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MTurk Manage

mturk-manage.html reproduces some of the basic functionality offered by the Mange HITs individually option removed from the Amazon Mechanical Turk requester interface in December 2017.

This tool is offered without warranty.

The tool broadly replicates the functionality and layout of the discontinued interface, and is designed to be familiar to those who have previous experience managing HITs.

There is nothing to install. The interface runs locally in the browser, and has only three external dependencies, the Amazon AWS SDK, jQuery and jQuery UI, and AlaSQL, which are loaded automatically.



This tool uses a small number of carefully chosen third-party libraries, which are loaded automatically. To minimise the security implications of automatically downloading and including third-party code, all external dependencies include an SHA-512 integrity property to allow the browser to ensure they have not been tampered with.

To minimise the risk of your credentials being leaked, it is recommended that this tool is used with a browser that supports the Subresource Integrity mechanism. The integrity of external resources is currently validated by most major browsers.

For security reasons, using copies hosted on a web-server is not recommended as they may be subject to tampering and increase the likelihood of your security credentials being intercepted and stolen.

While the management console does not store credentials, or send them to any third-party, you accept all liability for the security of your access credentials when using them with this tool.

Additional guidance on limiting the access of your credentials is offered in the Login section.


Download mturk-manage.html to your local file storage, and open the file in your browser.

The interface runs directly on your computer and untrusted copies, including copies hosted on web-servers, should not be used.


The login page allows you to enter your API key and API secret as used to create and manage tasks. You will need to enter your AWS access key ID and secret access key. e.g.

  • Sample access key ID: AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE
  • Sample secret access key: wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY

These credentials are examples only, reproduced from the Amazon Mechanical Turk Getting Started Guide, and are non-functional.

These credentials are not the username and password used to login at However, your will have likely already generated appropriate security credentials for use with the tools and frameworks currently being used to create your HITs.

The management interface allows you to select either the sandbox, or the production (live) Mechanical Turk service. You may return to the login view by clicking on the Change link in the header at any time.

If your credentials are not valid, you will be returned to the login page to try again. In addition to incorrect credentials, login may fail for a variety of reasons including not having an AmazonMechanicalTurk access policy attached to the credentials or, when attempting to access the sandbox, not being registered to do so. Please check the browser console to determine why your login may have failed.

While this tool does not store your credentials, it is advisable to create an additional user and access keys to more easily manage access to your Amazon Mechanical Turk account, and other AWS services.

Identity and Access Management (IAM)

Rather than using your AWS root security credentials, you can create additional users and access keys using the AWS security console. In the event that such credentials are compromised, they can be revoked individually. The use of IAM credentials is recommended.

Instructions for creating and managing IAM users are available from the Amazon Mechanical Turk Getting Started Guide.

If you do not intend to use the interface to modify HITs or assignments in any way (e.g. extend, expire, approve, reject) consider attaching the AmazonMechanicalTurkReadOnly access policy to the credentials, rather than AmazonMechanicalTurkFullAccess.

  • Note: your IAM user must be using the 2017 version of the AmazonMechanicalTurkReadOnly policy (or newer) to allow the ListHits permission.

Manage HITs

Once you have logged in, the console lists all HITs currently available for the requester.

Loading activity is indicated using an overlay and icon, in the centre of the screen.

Finding & Viewing Tasks

Tasks can be filtered using the status links or the search box. The Active status link shows tasks which require further human interaction, the Waiting status link shows just tasks which are waiting for approval or rejection, and the Ended status link shows tasks for which no further interaction is required and may be deleted. These filters update the presented list of tasks, and summary data detailed below, immediately.

  • Search text is case-insensitive and space-separated. The search will match the full HitId or any other terms visible in each row.
  • To match multi-word phrases, use double quotes ("). e.g. the search my task will match my second task but "my task" will not.
  • Search terms can be negated by prefixing them with a single dash (-). e.g. the search -"a task" will hide all rows containing the phrase a task.
  • The special keywords status/active, status/waiting, and status/ended can be used to filter by task status.

You may refresh the active view at any time by clicking the in-page refresh icon.

The ID column shows the truncated HitId. Selecting this link displays the task specific and Assignment management options, detailed in the Manage Assignments section. Hovering over this link displays the full HitId, HitTypeId, and HitGroupId for this task. Despite the truncated display, either a partial or complete *Id can be used as the search parameter.

For externally hosted tasks, using an ExternalQuestion, or MTurk hosted HTMLQuestion tasks a (Preview) link is displayed next to the task title, allowing the task to be easily accessed and viewed. The task is linked as it would be from Amazon Mechanical Turk (including additional URL parameters such as assignmentId=ASSIGNMENT_ID_NOT_AVAILABLE).

For tasks which have assignments available an (MTurk) link is shown, allowing the task to be easily found and viewed on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Where only pending assignments remain, the link is displayed in grey to indicate that assignments may not be available.

Multi-HIT Actions

At the overview level, the interface offers the following actions which affect all visible HITs. These actions respect the Active filter or currently set search value.

  • Download Data: download a CSV file of answer data grouped by and including QuestionIdentifier information and Approval/Rejection information for all visible HITs. Note that timestamps are exported in ISO format.
    • Amazon: download a CSV file of answer data in the original Amazon format, for compatibility. Note that all timestamps are PST, see Known Issues for more details.
  • Delete: delete all visible HITs.
    • Note: only HITs which are Unassignable, expired or having no available tasks, and for which all assignments have been reviewed may be deleted. Any visible HITs which are ineligible will prevent this action.
    • Note: a download of all data is forced before final confirmation and actual removal of the HITs.

HIT Status

For ease of recognition, HITs are displayed with various background colours depending on HIT status.

  • Assignable HITs have outstanding available assignments and are shown with a white background.
  • Unassignable HITs are complete HITs that require no further user interactions and are shown with a mid-grey background.
  • Unassignable HITs with unreviewed, submitted assignments are shown with a light-grey background.
    • This is approximately equivalent to tasks in the Reviewable or Reviewing state.

Task Assignments

Tasks have a number of assignments, Amazon describes the possible status of these assignments as follows:

  • Pending assignments for this HIT that are being previewed or have been accepted by Workers
  • Available assignments for this HIT that are available for Workers to accept
  • Completed assignments for this HIT that have been approved or rejected

The tool also shows the number of Submitted assignments. These are assignments which have been submitted, but not yet reviewed. When present, these counts are shown parenthesised next to the Pending figures.

Summary Data

Summative summary data is shown above and to the right of the table, for all currently displayed tasks.

Summary data indicates the following data, indicated in the following format T: 0 / P: 0 (+0) / A: 0 (+0) / C: 0

  • T number of HITs displayed
  • P pending assignments, being previewed or currently accepted by workers
    • (+0) assignments which have been submitted but are yet to be reviewed
  • A available assignments
    • (+0) assignments which would be available had the HIT not already expired, or that will become available if the HIT is extended
  • C completed assignments

Hovering the mouse pointer over the relevant letter or parenthesised number in the summary will show tool-tips in most modern browsers.

Summary data is updated in real-time, respecting the currently selected filter (All or Active) or entered search parameters.

Manage Assignments

The Manage Assignments interface includes both HIT specific management actions and assignment management actions.

You can return the HIT overview list at any time by clicking the Manage HITs header.

Task Level Actions

At the task level, the interface offers the following actions.

  • Download Data: download a CSV file of answer data grouped by and including QuestionIdentifier information and Approval/Rejection information. Note that timestamps are exported in ISO format.
    • Amazon: download a CSV file of answer data in the original Amazon format, for compatibility. Note that all timestamps are PST, see Known Issues for more details.
  • Add Time: extend an active HIT, or reactivate an expired one. The extension period is specified as an integer number in either minutes, hours (default), days, or weeks depending on the drop down selection.
    • Note: reactivated task expiration is subject to a small error, see Known Issues for more information.
  • Add Assignments: add additional assignments to the HIT.
    • Note: not all HITs may have additional assignments created, see Known Issues for more information.
  • Expire: expire an Assignable HIT.
  • Delete: delete the HIT.
    • Note: only HITs which are Unassignable, expired or having no available tasks, and for which all assignments have been reviewed may be deleted.

Assignment Level Actions

Assignments can be filtered by status, Submitted, Approved, Rejected, or All. By default, only the submitted assignments are shown as these require requester attention.

You can refresh the list of assignments at any time by clicking the in-page refresh icon.

The ID column shows the truncated AssignmentId. Hovering over this link displays the full AssignmentId.

Assignments are displayed with various background colours depending on their status.

  • Submitted assignments are displayed with a white background.
  • Approved assignments are displayed with a light-grey background.
  • Rejected assignments are displayed with a light-pink background.

The Time column shows the times of relevant action for each assignment. Note that where Approval is indicated in italics, this is the expected automatic approval time should the requester not explicitly reject the assignment.

At the assignment level, the interface offers the following actions.

  • Reject: reject an assignment.
    • Note: the interface requires the requester to provide feedback to the worker, and rejections must be carried out individually. This limitation is intentional and designed to encourage judicious use of the rejection process.
  • Approve Selected: approve the visible selected assignments.
    • Assignments are selected by checking the checkbox to the leftmost column.
    • All visible assignments may be selected at once by using the checkbox in the column header.
    • Previously rejected assignments may be approved from the Rejected or All views.
  • Bonus: Send a bonus payment to an individual worker.
    • Bonus payments can only be sent to workers who have carried out tasks in the last six months and in relation to a specific assignment.
    • Bonus payments require a bonus value, in US dollars, and a message explaining the reason for the payment.
      • Note that bonus payments are subject to an Amazon fee, similar to the fee charged on the assignment itself.
    • A payment reference is available which must be unique for each payment in a 24 hour period. This defaults to the last six characters of the WorkerId and the last six characters of the AssignmentId, separated by a hyphen (-). In the event that a bonus payment fails, it can be resent with the same reference without the risk of making the payment twice. Should you wish to send a second bonus to the same worker, for the same assignment, in a 24 hour period the reference should be changed.
  • Message: see the Other Actions section below.
  • Message Displayed: Send a message to all currently displayed workers.
    • This action respects the current filter option. For example, to message only Approved workers, select the Approved filter before choosing this action.
    • All: Send a message to all workers for this HIT.
      • This action is equivalent to selecting the All filter and choosing the Message Displayed action.

Other Actions

In addition to actions which strictly relate to existing tasks, the interface also offers Other Actions. These are activated using the Other Actions button on the Manage HITs overview page.

Message Worker

This action allows the requester to send a message to an individual worker for whom they have previously accepted or rejected an assignment.

Messages can be sent to multiple workers at the same time, the WorkerId should be space or comma (,) separated, subject to a limit of 100 workers (See Limitations for more details).

Messages require a subject (of up to 200 characters) and message content (up to 4,096 characters).

Note: The MTurk API does not indicate failure to send a message, and messages to a non-existent or an uncontactable WorkerId may appear reported as Sent.

One-off Payment

This action allows you to create a one-off payment task for a given WorkerId. One-off Payment tasks allow you to quickly create a make-up or compensation task for a worker where they have completed a previous task for you but have been unable to submit due to a technical error.

The action creates a Mechanical Turk hosted task unique to the worker. When accepted the task verifies the WorkerId, attempts to automatically submit, and pays the listed reward value automatically after the specified delay. Note that these payments are subject to an Amazon fee, as with any other task.

To prevent unauthorised workers from claiming the reward, unauthorised workers are identified and not permitted to submit the task. Further, the interface creates a unique qualification for the worker, and requires this qualification to find, preview, and accept the task.

While every effort has been made to ensure unauthorised workers will be unable to access and submit the task, no liability is accepted for misdirected payments.

Once you have created a One-off Payment task, the URL is provided and should be sent to the worker, explaining that they must accept and submit the task to receive their payment. Typically this is done by replying to an email from the worker and their initial enquiry.

Note: The Message Worker functionality is typically unsuitable for this reply as the requester is unlikely to have accepted or rejected work. The MTurk API does not notify the requester of failure to send a message, and may incorrectly indicate that the message was Sent. In instances where the requester has rejected work, an approval is usually the requested remedy of the worker and should be preferred.

Once created, you may view the task in the management interface, as with any other task. The assignment is submitted with a number of parameters for auditing purposes as follows:

  • parameter-assignmentId
    • AssignmentId as specified by MTurk.
  • parameter-hitId
    • HitId as specified by MTurk.
  • parameter-turkSubmitTo
    • Submission URL as specified by MTurk.
  • parameter-workerId
    • WorkerId as specified by MTurk.
  • javascript-clientTime
    • The reported client time of the worker's browser, in ISO format (UTC).
  • javascript-userAgent
    • The reported user-agent string of the worker's browser.
  • javascript-windowLocation
    • The URL of the task, as hosted by MTurk.
  • javascript-documentReferrer
    • The URL which brought the worker to the task.
  • javascript-clientIp
    • The IP address of the worker.

These items are displayed in the interface as the Answer for the task and are included in any downloaded data files.

Technical Implementation

For reference, the following described the process used to create One-off Payment tasks.

  1. A custom "Worker ID is WorkerId" QualificationTypeId is created.
  2. The QualificationTypeId is associated with the WorkerId.
  3. A HIT is created, as follows:
  • Type: HTMLQuestion
    • Hosted by MTurk.
    • Validates WorkerId is as specified.
    • Provides Submit button and automatically attempts to submit.
    • Automatically approves once submitted, after the specified delay.
  • Requires the QualificationTypeId created.
    • QualificationTypeId: Exists
    • ActionsGuarded : DiscoverPreviewAndAccept

Manage Qualifications

This action provides an interface for creating, managing, and removing qualifications.

Note: All actions in this section of the interface are effected immediately.

Viewing Qualifications

On opening the interface, all qualification types owned by the requester are listed. This list can be filtered using the search box as for Finding & Viewing Tasks.

The truncated QualificationTypeId is shown in the leftmost column, and hovering displays the full QualificationTypeId.

A list of assigned workers can be seen by clicking the truncated QualificationTypeId. See Viewing Qualified Workers for further details.

A complete list of qualifications owned by the requester can be downloaded using the Download All button. Note: this download ignores any currently specified search filter.

The list of qualification types can be refreshed using the in-dialogue refresh icon.

Creating Qualifications

New qualification types can be created by choosing the Create Qualification button next to the search box in the main Manage Qualifications interface.

The Create dialogue box prompts for a Name, Description, and list of comma separated Keywords. The name of the qualification must be unique among qualifications owned by the requester. If the Description is not populated, the title text is repeated in the description. Keywords are optional.

All qualifications created with this interface add an additional keyword mturk-manage-qualification/*. This is for internal management purposes.

Note: this action may take a short period to take effect. The QualificationTypeID is returned immediately and is entered in the search box. As such, the interface may indicate no matching qualification types. The listing can be refreshed using the in-dialogue refresh icon.

Removing Qualifications

Qualification types can be removed by clicking the Remove button in the right most column of the main Manage Qualifications interface.

Note: this action may take a short period to take effect.

Viewing Qualified Workers

On clicking the truncated QualificationTypeId in the main Manage Qualifications interface the list of assigned workers is displayed. This list can be filtered using the search box as for Finding & Viewing Tasks.

In addition, workers can be filtered by the granted value by prefixing the desired value with the special keyword value/. For example, value/5 would filter for workers with a currently granted value beginning with 5, i.e. this would also match a value of (for example) 57. To limit to the precise value a second forward slash (/) can be added, e.g. value/5/. This would only match workers with a currently specified value of 5.

The list of workers assigned this qualification can be refreshed using the in-dialogue refresh icon.

The Copy Shown option above the ID column allows the currently displayed list of workers to be copied to the clipboard.

A complete list of qualified workers can be downloaded using the Download All button. Note: this download ignores any currently specified search filter.

Assigning Qualifications

Workers may be assigned the qualification by choosing the Add Workers button. Each WorkerId should be separated by a space, comma, or new line.

The qualification may be assigned with an associated integer value using the Value box. The default value is 1. In the event that this value needs to be updated, can be effected by reassigning the qualification to the worker with the correct value. Warning: Non-integer values are automatically assigned with the value 0.

Note: Each worker is assigned the qualification individually. While any number of workers may be added, large numbers of workers may take several seconds to process. Please wait for the activity indicator to complete.

In the event of an error, such as a WorkerId which could not be processed, the action terminates. Due to the nature of assigning the qualifications, this action is not atomic and any WorkerId up to that point will have been assigned as requested. To aid in resuming the operation a list of unprocessed IDs, excluding the offending WorkerId, is provided. This list of unprocessed IDs may be copied using the Copy All link, ready to be pasted into a subsequent Add Workers request.

Revoking Qualifications

In the event that a worker has been added in error, or you wish to revoke a qualification, qualifications can be unassigned using the appropriate Remove button in the right-most column of the worker listing.


This action provides a quick link to the appropriate requester page at to manage additional worker actions including blocking workers and viewing currently assigned qualifications.

Known Issues

  • When extending an expired task, the expected expiry time indicated may be slightly inaccurate.
    • This appears to be an issue with the API. While the interface specifies the precise expiration time in the API call, Amazon appears not to respect this for currently expired HITs. Extensions to currently active HITs are typically precise and as indicated.
  • Tasks created with fewer then 10 assignments may not be extended to have 10 or more assignments.
  • Amazon formatted CSV export using the same timestamp format as the original Amazon Mechanical Turk exports, however all timestamps are exported as PST. Previously, Amazon would report the timestamp in PST (-8 hours) or PDT (-7 hours) as was appropriate to Seattle, Washington. The exported timestamps are calculated using a negative 8 hour offset from UTC, and are always reported in PST regardless of the current DST offset of Amazon HQ.
    • ISO format example: 2018-01-23T08:27:02.000Z
    • Amazon format example: Tue Jan 23 12:27:02 PST 2018


This tool has been developed rapidly, and primarily with the needs of the author in mind.

The interface has only undergone limited testing, primarily with ExternalQuestion type HITs and with the Locale Qualification.

  • HITs which do not include an ExternalURL or of the type HTMLQuestion will not have a (Preview) link.
  • Only three built in qualifications are identified: Locale, to country level; Masters; and Adult. Other qualifications are indicated as a count only.

By default, dates and times are shown in the interface in the browser reported timezone using toLocaleDateString(). You may also select GMT (UTC), ISO (UTC) or Amazon formats. When exporting data timestamps are reported using ISO format (UTC) or Amazon equivalent format (PST, as detailed above).

Where existing functionality was retained in the official interface, it may not be replicated here. For example, blocking workers may still be done from the official requester workers page.

To minimise the number of API calls, the interface caches the HIT and Assignment data for 5 minutes. If you wish to manually refresh the results, you may click the in-page refresh icon to the right of the search field and assignment filters.

The tool loads all relevant data on each refresh, and does not paginate the results. When managing several hundred tasks or assignments, there may be a small delay in loading the data from the API. Loading activity is indicated using a loading overlay and icon. The tool has been tested, and is functional, with in excess of 500 active tasks loaded.

A maximum of 100 workers may be messaged at once.

  • This is the result of a limitation of Amazon Mechanical Turk. For more information see the Amazon Mechanical Turk API Reference.
  • Should you have a HIT that has more than 100 workers whom you wish to message, this can be accomplished by downloading the data and pasting the WorkerIds into the Worker IDs box in groups of up to 100. Each WorkerId should be separated using a space or comma (,) character.
    • Pasting into the text box directly from Excel or another spreadsheet application should be sufficient.

The parameters specified in (Preview) links include the additional parameter source=manage-hits-console to aid in identification of previews generated by this tool.

When set to pay Immediately, the One-off Payment tasks may take a few minutes to actually approve. This is a limitation of MTurk, which appears to use a periodic rather than event driven approach to making these payments.


Change Log


  • Added value/ keyword filtering for qualifications.
  • Switched to a fully modal loading icon, to avoid issues with modal windows from jQuery UI.
  • Added explicit login error message.
  • Minor documentation updates.
  • Updated AWS SDK to 2.744.0 (was 2.742.0)


  • Renamed Worker Actions to Other Actions
  • Added Manage Qualifications option to Other Actions
  • Search is now preserved when returning to Manage mode.
  • Updated copyright dates.
  • Updated jQuery to 3.5.1 (was 3.4.1)
  • Updated AlaSQL to 0.6.3 (was 0.5.1)
  • Updated AWS SDK to 2.742.0 (was 2.585.0)


  • Fixed typo in one-off payment task.
  • Added onbeforeunload exit check.
  • Updated URL and license for Reload icon.
  • Updated copyright dates.
  • Updated jQuery to 3.4.1 (was 3.3.1)
  • Updated AlaSQL to 0.5.1 (was 0.4.5)
  • Updated AWS SDK to 2.585.0 (was 2.224.1)


  • Removed default action for One-off Payments and explicitly require JavaScript.
  • Added active HIT check to Multi-HIT Delete button (#1).
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.224.1 (was 2.223.1)


  • Added Worker Actions functionality.
    • Message Worker: (added button) send a message any previously approved or rejected WorkerId.
    • One-off Payment: create a make-up or compensation task for any WorkerId.
    • Visit link to for managing worker block status and qualifications.
  • Added timezone display option to login screen.
    • Default to local timezone, as reported by the browser.
    • Note: only affects displayed times, downloaded data is still in ISO or Amazon format.
  • Added check to date processing, to catch undefined dates.
  • Added expected automatic approval time in italics.
  • Added basic Rate Limit check to high-frequency actions.
  • Added Preview for HITs with a HTMLQuestion.
  • Automatically reset view on mode change.
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.223.1 (was 2.212.1)


  • Fixed overview level actions regression caused by introducing tool tips.
  • Moved activity indicator to float.
  • Fixed minor graphical glitch.


  • Added HitId, HitTypeId, HitGroupId, and AssignmentId hover-over tool tips.
  • Minor documentation changes.
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.212.1 (was 2.211.1)


  • Switched to MIT License.
    • Removed cc-by-sa 3.0 licensed CSV export code.
    • Added external dependency on AlaSQL (0.4.5).
  • Improved search functionality.
    • Search now matches all terms, but in any order, and allows quoting.
  • Added manual refresh functionality.
    • Lengthened default refresh to 5 minutes.
  • Added SRI hashes to all third-party external resources.
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.211.1 (was 2.210.0)


  • Fixed bug in overview Download functionality where headers may be misaligned in cases where column names differ between visible tasks.


  • Added overview level actions: Download, Amazon, and Delete.
  • Added account balance to header.
  • Added usage note advising against web-deployment.
  • Corrected documentation for Add Time functionality.
  • Expanded documentation for Bonus and Message functionality.
  • Added note about older versions of the AmazonMechanicalTurkReadOnly policy not allowing the ListHits operation.
  • Fixed minor errors in documentation.
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.210.0 (was 2.188.0)


  • Avoid calling the API where empty results sets will occur.
    • Only request additional HIT and Assignment results if the API returns the maximum allowed in the previous call.
  • Replaced all alert and prompt pop-ups with jQuery UI dialogs to allow for richer user interactions.
    • Added external dependency on jQuery UI (1.12.1)
  • Added iframe previews for ExternalQuestion HITs
    • Added simulated acceptance of tasks.
  • Added worker management features
    • Bonus: Pay workers bonus
    • Message: Send messages to workers
  • Bumped AWS SDK to 2.188.0 (was 2.186.0)


  • Initial release


  • Investigate alternative login solutions.
  • Possible pagination of tasks and assignments.
  • Improve search functionality.
  • Extend and improve qualifications information.
  • Possible task creation support.
    • Create one-off payment tasks.
  • Add worker contact and additional management options.
    • Possibly add Block functionality.
  • Provide iframe previews of tasks.
  • Allow direct access to a given HITId.


This tool is based on, includes, links to, or extends a number of additional resources. These are acknowledged here.


Copyright © 2018-2020 Jason T. Jacques


mturk-manage.html is released under the terms of the MIT License.

Ajax-loader.gif is public domain, as acknowledged above, and is included under such provision.

Reload icon is released under the CC0 Public Domain Dedication, as acknowledged above, and is included under such provision.

Externally loaded resources (AWS SDK, jQuery, jQuery UI, AlaSQL) are subject to their own licenses.


Browser-based Amazon Mechanical Turk management console




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