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\input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename bongo.info
@settitle Bongo Manual
@c %**end of header
@set LAST-UPDATED December 4, 2007
@copying
@noindent
Copyright @copyright{} 2007 Daniel Brockman@*
Copyright @copyright{} 2007 Daniel Jensen
@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU FDL''.
@end quotation
@end copying
@titlepage
@title Bongo Manual
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage
@contents
@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Bongo: (bongo). Flexible and usable media player for Emacs.
@end direntry
@ifnottex
@node Top
@top The Bongo Media Player
Bongo is a flexible and usable media player for GNU Emacs. This manual
describes how to use Bongo and some of how to customize and extend it.
The manual was last updated on @value{LAST-UPDATED}.
@insertcopying
@end ifnottex
@menu
* Introduction:: An overview of basic Bongo concepts.
Using Bongo
* Inserting Tracks:: Populating your buffers with media.
* Playing Tracks:: Listening to audio and watching video.
* Enqueuing Tracks:: Picking tracks from libraries into playlists.
* Marking Tracks:: Choosing sets of tracks to operate on.
* Saving and Loading:: Storing Bongo buffers in files.
Advanced Topics
* The P/R/M Convention:: Convention used by many Bongo commands.
* Action Tracks:: Special tracks that perform actions.
Hacking Bongo
* Internals:: How Bongo works and how to hack it.
* Writing Backends:: Telling Bongo how to use other players.
Copying Bongo
* GNU GPL:: Conditions for copying and changing Bongo.
* GNU FDL:: The license for this documentation.
@detailmenu
Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:
Basics
* Tracks:: Media files, URIs, audio CDs, DVDs, etc.
* Backends:: External applications used to play tracks.
* Players:: External processes actually playing tracks.
* Playlists:: Buffers holding tracks to be played.
* Libraries:: Buffers holding entire media collections.
Playback
* Pausing:: Temporarily stopping playback.
* Stopping:: Permanently stopping playback.
* Seeking:: Rewinding or fast-forwarding tracks.
* Volume:: Changing the volume of your sound card.
* Switching Tracks:: Playing the next or previous track.
* Playback Modes:: Choosing the order in which tracks are played.
* Sprinkle Mode:: Keeping playlists populated with random tracks.
@end detailmenu
@end menu
@node Introduction
@chapter Introduction
You are reading about Bongo, a flexible and usable media player for GNU
Emacs. Bongo is flexible because it does not assume that you want to do
things in a certain way.
On the other hand, its default settings and key bindings are good and
carefully thought-out. So Bongo is usable because it does not force you
to come up with your own way of doing things.
To open a Bongo buffer, use @kbd{M-x bongo @key{RET}}. To switch
between playlist and library, use the @kbd{h}
(@code{bongo-switch-buffers}) command. There are a few different ways
to go from here.
@itemize @bullet
@item
One way to use Bongo is to go to a playlist, insert some tracks, and
just play those tracks in some order (@pxref{Playing Tracks}).
@item
Another way is to insert a lot of tracks into a library, and pick out
some of them into a playlist (@pxref{Enqueuing Tracks}).
@item
Yet another way is to let Bongo continuously pick out fresh random
tracks from the library into the playlist (@pxref{Sprinkle Mode}).
@end itemize
Five ideas central to Bongo are @dfn{tracks}, which represent media
resources; @dfn{backends}, which are applications used to play media;
@dfn{players}, which are instances of backends; and @dfn{playlists} and
@dfn{libraries}, which are buffers used to organize tracks.
The following sections explain these basic ideas in turn.
@menu
* Tracks:: Media files, URIs, audio CDs, DVDs, etc.
* Backends:: External applications used to play tracks.
* Players:: External processes actually playing tracks.
* Playlists:: Buffers holding tracks to be played.
* Libraries:: Buffers holding entire media collections.
@end menu
@node Tracks
@section Tracks
Bongo is a media player; its job is to play things. The things that it
plays are called @dfn{tracks}. Bongo tracks can represent local audio
and video files, remote media streams (such as internet radio stations),
audio CD tracks and DVD chapters.
There are even tracks that perform arbitrary actions when played
(@pxref{Action Tracks}). Such tracks may be used, for example, to force
playback to stop at certain points in a playlist.
To insert a local file track into a playlist or library, use @kbd{i}.
Other kinds can be inserted using @kbd{I} (@pxref{Inserting Tracks}).
@node Backends
@section Backends
Instead of actually attempting to decode media files to produce sound
and display video, Bongo relies on external applications to do this.
The applications it uses for this purpose are called @dfn{backends}.
The term ``backend'' is used loosely to refer to either an external
application, or to the glue code in Bongo specific to that application,
or even to both the application and the glue code seen as a whole.
(This usage is quite natural and normally does not cause any confusion.)
Bongo currently ships with backends for VLC, @samp{mpg123},
@samp{ogg123}, @samp{speexdec}, TiMidity and MikMod. Unfortunately,
only VLC and @samp{mpg123} support fast-forwarding and rewinding
(@pxref{Seeking}).
@node Players
@section Players
Instances of backends (@pxref{Backends}) are called @dfn{players} (or
@dfn{backend players}). Every time a track starts playing, a new
backend player is created. Multiple players may exist simultaneously.
For example, while there is only one VLC @emph{backend}, there may be
multiple VLC @emph{players} at any given time --- each probably playing
a different track.
Every player has an associated process (which does the actual work of
playing) and an associated buffer (from which it may be controlled).
Bongo buffers designed to hold players are called @dfn{playlist
buffers}.
@node Playlists
@section Playlists
Playlist buffers, or simply @dfn{playlists}, are buffers specifically
designed to hold and control backend players (@pxref{Players}).
Playlists have a number of commands used to control playback: play the
track at point (@key{RET}), pause/resume playback (@key{SPC}), go to the
next track (@kbd{C-c C-n}), go to the previous track (@kbd{C-c C-p}),
stop playback (@kbd{C-c C-s}), and so on (@pxref{Playing Tracks}).
Some backends support fast-forwarding and rewinding (@pxref{Seeking}).
@node Libraries
@section Libraries
@cindex nearest playlist buffer
Library buffers, or simply @dfn{libraries}, are buffers specifically
designed to hold tracks for convenient insertion into playlist buffers.
After inserting tracks into a library (using @kbd{i} and @kbd{I}), you
may enqueue into the nearest playlist using the @kbd{e} command (which
appends to the end of the playlist) and the @kbd{E} command (which
inserts into the playlist directly after the currently playing track).
All the commands for controlling playback (@pxref{Playlists}) are also
available in library buffers, where they simply control playback in the
most recently used, or @dfn{nearest}, playlist buffer. Similarily, if
you attempt to play a track in a library (using @key{RET}), the track
will be enqueued into the nearest playlist and played there instead.
You may prefer to use Bongo without library buffers, simply inserting
tracks directly into playlists. There is no problem with that:
libraries are provided only as a convenience.
@node Inserting Tracks
@chapter Inserting Tracks
@table @kbd
@item i
Insert a file or directory (@code{bongo-insert-file}).
@item I
Insert one or more non-file tracks (@code{bongo-insert-special}).
@end table
If you try to insert a directory with subdirectories, Bongo will ask
whether you want to recursively insert them too. To get rid of this
question, customize the variable
@code{bongo-insert-whole-directory-trees}.
The @kbd{I} command prompts for the type of thing to insert --- an
action track, a CD, a URI, or the contents of a PLS or an M3U playlist.
These special insert commands are described individually below.
@table @kbd
@item I action @key{RET}
Insert an action track (@code{bongo-insert-action}).
This command prompts for an Emacs Lisp form to be evaluated when the
action track is played. @ref{Top, Emacs Lisp Reference,, elisp, GNU
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}
@item I cd @key{RET}
Insert one track for each audio track on the CD in the tray
(@code{bongo-insert-cd}). If the track information is unavailable,
insert a single track representing the entire disc.
The customization group @code{bongo-audio-cd} covers this feature.
@ref{Easy Customization,,, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}
@item I uri @key{RET}
Insert a URI track (@code{bongo-insert-uri}).
This commands prompts for the URI (or URL) and for an optional title.
If specified, the title will be displayed instead of the URI. For most
internet radio streams, leaving out the title enables the radio station
to specify a title on its own.
@item I playlist @key{RET}
Insert the contents of a PLS or an M3U playlist file
(@code{bongo-insert-playlist-contents}).
The type of the playlist is determined by its file extension:
@itemize @bullet
@item
@samp{pls} for PLS playlists;
@item
@samp{m3u} or @samp{m3u8} (forces UTF-8) for M3U playlists.
@end itemize
While PLS files are rather complex, M3U files are simple lists of file
names (one per line, except that lines starting with @samp{#} are
comments).
@end table
@node Playing Tracks
@chapter Playing Tracks
To play some particular track, move point to it and hit @key{RET} (or
click on it). Doing that on a section header will just collapse the
section; to play a section, use @kbd{g} (@code{bongo-play}).
@table @asis
@item @key{RET}
Play the track at point. If point is on a section header, collapse or
expand the section.
@item @kbd{g}
Play the track or section at point, unless there is an active region
or marking (@pxref{Marking Tracks}).
In choosing which tracks and sections to play, this command follows
the prefix/region/marking (@pxref{The P/R/M Convention}), so it may
not actually always play the track or section at point.
@item @kbd{1 g}
Play the track or section at point, even if there is an active region
or marking.
@end table
Since libraries are not meant to play tracks, the @key{RET} and @kbd{g}
commands enqueue into the nearest playlist and play there instead when
used in a library buffer.
@menu
* Pausing:: Temporarily stopping playback.
* Stopping:: Permanently stopping playback.
* Seeking:: Rewinding or fast-forwarding tracks.
* Volume:: Changing the volume of your sound card.
* Switching Tracks:: Playing the next or previous track.
* Playback Modes:: Choosing the order in which tracks are played.
* Sprinkle Mode:: Keeping playlists populated with random tracks.
@end menu
@node Pausing
@section Pausing Playback
@cindex @key{SPC}
@findex bongo-pause/resume
It is often useful to temporarily pause playback without killing the
backend process. The @key{SPC} command toggles the paused state of the
currently playing track.
@table @asis
@item @key{SPC}
Pause or resume playback (@code{bongo-pause/resume}).
@end table
@cindex signals
Some backends (e.g., VLC and @samp{mpg123}) support pausing by talking
to the backend process through a pipe. For backends where this is not
possible (due to lack of any such remote control facility), pausing is
implemented using @samp{SIGTSTP} (or @samp{SIGSTOP}) and @samp{SIGCONT},
which forces the entire process to stop (just as @samp{C-z} would in a
job control shell).
@node Seeking
@section Fast-forwarding and Rewinding
@cindex fast-forwarding
@cindex rewinding
Some backends support fast-forwarding and rewinding --- often referred
to as @dfn{seeking} forward or backward. This allows you to skip over
some part of a track or go back and play some part of it again.
@table @asis
@item @kbd{f}, @kbd{b}
Fast-forward or rewind the current track 1 second (or @var{n} seconds,
given a prefix argument @var{n}).
@item @kbd{F}, @kbd{B}, @kbd{S-@key{right}}, @kbd{S-@key{left}}
Fast-forward or rewind 3 seconds (or 3 @var{n} seconds).
@item @kbd{M-F}, @kbd{M-B}, @kbd{M-S-@key{right}}, @kbd{M-S-@key{left}}
Fast-forward or rewind 10 seconds (or 10 @var{n} seconds).
@item @kbd{C-M-F}, @kbd{C-M-B}, @kbd{C-M-S-@key{right}}, @kbd{C-M-S-@key{left}}
Fast-forward or rewind 60 seconds (or @var{n} minutes) @footnote{While
@kbd{C-M-B} and @kbd{C-M-F} cannot be typed in all terminals, you may
use the following commands as substitutes:
@table @asis
@item @kbd{60 b}, @kbd{60 f}
Seek 60 seconds.
@item @kbd{C-u C-u C-u b}, @kbd{C-u C-u C-u f}
Seek 64 seconds.
@end table}.
@end table
To seek a specific number of seconds, give a numeric prefix argument to
@kbd{f} or @kbd{b}. (For example, @kbd{27 f} would seek 27
seconds forward.)
To seek to a specific position, use the @kbd{s} (@code{bongo-seek})
command with a numeric prefix argument. (For example, @kbd{80 s} would
jump directly to 1 minute and 20 seconds from the beginning of the
track.) Giving just @kbd{C-u} as the prefix argument to @kbd{s} will
prompt for the position to seek to and allows you to say things like
``1:20''.
Unfortunately, not all backends support seeking. Among the ones in the
Bongo distribution, VLC and @samp{mpg123} do support it, whereas
@samp{ogg123}, @samp{speexdec}, TiMidity and MikMod do not.
@subsection Seek Mode
Typing @kbd{s} (@code{bongo-seek}) without any prefix argument takes you
into a special mode dedicated to seeking. In this mode, all the seeking
commands work as usual, but you can drop most of the @kbd{S-} modifiers.
For example, @kbd{S-@key{left}} still works, but @key{left} does the
same thing.
@table @asis
@item @kbd{s}
Enter seek mode. Use @key{RET} or @kbd{C-g} to exit.
@end table
In seek mode, playback status is shown continuously in the echo area,
and the following extra key bindings are available:
@table @asis
@item @kbd{a}, @kbd{e}, @key{home}, @key{end}
These are shortcuts for @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{bongo-replay-current}) and
@kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{bongo-skip-current}).
@item @kbd{p}, @kbd{n}, @kbd{r}
These are shortcuts for @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{bongo-play-previous}),
@kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{bongo-play-next}), and @kbd{C-c C-r}
(@code{bongo-play-random}).
@end table
Seek mode uses its own command loop, so you cannot do anything other
than seeking (and a handful of other things) until you quit seek mode.
If you don't like this, set @code{bongo-seek-electric-mode} to
@code{nil}.
@node Stopping
@section Stopping Playback
The @kbd{C-c C-s} command stops playback and kills the backend process.
However, if nothing is being played, then @kbd{C-c C-s} instead
@emph{starts} playing the first track.
@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-s}
Start or stop playback (@code{bongo-start/stop}).
@item @kbd{C-u C-c C-s}
Switch to start/stop playback mode, in which playback stops whenever any
track finishes playing (@pxref{Playback Modes}).
@item @kbd{1 C-c C-s}
Insert a stopping action track (@pxref{Action Tracks}) immediately after
the current track. (``Stop after playing this track.'')
@item @kbd{5 C-c C-s}
Insert a stopping action track five tracks below the current track.
(``Stop after playing these five tracks.'')
@item @kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-s}
Insert a stopping action track at point.
@end table
@node Switching Tracks
@section Switching Tracks
The @kbd{C-c C-n}, @kbd{C-c C-p} and @kbd{C-c C-r} commands are used to
start playing another track (stopping any currently playing track first).
@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-n}
Play the next track (@code{bongo-play-next}).
@item @kbd{C-c C-p}
Play the previous track (@code{bongo-play-previous}).
@item @kbd{C-c C-r}
Play a random track (@code{bongo-play-random}).
@item @kbd{5 C-c C-n}
Skip four tracks downwards and play the one after that.
@item @kbd{5 C-c C-p}
Skip four tracks upwards and play the one before that.
@end table
Though @kbd{0 C-c C-n} may be used to play the current track again, it
is easier to use the @kbd{C-c C-a} command.
@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-a}
Play the current track again (@code{bongo-replay-current}).
@end table
Just as the regular @kbd{C-a} command in Emacs has a counterpart
@kbd{C-e}, so @kbd{C-c C-a} has a counterpart @kbd{C-c C-e}.
@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-c C-e}
Skip the current track (@code{bongo-skip-current}). Proceed according
to the current playback mode (@pxref{Playback Modes}).
@end table
@node Playback Modes
@section Playback Modes
Whenever a track finishes playing (or is skipped using @kbd{C-c C-e}),
normally, the next track in the playlist will be played. This is the
default behavior, but it can be changed. The way Bongo chooses which
track to play next is called the @dfn{playback mode}.
There are five built-in playback modes. Switching to one of them is
easily done by giving a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument to the corresponding
playback command:
@table @kbd
@item C-u C-c C-n
In @dfn{progressive playback}, the default playback mode, tracks are
played in the usual top-to-bottom order.
@item C-u C-c C-p
In @dfn{regressive playback}, tracks are played in reverse order,
bottom-to-top.
@item C-u C-c C-a
In @dfn{repeating playback}, the same track is played over and over.
@item C-u C-c C-s
In @dfn{start/stop playback}, playback is stopped after each track.
For example, this is often nice when your playlist contains videos that
would otherwise keep popping up, covering your Emacs frame.
@item C-u C-c C-r
In @dfn{random playback}, tracks are played in random order. For an
alternative to random playback mode, @ref{Sprinkle Mode}.
@end table
When a non-progressive playback mode is in effect, this is indicated in
the mode line:
@itemize @bullet
@item
@samp{Playlist[reverse]} for regressive playback;
@item
@samp{Playlist[repeat]} for repeating playback;
@item
@samp{Playlist[stop]} for start/stop playback;
@item
@samp{Playlist[random]} for random playback;
@item
@samp{Playlist[custom]} for custom playback modes (to change this for
some specific custom playback mode, put the string to be used as the
indicator on the @code{bongo-playback-mode-indicator} property of the
symbol naming the function used for @code{bongo-next-action}).
@end itemize
@node Sprinkle Mode
@section Sprinkle Mode
@node Volume
@section Volume
The volume control facility is provided by the @samp{volume} library
@footnote{http://www.brockman.se/software/volume-el/}.
The @kbd{v} (@code{volume}) command
@node Enqueuing Tracks
@chapter Enqueuing Tracks
The following commands are used to enqueue tracks into the playlist:
@table @kbd
@item e
Append a track to the end of the playlist.
@item E
Insert a track into the playlist directly after the currently playing
track (in order to have it played next).
@end table
@node Marking Tracks
@chapter Marking Tracks
@node Saving and Loading
@chapter Saving and Loading
@node The P/R/M Convention
@chapter The Prefix/Region/Marking Convention
Many Bongo commands follow a certain convention, called the P/R/M
convention, which makes it possible to predict which objects a command
will operate on.
Normally, a command operates on the track or section under point.
However, if any tracks are marked (@pxref{Marking Tracks}), the
command operates on those instead---unless there is an active region,
in which case the command operates on the tracks and sections in the
region. All of this may be overridden by giving a numeric prefix
argument, which tells the command how many tracks or sections to
operate on, counting from point. Most commands allow negative prefix
arguments for operating on tracks before point.
Note that giving a prefix argument of `1' tells a command to operate
on the track or section under point regardless of any marking or
region that may be in effect.
@table @kbd
@item &
Force the next command to use the P/R/M convention
(@code{bongo-universal-prefix/region/marking-object-command}).
@item M-&
Force the next command to use the P/R/M convention, but to operate
only on tracks---never on sections
(@code{bongo-universal-prefix/region/marking-track-command}).
@end table
@node Action Tracks
@chapter Action Tracks
@node Internals
@chapter Internals
@node Writing Backends
@chapter Writing Backends
The predefined backends support commonly used media files and players.
To use other programs with Bongo, you can define your own custom
backends. This involves some Emacs Lisp, but simple non-interactive
backends are easy to define. @xref{Top, Emacs Lisp Reference,, elisp,
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, for help with writing Lisp.
As an example, here is a minimal backend for displaying PostScript and
PDF files with Evince, a GNOME document viewer. We don't need
interactive controls for Evince; we only want to launch it.
@lisp
(eval-after-load 'bongo
'(define-bongo-backend evince
:matcher '(local-file "ps" "pdf")))
@end lisp
@code{define-bongo-backend} is used to define backends. The definition
is wrapped inside an @code{eval-after-load} form so that it will
execute after Bongo has loaded. You don't need this if you load Bongo
at startup, but it will work in both cases.
The first argument names the backend. As a side effect, it also
defines the executable file @file{evince} to be used with the backend.
In most cases, this default behavior is fine. If you want to
customize the invocation of Evince, use @kbd{M-x customize-group
@key{RET} bongo-evince @key{RET}}. The @code{define-bongo-backend}
macro automatically defines customizable options for this.
The second argument, the keyword @code{:matcher}, and the third
argument define a matcher for the backend. Files with suffixes
@file{ps} and @file{pdf} can now be inserted in Bongo buffers, and
Bongo will select the new backend to display them. The Evince backend
is now ready for use.
For information on how to write more advanced backend definitions,
refer to the description of @code{define-bongo-backend} below.
Examples can be found in @file{bongo.el}.
@defmac define-bongo-backend name [keyword value]@dots{}
Defines a new backend named @var{name}. More specifically, defines
variables used by the backend, a constructor function that will be
invoked to play tracks with the backend and optionally matchers and
translators for the backend. The default definitions can be
overridden with keyword arguments. The @var{name} argument is not
evaluated.
@code{define-bongo-backend} accepts the following optional keywords:
@table @code
@item :pretty-name @var{string}
The name used to described the backend to the user. The default is to
use @var{name}.
@item :matcher @var{matcher}
A backend matcher expression. This keyword can be supplied multiple
times, specifying multiple matchers. There is no default matcher.
@item :file-name-transformer @var{expression}
A file name transformer for the backend, to be used by
@code{bongo-transform-file-name} to manipulate file names. This
keyword can be supplied multiple times, specifying multiple
transformers. There is no default file name transformer.
@item :program-name @var{string}
The file name of the executable program for the backend. The default
is the symbol-name of @var{name}.
@item :program-name-variable @var{variable}
The variable specifying the backend executable. The default defines a
variable @code{bongo-@var{name}-program-name}, bound to the value of
@var{program-name}.
@item :program-arguments @var{list}
A list of program arguments, to be processed by
@code{bongo-evaluate-program-arguments}. The default is
@code{(@var{extra-program-arguments-variable} bongo-extra-arguments
bongo-file-name)}.
@item :extra-program-arguments-variable @var{variable-name}
The name of the variable specifying extra command line arguments to
pass to the program. This variable will be defined with
@code{defcustom}, if its name is mentioned in @var{program-arguments}.
The default defines a variable
@code{bongo-@var{name}-extra-arguments}.
@item :extra-program-arguments @var{list}
The initial value for the @var{extra-program-arguments-variable}
variable. The default is @code{nil}.
@item :constructor @var{function}
The function that will create and invoke the backend player. It must
be a function of two arguments, a file name and a list of extra
arguments. It shall return a player, represented by a cons
@code{(name . properties)} where @code{properties} is an alist.
The default defines a function @code{bongo-start-@var{name}-player}
which calls @code{bongo-start-simple-player}.
@item :pause-signal @var{sigcode}
The signal used with @code{signal-process} to pause the player
process. The default is @code{SIGSTOP}.
@end table
@end defmac
@node GNU GPL
@appendix GNU General Public License
@center Version 2, June 1991
@display
Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display
@unnumberedsec Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software---to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
@iftex
@unnumberedsec TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@center TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end ifnottex
@enumerate 0
@item
This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The ``Program,'' below,
refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term ``modification.'') Each licensee is addressed as ``you.''
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
@item
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
@item
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
@enumerate a
@item
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
@item
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
@item
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
@end enumerate
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
@item
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
@enumerate a
@item
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
@item
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
@item
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
@end enumerate
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
@item
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
@item
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
@item
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.
@item
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
@item
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
@item
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.
@item
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
@iftex
@heading NO WARRANTY
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@center NO WARRANTY
@end ifnottex
@item
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW@. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS'' WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU@. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
@item
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
@end enumerate
@iftex
@heading END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@center END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end ifnottex
@page
@unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
@smallexample
@var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
Copyright (C) @var{yyyy} @var{name of author}
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
@end smallexample
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
@smallexample
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) @var{yyyy} @var{name of author}
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
for details.
@end smallexample
The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
@samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
@smallexample
@group
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
(which makes passes at compilers) written
by James Hacker.
@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
@end group
@end smallexample
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
@node GNU FDL
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@center Version 1.2, November 2002
@display
Copyright @copyright{} 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display
@sp 1
@enumerate 0
@item
PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
functional and useful document ``free'' in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of ``copyleft,'' which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
@sp 1
@item
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
work under the conditions stated herein. The ``Document,'' below,
refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
licensee, and is addressed as ``you.'' You accept the license if you
copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
under copyright law.
A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.
A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
them.
The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
Sections then there are none.
The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, that is suitable for revising the document
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
of text. A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque.''
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
processing tools are not generally available, and the
machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
processors for output purposes only.
The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose
title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Acknowledgements,''
``Dedications,'' ``Endorsements,'' or ``History.'') To ``Preserve the Title''
of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
no effect on the meaning of this License.
@sp 1
@item
VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.
@sp 1
@item
COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a computer-network location from which the general network-using
public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
@sp 1
@item
MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
@enumerate A
@item
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
@item
List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
unless they release you from this requirement.
@item
State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.
@item
Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
@item
Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.
@item
Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
@item
Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
@item
Include an unaltered copy of this License.
@item
Preserve the section Entitled ``History,'' Preserve its Title, and add
to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.
@item
Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on. These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
@item
For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications,''
Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
and/or dedications given therein.
@item
Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
@item
Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements.'' Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.
@item
Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements''
or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
@item
Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
@end enumerate
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements,'' provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
@sp 1
@item
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements,''
and any sections Entitled ``Dedications.'' You must delete all sections
Entitled ``Endorsements.''
@sp 1
@item
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
@sp 1
@item
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
aggregate.
@sp 1
@item
TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions
of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements,''
``Dedications,'' or ``History,'' the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
title.
@sp 1
@item
TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
@sp 1
@item
FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
@end enumerate
@unnumberedsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:
@smallexample
@group
Copyright (C) @var{year} @var{your name}.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
Free Documentation License.''
@end group
@end smallexample
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
replace the ``with...Texts.'' line with this:
@smallexample
@group
with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with the
Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
@var{list}.
@end group
@end smallexample
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
to permit their use in free software.
@bye
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