to 4.6. To avoid failures when trying to
build the included texinfo files, do:
cd src/gnu/usr.bin/texinfo
make MKINFO=no dependall install
Groff was updated to 1.19; it's probably necessary to do
cd share/mk && make install
cd src/gnu/usr.bin/groff
make MKMAN=no dependall install
Due to bugs in the export handling code, invalid export lines
were accepted before and caused the kernel to panic when
mountd got restarted because it freed memory that had already
been freed. This has been fixed and the kernel checks
export addresses very strictly. If you upgrade your kernel,
make sure you also upgrade mountd, because if your export
file contains lines with an old inet4 address syntax (i.e.
a.b.c or a.b or a), they will get rejected by the new kernel.
The superblock layout for FFS was changed. If you have 1.6
fsck binaries, they will signal a fatal superblock mismatch
with the first alternate, because they compare too many
fields (even ones that aren't useful). If possible, upgrade
your fsck_ffs binary before using a new kernel.
None of this signals actual filesystem damage.
sendmail version 8.12.8 was imported. Since sendmail is
now setgid to the smmsp group, and runs in "collection"
mode for most common activities, there is a new config
file called that needs to live in /etc/mail.
The generic sample in /usr/share/sendmail/cf
is named Upgrading your regular sendmail
configuration file is also strongly advised.
See the section named "MESSAGE SUBMISSION PROGRAM" in
the updated /usr/share/sendmail/README file for more
Texinfo was updated to 4.3. To avoid failures when trying to
build the included texinfo files, do:
cd src/gnu/usr.bin/texinfo
make MKINFO=no dependall install
The METALOG format changed slightly, to remove the leading
"${DESTDIR}" from path names.
This only affects people building with UNPRIVED.
For complete safety, remove the DESTDIR entirely and
update tools/mtree, before running make build.
CVS repository layout was changed. See the following for details
if you are using (anonymous) cvs to update your tree.
install(1) had a '-N dbdir' option added, to specify an
alternate location to look up users & groups (instead
of the host system passwd(5) and group(5) databases).
The build system was modified to take advantage of
this option (using ${NETBSDSRCDIR}/etc), so if you
use USETOOLS==no, you may have to rebuild and
reinstall usr.bin/xinstall first.
fparseln(3) moved from libutil to libc.
If building to DESTDIR=/, reinstall the includes
and rebuild libc:
make includes
make do-lib-libc
If using, "cd tools/compat && make clean"
before rebuilding the tools.
The mk.conf(5) variable SYS_INCLUDE has been deprecated,
including the optional "SYS_INCLUDE=symlinks" support.
All header files, including <sys/*.h> are copied into
The C run-time support files crtbegin.o and crtend.o
(and their companions crtbeginS.o and crtendS.o) were
split up, with new crti.o and crtn.o files resulting.
This means that libtool needs to be rebuilt once the
new libraries are installed. The process of rebuilding
libtool will cause it to automatically notice the new
required files, but it *must* be rebuilt in order to
do this.
An out-of-date libtool will result in shared libraries
which lack _init() and _fini() routines, which means that
their global contructors/destructors will not be invoked.
A bug related to how ARM ELF objects were tagged has been
NetBSD ARM ELF uses the soft-VFP floating point model by
default. However, the assembler lacked support for marking
objects as using the VFP floating point format, and the
compiler was not properly passing the flag indicating "soft-VFP"
to the assembler.
Unfortunately, this means that the linker will now consider
old (i.e. not marked "softvfp") NetBSD ARM ELF objects to be
incompatible with new (properly marked) objects.
The problem will only manifest itself if you attempt to compile
a new program using the fixed toolchain, and link that program
against old libraries which do not have the proper "softvfp"
The only work-around for the problem is to recompile all of
the libraries on the system. The easiest way to do this for
system libraries is to install a binary snapshot; they are
generally available on Any packages you
have installed which supply libraries will have to be recompiled
if you wish to link new programs against those libraries.
If you have questions about this matter, please contact
Systrace has been improved to support privilege elevation.
Updating the kernel requires the userland part of systrace
to be rebuilt.
The config(8) grammar was changed to allow options to register
dependencies on attributes, as well as other options. Users
must update and reinstall usr.sbin/config before building a new
A new attribute dependency syntax was introduced to config(8),
which is now used by the SCSI configuration description. Users
must update and reinstall usr.sbin/config before building a new
Several changes have been made to the autoconfiguration
framework. Users must update and reinstall usr.sbin/config
before building a new kernel.
The i386mp branch has been merged. To compile a kernel, users
will need to add the option 'cpu* at mainbus?' to their configuration
file. Multiprocessor kernels will need
ioapic* at mainbus? apid ?
options COM_MPLOCK
MKDYNAMICROOT=yes enabled by default, which means that
certain shared libraries are installed into /lib, the shared
linker is installed into /libexec, and all programs in /bin
and /sbin are dynamically linked.
If you do not use "make build", you should ensure that
you have the libraries and shared linker in the new locations,
make do-lib-csu do-lib-libc do-lib do-gnu-lib do-ld.elf_so
USE_NEW_TOOLCHAIN has been replaced with:
- TOOLCHAIN_MISSING -- set to "yes" on platforms for which
there is no working in-tree toolchain (hppa, ns32k, sh5,
- EXTERNAL_TOOLCHAIN -- if defined by the user, points to the
root of an external toolchain (e.g. /usr/local/gnu). This
enables the cross-build framework even for TOOLCHAIN_MISSING
gehenna-devsw has been merged into the trunk. Need to update and
reinstall usr.sbin/config before building the kernel.
Crunched rescue tools (contents of /bin and /sbin, plus others)
are now provided in /rescue.
To ensure that these are built statically linked (no matter
what the setting of LDSTATIC is), use a crunchgen(1) built
from sources newer than 20020820 (see the next entry).
crunchgen(1) changed to ensure that the generated program
is statically linked.
Solution: update and reinstall usr.bin/crunch
smmsp user/group has been added for sendmail.
Add the following into /etc/group:
and the following to /etc/master.passwd (via vipw):
smmsp:*:17:17::0:0:Sendmail Message Submission Program:/nonexistent:/sbin/nologin
sshd user/group has been added. Need to hand add this in, or sshd
will not let you log in (with default, or UsePrivlegeSeparation=yes)
Add the following into /etc/group:
and the following to /etc/master.passwd (via vipw):
sshd:*:16:16::0:0:& pseudo-user:/var/chroot/sshd:/sbin/nologin
Also /var/chroot/sshd directory needs to be present (digged as part of
the build process).
NBUILDJOBS obsoleted in favor of just using -j.
etc/postinstall added, which performs various checks for
configuration file updates and changes, and can fix most of
the problems identified.
This should make it much easier to upgrade a system's
configuration from earlier systems (as far back as NetBSD 1.5).
<> needs a new install(1) for its "-a cmd" support.
Build and install at usr.bin/xinstall before the build.
Raw IPv6 socket now makes strict checking for sa_family and sa_len
on send(2) operation. Be sure to have sbin/rtsol and usr.sbin/rtsold
newer than November 2001 when you upgrade the kernel.
ssh configuration files were moved from /etc to /etc/ssh. Beware
if you restart your machine from remote. Note that sshd.conf needs
to be changed (due to the use of "/etc" inside).
Users of the VAX port will need to rebuild and install gas
so it deal with the now present register prefix used in all
the VAX assembly files.
ntpd user/group has been added. Need to hand add this in or builds
will break as mtree aborts early.
Add the following into /etc/group:
and the following to /etc/master.passwd (via vipw):
ntpd:*:15:15::0:0:Ntpd pseudo-user:/var/chroot/ntpd:/sbin/nologin
If you're attempting to build a snapshot on sparc64 and are getting
reloc errors from the toolchain groff binary this means your native
toolchain has some broken C++ bits.
To fix:
Build a new toolchain (i.e. -t)
Use the new toolchain to build and install natively (i.e. /usr/lib)
After this a snapshot will be able to be built.
In order for a sparc64 build to work you must have a working awk. If
you've built and installed a system with the new toolchain up to this
point you do not have a working awk as its ability to do floating
point is broken.
To build:
remake and install gnu/lib/libgcc
remake and install gnu/usr.bin/gawk into /usr/bin (make sure it links
against the new libgcc.a)
Kernel config information was changed to use defflag in
the various "files" files. Bug fixes to config(8) are
required in order for this to work properly. Make sure
to build and install in usr.sbin/config before attempting
to build a new kernel.
libc/locale/wcstod.c now needs new lint(1). Update lint(1)
before building libc.
The new document BUILDING.mdoc (view with nroff | more, or
see pre-generated .txt and .html versions) describes the build
procedure in great detail. BUILDING, and the USE_NEW_TOOLCHAIN
build process, are intended in the long run to replace this
manual update log.
Users building a USE_NEW_TOOLCHAIN system should read the
BUILDING document for caveats. Generally, BUILDING supersedes
UPDATING for these systems, as tool updating is taken care of
by the new build system.
src/etc/Makefile now needs install to be able to handle
symlinks that point to nowhere. A bug in install that
prevented this was corrected.
Solution: update and reinstall usr.bin/xinstall
Better Solution: Use the new toolchain and it will just work
for you.
/etc/mtree/NetBSD.dist has been updated to take advantage of
absolute path support added to mtree(8). Older mtree(8)s don't
understand the format.
Solution: update and reinstall usr.sbin/mtree
Crunchgen has been updated to work via reach-over makefiles. Updating
is suggested before running a snapshot build
The new "ubcperf" code committed by Chuck Silvers removed
a header file, uvm/uvm_vnode.h. There may be stale .depend
files that still reference this file.
Solution: "make cleandir && make dependall" in affected
20010803: is now built from grep.texi using makeinfo. Since it
requires makeinfo v4.0, you need to install new texinfo before
building gnu/usr.bin/grep. To install new texinfo, please follow
the instruction described in 20010726 entry.
(i386 only): i386 kernel now uses new instructions like
`fxsave' which old gas doesn't understand. To build the
kernel successfully, you need to build and install a new toolchain,
(i.e., -t) or (temporarily) comment out "options I686_CPU"
from your kernel configuration until you rebuild your userland.
See 20011029 above and BUILDING file in this directory for more information.
[updated 20020630 since i386 gas moved when USE_NEW_TOOLCHAIN enabled]
Bootloader update on ELF platforms. DDB in kernels from before
this will be unable to read symbol tables provided by newer
Texinfo was updated to 4.0. To avoid failures when trying to
build the included texinfo files, do:
cd src/gnu/usr.bin/texinfo
make MKINFO=no dependall install
Enabled correct .init/.fini processing in crt0. The way this
was done was to change a -I directive to cc(1), which means
make(1) will have a stale dependency (it will be checking the
timestamp on the wrong "dot_init.h").
The symptom you will see is that new programs die with SIGSEGV
if you have a stale dependency.
Solution: "make cleandir" in both lib/csu and libexec/ld.elf_so
before starting your build.
A construct was added to uvm_page.h that uncovered a bug
in lint(1). If you get a warning/error about a non-portable
bitfield, update your lint(1) before proceeding.
Added named user/group to system. Need to hand add this in or builds
will break as mtree aborts early.
To work around add by hand:
to /etc/group and add:
named:*:14:14::0:0:Named pseudo-user:/var/named:/sbin/nologin
to master.passwd (use vipw for instance if doing by hand).
Now a make build should progress.
get/setprogname() added. Any hostprogs that may use this will need
to be bootstrapped manually until the host system is current.
Known problems: sys/arch/macppc/stand/fixcoff
usr.sbin/config (adding -DMAKE_BOOTSTRAP to
CFLAGS and rebuilding should work)
usr.sbin/mdsetimage - Build a static copy if
building a snapshot before fully bootstrapped.
prepare the code to compile with stricter gcc flags. in
particular start eliminating redundant declarations. Yacc
needs to be installed before make build.
introduce .if commands(target) in make(1). You need to
bring everything up-to-date first, then without installing
anything make and install in usr.bin/make, then proceed
with make build.
20010101: committed 20001230 had a bug which caused
afterinstall targets to run too soon; update again.
New share/mk files needed to support .WAIT in SUBDIR variables.
If you get make errors,
(cd share/mk; make install)
Also, PRINTOBJDIR has changed and is now used more heavily.
The `ca' device driver has been replaced by `ld'; although the
major and minor numbers haven't changed, you should update your /dev
The following make directives are obsoleted.
By default, RSA is built into libcrypto. IDEA and RC5 will not be
built into libcrypto. By using MKCRYPTO_{RC5,IDEA}, you can build
additional library libcrypto_{idea,rc5}.
Hints for a more successful build:
Build a new kernel first:
This makes sure that any new system calls or features
expected by the new userland will be present. This
helps to avoid critical errors when upgrading.
Use object directories:
This helps to keep stale object
files from polluting the build if a Makefile "forgets"
about one. It also makes it easier to clean up after
a build. It's also necessary if you want to use the
same source tree for multiple machines.
To use object directories:
a) cd /usr/src ; make cleandir
b) Add "OBJMACHINE=yes" to /etc/mk.conf
c) Add "MKOBJDIRS=yes" to /etc/mk.conf
d) cd /usr/src ; make build
Note that running "make obj" in a directory will create
in obj.$MACHINE directory.
Build to a DESTDIR:
This helps to keep old
installed files (especially libraries) from interfering
with the new build.
To build to a DESTDIR, set the DESTDIR environment
variable before running make build. It should be set to
the pathname of an initially empty directory.
Problems: you might need to update critical utilities
without using DESTDIR since nothing is executed
from what is installed in DESTDIR.
(See critical utils, below)
Build often:
This keeps critical utilities current enough to not choke
on any other part of the source tree that depends on up to
date functionality.
What to do if things don't work:
When things don't work there is usually a few things that commonly
should be done.
1) make includes
This should be done automatically by make build.
2) cd share/mk && make install
Again, automatically done by make build.
Failsafe rebuild of a small part of the tree:
To make sure you rebuild something correctly you want to do
something like the following:
1) Make sure the includes and .mk files are up to date.
2) Make sure any program used to build the particular
utility is up to date. (yacc, lex, etc...)
3) cd ...path/to/util...
make cleandir
rm ...all obj directories...
make cleandir # yes, again
make obj
make depend && make
Failsafe rebuild of the entire tree:
If you really want to make sure the source tree is clean and
ready for a build try the following. Note that sourcing /etc/mk.conf
(a make(1) Makefile) in this manner is not right, and will not work
for anyone who uses any make(1) features in /etc/mk.conf.
---cut here---
. /etc/mk.conf
if [ -z $NETBSDSRCDIR ] ; then
if [ \! -d $NETBSDSRCDIR ] ; then
echo Unable to find sources
exit 1
find $NETBSDSRCDIR -name \*.o -o -name obj.\* -o -name obj -exec rm \{\} \;
if [ -z $BSDOBJDIR ] ; then
if [ -d $BSDOBJDIR ] ; then
cd $NETBSDSRCDIR && make cleandir
---cut here---
Critical utilities:
Other problems and possible solutions:
Symptom:Unreasonable compiler errors.
Fix: Rebuild gnu/usr.bin/egcs
Symptom:Complaints involving a Makefile.
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/make:
cd usr.bin/make && make && make install
Or, a failsafe method if that doesn't work:
cd usr.bin/make && cc *.c */*.c -I . -o make && mv make /usr/bin
Fix: Make sure .mk files are up to date.
cd share/mk && make install
Symptom:Kernel `config' fails to configure any kernel, including GENERIC.
Fix: Rebuild usr.sbin/config
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/yacc
Fix: Rebuild usr.bin/lex
Fix: rm /usr/lib/libbfd.a
Symptom:Obsolete intermediate files are used during compilation
Fix: Try the following sequence of commands in the directory in question.
make cleandir; rm `make print-objdir`; make cleandir; make obj
(If you built the tree without "make obj" in the past, obsolete files
may remain. The command tries to clean everything up)
Symptom:.../sysinst/run.c:xx: warning: initialization from incompatible pointer type
Fix: Rebuild and install usr.bin/menuc
Symptom:mklocale not found during build in share/locale/ctype
Fix: Build and install usr.bin/mklocale
Symptom:undefined reference to `__assert13' or `__unsetenv13'
Fix: Rebuild and install lib/libc
Symptom:usr.sbin/config fails to build.
Fix: Try building with -DMAKE_BOOTSTRAP added to CFLAGS in Makefile.
Symptom:undefined reference to `getprogname' or `setprogname'
Fix: Rebuild and install lib/libc
Symptom:lint does not understand the '-X' option
Fix: May need to build & install libs with NOLINT=1 before rebuilding lint
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