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1 parent 5e7b135 commit 883d3e087cc96b8b7ed2cbede571e32445c7457e mycroft committed Mar 1, 1995
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-15 January 1990
-Paul Vixie
-
-Many people have contributed to cron. Many more than I can remember, in fact.
-Rich Salz and Carl Gutekunst were each of enormous help to me in V1; Carl for
-helping me understand UNIX well enough to write it, and Rich for helping me
-get the features right.
-
-John Gilmore wrote me a wonderful review of V2, which took me a whole year to
-answer even though it made me clean up some really awful things in the code.
-(According to John the most awful things are still in here, of course.)
-
-Paul Close made a suggestion which led to /etc/crond.pid and the mutex locking
-on it. Kevin Braunsdorf of Purdue made a suggestion that led to @reboot and
-its brothers and sisters; he also sent some diffs that lead cron toward compil-
-ability with System V, though without at(1) capabilities, this cron isn't going
-to be that useful on System V. Bob Alverson fixed a silly bug in the line
-number counting. Brian Reid made suggestions which led to the run queue and
-the source-file labelling in installed crontabs.
-
-Scott Narveson ported V2 to a Sequent, and sent in the most useful single batch
-of diffs I got from anybody. Changes attributable to Scott are:
- -> sendmail won't time out if the command is slow to generate output
- -> day-of-week names aren't off by one anymore
- -> crontab says the right thing if you do something you shouldn't do
- -> crontab(5) man page is longer and more informative
- -> misc changes related to the side effects of fclose()
- -> Sequent "universe" support added (may also help on Pyramids)
- -> null pw_shell is dealt with now; default is /bin/sh
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-.\"/* Copyright 1988,1990,1993 by Paul Vixie
-.\" * All rights reserved
-.\" *
-.\" * Distribute freely, except: don't remove my name from the source or
-.\" * documentation (don't take credit for my work), mark your changes (don't
-.\" * get me blamed for your possible bugs), don't alter or remove this
-.\" * notice. May be sold if buildable source is provided to buyer. No
-.\" * warrantee of any kind, express or implied, is included with this
-.\" * software; use at your own risk, responsibility for damages (if any) to
-.\" * anyone resulting from the use of this software rests entirely with the
-.\" * user.
-.\" *
-.\" * Send bug reports, bug fixes, enhancements, requests, flames, etc., and
-.\" * I'll try to keep a version up to date. I can be reached as follows:
-.\" * Paul Vixie <paul@vix.com> uunet!decwrl!vixie!paul
-.\" */
-.\"
-.\" $Id: crontab.1,v 1.1.1.1 1994/01/05 20:40:13 jtc Exp $
-.\"
-.TH CRONTAB 1 "29 December 1993"
-.UC 4
-.SH NAME
-crontab \- maintain crontab files for individual users (V3)
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-crontab [ -u user ] file
-.br
-crontab [ -u user ] { -l | -r | -e }
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.I Crontab
-is the program used to install, deinstall or list the tables
-used to drive the
-.IR cron (8)
-daemon in Vixie Cron. Each user can have their own crontab, and though
-these are files in /var, they are not intended to be edited directly.
-.PP
-If the
-.I allow
-file exists, then you must be listed therein in order to be allowed to use
-this command. If the
-.I allow
-file does not exist but the
-.I deny
-file does exist, then you must \fBnot\fR be listed in the
-.I deny
-file in order to use this command. If neither of these files exists, then
-depending on site-dependent configuration parameters, only the super user
-will be allowed to use this command, or all users will be able to use this
-command.
-.PP
-If the
-.I -u
-option is given, it specifies the name of the user whose crontab is to be
-tweaked. If this option is not given,
-.I crontab
-examines "your" crontab, i.e., the crontab of the person executing the
-command. Note that
-.IR su (8)
-can confuse
-.I crontab
-and that if you are running inside of
-.IR su (8)
-you should always use the
-.I -u
-option for safety's sake.
-.PP
-The first form of this command is used to install a new crontab from some
-named file or standard input if the pseudo-filename ``-'' is given.
-.PP
-The
-.I -l
-option causes the current crontab to be displayed on standard output.
-.PP
-The
-.I -r
-option causes the current crontab to be removed.
-.PP
-The
-.I -e
-option is used to edit the current crontab using the editor specified by
-the \s-1VISUAL\s+1 or \s-1EDITOR\s+1 environment variables. After you exit
-from the editor, the modified crontab will be installed automatically.
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-crontab(5), cron(8)
-.SH FILES
-.nf
-/var/cron/allow
-/var/cron/deny
-.fi
-.SH STANDARDS
-The
-.I crontab
-command conforms to IEEE Std1003.2-1992 (``POSIX''). This new command syntax
-differs from previous versions of Vixie Cron, as well as from the classic
-SVR3 syntax.
-.SH DIAGNOSTICS
-A fairly informative usage message appears if you run it with a bad command
-line.
-.SH AUTHOR
-.nf
-Paul Vixie <paul@vix.com>
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-.\"/* Copyright 1988,1990,1993,1994 by Paul Vixie
-.\" * All rights reserved
-.\" *
-.\" * Distribute freely, except: don't remove my name from the source or
-.\" * documentation (don't take credit for my work), mark your changes (don't
-.\" * get me blamed for your possible bugs), don't alter or remove this
-.\" * notice. May be sold if buildable source is provided to buyer. No
-.\" * warrantee of any kind, express or implied, is included with this
-.\" * software; use at your own risk, responsibility for damages (if any) to
-.\" * anyone resulting from the use of this software rests entirely with the
-.\" * user.
-.\" *
-.\" * Send bug reports, bug fixes, enhancements, requests, flames, etc., and
-.\" * I'll try to keep a version up to date. I can be reached as follows:
-.\" * Paul Vixie <paul@vix.com> uunet!decwrl!vixie!paul
-.\" */
-.\"
-.\" $Id: crontab.5,v 1.1.1.3 1994/01/12 18:36:59 jtc Exp $
-.\"
-.TH CRONTAB 5 "7 January 1994"
-.UC 4
-.SH NAME
-crontab \- tables for driving cron
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-A
-.I crontab
-file contains instructions to the
-.IR cron (8)
-daemon of the general form: ``run this command at this time on this date''.
-Each user has their own crontab, and commands in any given crontab will be
-executed as the user who owns the crontab. Uucp and News will usually have
-their own crontabs, eliminating the need for explicitly running
-.IR su (1)
-as part of a cron command.
-.PP
-Blank lines and leading spaces and tabs are ignored. Lines whose first
-non-space character is a pound-sign (#) are comments, and are ignored.
-Note that comments are not allowed on the same line as cron commands, since
-they will be taken to be part of the command. Similarly, comments are not
-allowed on the same line as environment variable settings.
-.PP
-An active line in a crontab will be either an environment setting or a cron
-command. An environment setting is of the form,
-.PP
- name = value
-.PP
-where the spaces around the equal-sign (=) are optional, and any subsequent
-non-leading spaces in
-.I value
-will be part of the value assigned to
-.IR name .
-The
-.I value
-string may be placed in quotes (single or double, but matching) to preserve
-leading or trailing blanks.
-.PP
-Several environment variables are set up
-automatically by the
-.IR cron (8)
-daemon.
-SHELL is set to /bin/sh, and LOGNAME and HOME are set from the /etc/passwd
-line of the crontab's owner.
-HOME and SHELL may be overridden by settings in the crontab; LOGNAME may not.
-.PP
-(Another note: the LOGNAME variable is sometimes called USER on BSD systems...
-on these systems, USER will be set also.)
-.PP
-In addition to LOGNAME, HOME, and SHELL,
-.IR cron (8)
-will look at MAILTO if it has any reason to send mail as a result of running
-commands in ``this'' crontab. If MAILTO is defined (and non-empty), mail is
-sent to the user so named. If MAILTO is defined but empty (MAILTO=""), no
-mail will be sent. Otherwise mail is sent to the owner of the crontab. This
-option is useful if you decide on /bin/mail instead of /usr/lib/sendmail as
-your mailer when you install cron -- /bin/mail doesn't do aliasing, and UUCP
-usually doesn't read its mail.
-.PP
-The format of a cron command is very much the V7 standard, with a number of
-upward-compatible extensions. Each line has five time and date fields,
-followed by a command. Commands are executed by
-.IR cron (8)
-when the minute, hour, and month of year fields match the current time,
-.I and
-when at least one of the two day fields (day of month, or day of week)
-match the current time (see ``Note'' below).
-.IR cron (8)
-examines cron entries once every minute.
-The time and date fields are:
-.IP
-.ta 1.5i
-field allowed values
-.br
------ --------------
-.br
-minute 0-59
-.br
-hour 0-23
-.br
-day of month 0-31
-.br
-month 0-12 (or names, see below)
-.br
-day of week 0-7 (0 or 7 is Sun, or use names)
-.br
-.PP
-A field may be an asterisk (*), which always stands for ``first\-last''.
-.PP
-Ranges of numbers are allowed. Ranges are two numbers separated
-with a hyphen. The specified range is inclusive. For example,
-8-11 for an ``hours'' entry specifies execution at hours 8, 9, 10
-and 11.
-.PP
-Lists are allowed. A list is a set of numbers (or ranges)
-separated by commas. Examples: ``1,2,5,9'', ``0-4,8-12''.
-.PP
-Step values can be used in conjunction with ranges. Following
-a range with ``/<number>'' specifies skips of the number's value
-through the range. For example, ``0-23/2'' can be used in the hours
-field to specify command execution every other hour (the alternative
-in the V7 standard is ``0,2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22''). Steps are
-also permitted after an asterisk, so if you want to say ``every two
-hours'', just use ``*/2''.
-.PP
-Names can also be used for the ``month'' and ``day of week''
-fields. Use the first three letters of the particular
-day or month (case doesn't matter). Ranges or
-lists of names are not allowed.
-.PP
-The ``sixth'' field (the rest of the line) specifies the command to be
-run.
-The entire command portion of the line, up to a newline or %
-character, will be executed by the user's login shell or by the shell
-specified in the SHELL variable of the cronfile.
-Percent-signs (%) in the command, unless escaped with backslash
-(\\), will be changed into newline characters, and all data
-after the first % will be sent to the command as standard
-input.
-.PP
-Note: The day of a command's execution can be specified by two
-fields \(em day of month, and day of week. If both fields are
-restricted (ie, aren't *), the command will be run when
-.I either
-field matches the current time. For example,
-.br
-``30 4 1,15 * 5''
-would cause a command to be run at 4:30 am on the 1st and 15th of each
-month, plus every Friday.
-.SH EXAMPLE CRON FILE
-.nf
-
-# use /bin/sh to run commands, no matter what /etc/passwd says
-SHELL=/bin/sh
-# mail any output to `paul', no matter whose crontab this is
-MAILTO=paul
-#
-# run five minutes after midnight, every day
-5 0 * * * $HOME/bin/daily.job >> $HOME/tmp/out 2>&1
-# run at 2:15pm on the first of every month -- output mailed to paul
-15 14 1 * * $HOME/bin/monthly
-# run at 10 pm on weekdays, annoy Joe
-0 22 * * 1-5 mail -s "It's 10pm" joe%Joe,%%Where are your kids?%
-23 0-23/2 * * * echo "run 23 minutes after midn, 2am, 4am ..., everyday"
-5 4 * * sun echo "run at 5 after 4 every sunday"
-.fi
-.SH SEE ALSO
-cron(8), crontab(1)
-.SH EXTENSIONS
-When specifying day of week, both day 0 and day 7 will be considered Sunday.
-BSD and ATT seem to disagree about this.
-.PP
-Lists and ranges are allowed to co-exist in the same field. "1-3,7-9" would
-be rejected by ATT or BSD cron -- they want to see "1-3" or "7,8,9" ONLY.
-.PP
-Ranges can include "steps", so "1-9/2" is the same as "1,3,5,7,9".
-.PP
-Names of months or days of the week can be specified by name.
-.PP
-Environment variables can be set in the crontab. In BSD or ATT, the
-environment handed to child processes is basically the one from /etc/rc.
-.PP
-Command output is mailed to the crontab owner (BSD can't do this), can be
-mailed to a person other than the crontab owner (SysV can't do this), or the
-feature can be turned off and no mail will be sent at all (SysV can't do this
-either).
-.SH AUTHOR
-.nf
-Paul Vixie <paul@vix.com>
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