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/* OpenProcessing Tweak of *@*http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/10435*@* */
//Made into a class by Jack Kalish www.jackkalish.com
/* !do not delete the line above, required for linking your tweak if you re-upload */
// Optical Flow 2010/05/28
// Hidetoshi Shimodaira shimo@is.titech.ac.jp 2010 GPL
import processing.video.*;


class OpticalFlow {

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // parameters for desktop pc (high performance)

  int gs=20; // grid step (pixels)
  float predsec=1.0; // prediction time (sec): larger for longer vector

  ///////////////////////////////////////////////
  // use video
  PImage video;

  PFont font;
  color[] vline;
  MovieMaker movie;

  // capture parameters
  int fps=30;


  int wscreen, hscreen, as, gw, gh, gs2;
  float df, xFlowSum;

  // regression vectors
  float[] fx, fy, ft;
  int fm=3*9; // length of the vectors

  // regularization term for regression
  float fc=pow(10, 8); // larger values for noisy video

  // smoothing parameters
  float wflow=0.1; // smaller value for longer smoothing

  // switch
  boolean flagseg=false; // segmentation of moving objects?
  boolean flagball=false; // playing ball game?
  boolean flagmirror=false; // mirroring image?
  boolean flagflow=false; // draw opticalflow vectors?
  boolean flagsound=true; // sound effect?
  boolean flagimage=true; // show video image ?
  boolean flagmovie=false; // saving movie?

  // internally used variables
  float ar, ag, ab; // used as return value of pixave
  float[] dtr, dtg, dtb; // differentiation by t (red,gree,blue)
  float[] dxr, dxg, dxb; // differentiation by x (red,gree,blue)
  float[] dyr, dyg, dyb; // differentiation by y (red,gree,blue)
  float[] par, pag, pab; // averaged grid values (red,gree,blue)
  float[] flowx, flowy; // computed optical flow
  float[] sflowx, sflowy; // slowly changing version of the flow
  int clockNow, clockPrev, clockDiff; // for timing check

  float ballpx, ballpy, ballvx, ballvy, ballgy, ballsz, ballsz2, ballfv, ballhv, ballvmax;

  OpticalFlow(Capture v) {
    wscreen=width;
    hscreen=height;

    // grid parameters
    as=gs*2; // window size for averaging (-as,...,+as)
    gw=wscreen/gs;
    gh=hscreen/gs;
    gs2=gs/2;
    df=predsec*fps;

    // playing ball parameters
    ballpx=wscreen*0.5; // position x
    ballpy=hscreen*0.5; // position y
    ballvx=0.0; // velocity x
    ballvy=0.0; // velocity y
    ballgy=0.05; // gravitation
    ballsz=30.0; // size
    ballsz2=ballsz/2;
    ballfv=0.8; // rebound factor
    ballhv=50.0; // hit factor
    ballvmax=10.0; // max velocity (pixel/frame)

    // screen and video
    video = v;
    // font
    font=createFont("Verdana", 10);
    textFont(font);
    // draw
    ellipseMode(CENTER);

    // arrays
    par = new float[gw*gh];
    pag = new float[gw*gh];
    pab = new float[gw*gh];
    dtr = new float[gw*gh];
    dtg = new float[gw*gh];
    dtb = new float[gw*gh];
    dxr = new float[gw*gh];
    dxg = new float[gw*gh];
    dxb = new float[gw*gh];
    dyr = new float[gw*gh];
    dyg = new float[gw*gh];
    dyb = new float[gw*gh];
    flowx = new float[gw*gh];
    flowy = new float[gw*gh];
    sflowx = new float[gw*gh];
    sflowy = new float[gw*gh];
    fx = new float[fm];
    fy = new float[fm];
    ft = new float[fm];
    vline = new color[wscreen];
  }


  // calculate average pixel value (r,g,b) for rectangle region
  void pixave(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) {
    float sumr, sumg, sumb;
    color pix;
    int r, g, b;
    int n;

    if (x1<0) x1=0;
    if (x2>=wscreen) x2=wscreen-1;
    if (y1<0) y1=0;
    if (y2>=hscreen) y2=hscreen-1;

    sumr=sumg=sumb=0.0;
    for (int y=y1; y<=y2; y++) {
      for (int i=wscreen*y+x1; i<=wscreen*y+x2; i++) {
        pix=video.pixels[i];
        b=pix & 0xFF; // blue
        pix = pix >> 8;
        g=pix & 0xFF; // green
        pix = pix >> 8;
        r=pix & 0xFF; // red
        // averaging the values
        sumr += r;
        sumg += g;
        sumb += b;
      }
    }
    n = (x2-x1+1)*(y2-y1+1); // number of pixels
    // the results are stored in static variables
    ar = sumr/n;
    ag=sumg/n;
    ab=sumb/n;
  }

  // extract values from 9 neighbour grids
  void getnext9(float x[], float y[], int i, int j) {
    y[j+0] = x[i+0];
    y[j+1] = x[i-1];
    y[j+2] = x[i+1];
    y[j+3] = x[i-gw];
    y[j+4] = x[i+gw];
    y[j+5] = x[i-gw-1];
    y[j+6] = x[i-gw+1];
    y[j+7] = x[i+gw-1];
    y[j+8] = x[i+gw+1];
  }

  // solve optical flow by least squares (regression analysis)
  void solveflow(int ig) {
    float xx, xy, yy, xt, yt;
    float a, u, v, w;

    // prepare covariances
    xx=xy=yy=xt=yt=0.0;
    for (int i=0;i<fm;i++) {
      xx += fx[i]*fx[i];
      xy += fx[i]*fy[i];
      yy += fy[i]*fy[i];
      xt += fx[i]*ft[i];
      yt += fy[i]*ft[i];
    }

    // least squares computation
    a = xx*yy - xy*xy + fc; // fc is for stable computation
    u = yy*xt - xy*yt; // x direction
    v = xx*yt - xy*xt; // y direction

    // write back
    flowx[ig] = -2*gs*u/a; // optical flow x (pixel per frame)
    flowy[ig] = -2*gs*v/a; // optical flow y (pixel per frame)
  }

  void updateImage(PImage i) {
    video = i;
  }

  void draw() {
    rectMode(CENTER);

    // clock in msec
    clockNow = millis();
    clockDiff = clockNow - clockPrev;
    clockPrev = clockNow;

    // mirror
    if (flagmirror) {
      for (int y=0;y<hscreen;y++) {
        int ig=y*wscreen;
        for (int x=0; x<wscreen; x++)
          vline[x] = video.pixels[ig+x];
        for (int x=0; x<wscreen; x++)
          video.pixels[ig+x]=vline[wscreen-1-x];
      }
    }

    // 1st sweep : differentiation by time
    for (int ix=0;ix<gw;ix++) {
      int x0=ix*gs+gs2;
      for (int iy=0;iy<gh;iy++) {
        int y0=iy*gs+gs2;
        int ig=iy*gw+ix;
        // compute average pixel at (x0,y0)
        pixave(x0-as, y0-as, x0+as, y0+as);
        // compute time difference
        dtr[ig] = ar-par[ig]; // red
        dtg[ig] = ag-pag[ig]; // green
        dtb[ig] = ab-pab[ig]; // blue
        // save the pixel
        par[ig]=ar;
        pag[ig]=ag;
        pab[ig]=ab;
      }
    }

    // 2nd sweep : differentiations by x and y
    for (int ix=1;ix<gw-1;ix++) {
      for (int iy=1;iy<gh-1;iy++) {
        int ig=iy*gw+ix;
        // compute x difference
        dxr[ig] = par[ig+1]-par[ig-1]; // red
        dxg[ig] = pag[ig+1]-pag[ig-1]; // green
        dxb[ig] = pab[ig+1]-pab[ig-1]; // blue
        // compute y difference
        dyr[ig] = par[ig+gw]-par[ig-gw]; // red
        dyg[ig] = pag[ig+gw]-pag[ig-gw]; // green
        dyb[ig] = pab[ig+gw]-pab[ig-gw]; // blue
      }
    }

    // 3rd sweep : solving optical flow
     xFlowSum = 0;
    
    for (int ix=1;ix<gw-1;ix++) {
      int x0=ix*gs+gs2;
      for (int iy=1;iy<gh-1;iy++) {
        int y0=iy*gs+gs2;
        int ig=iy*gw+ix;

        // prepare vectors fx, fy, ft
        getnext9(dxr, fx, ig, 0); // dx red
        getnext9(dxg, fx, ig, 9); // dx green
        getnext9(dxb, fx, ig, 18);// dx blue
        getnext9(dyr, fy, ig, 0); // dy red
        getnext9(dyg, fy, ig, 9); // dy green
        getnext9(dyb, fy, ig, 18);// dy blue
        getnext9(dtr, ft, ig, 0); // dt red
        getnext9(dtg, ft, ig, 9); // dt green
        getnext9(dtb, ft, ig, 18);// dt blue

        // solve for (flowx, flowy) such that
        // fx flowx + fy flowy + ft = 0
        solveflow(ig);

        // smoothing
        sflowx[ig]+=(flowx[ig]-sflowx[ig])*wflow;
        sflowy[ig]+=(flowy[ig]-sflowy[ig])*wflow;
        
         xFlowSum += sflowx[ig];
      }
    }

    // 4th sweep : draw the flow
    if (flagseg) {
      noStroke();
      fill(0);
      for (int ix=0;ix<gw;ix++) {
        int x0=ix*gs+gs2;
        for (int iy=0;iy<gh;iy++) {
          int y0=iy*gs+gs2;
          int ig=iy*gw+ix;

          float u=df*sflowx[ig];
          float v=df*sflowy[ig];



          float a=sqrt(u*u+v*v);
          if (a<2.0) rect(x0, y0, gs, gs);
        }
      }
    }


  // int flowSum = gw * gh;


    // 5th sweep : draw the flow
    if (flagflow) {
      for (int ix=0;ix<gw;ix++) {
        int x0=ix*gs+gs2;
        for (int iy=0;iy<gh;iy++) {
          int y0=iy*gs+gs2;
          int ig=iy*gw+ix;

          float u=df*sflowx[ig];
          float v=df*sflowy[ig];

        // xFlowSum += u;
         // yFlow += v;

          // draw the line segments for optical flow
          float a=sqrt(u*u+v*v);
          if (a>=2.0) { // draw only if the length >=2.0
            float r=0.5*(1.0+u/(a+0.1));
            float g=0.5*(1.0+v/(a+0.1));
            float b=0.5*(2.0-(r+g));
            stroke(255*r, 255*g, 255*b);
            line(x0, y0, x0+u, y0+v);
          }
        }
      }
    }

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // ball movement : not essential for optical flow
   /* if (flagball) {
// updatating position and velocity
ballpx += ballvx;
ballpy += ballvy;
ballvy += ballgy;

// reflecton
if (ballpx<ballsz2) {
ballpx=ballsz2;
ballvx=-ballvx*ballfv;
}
else if (ballpx>wscreen-ballsz2) {
ballpx=wscreen-ballsz2;
ballvx=-ballvx*ballfv;
}
if (ballpy<ballsz2) {
ballpy=ballsz2;
ballvy=-ballvy*ballfv;
}
else if (ballpy>hscreen-ballsz2) {
ballpy=hscreen-ballsz2;
ballvy=-ballvy*ballfv;
}

// draw the ball
fill(50, 200, 200);
stroke(0, 100, 100);
ellipse(ballpx, ballpy, ballsz, ballsz);

// find the grid
int ix= round((ballpx-gs2)/gs);
int iy= round((ballpy-gs2)/gs);
if (ix<1) ix=1;
else if (ix>gw-2) ix=gw-2;
if (iy<1) iy=1;
else if (iy>gh-2) iy=gh-2;
int ig=iy*gw+ix;

// hit the ball by your movement
float u=sflowx[ig];
float v=sflowy[ig];
float a=sqrt(u*u+v*v);
u=u/a;
v=v/a;
if (a>=2.0) a=2.0;
if (a>=0.3) {
ballvx += ballhv*a*u;
ballvy += ballhv*a*v;
float b=sqrt(ballvx*ballvx+ballvy*ballvy);
if (b>ballvmax) {
ballvx = ballvmax*ballvx/b;
ballvy = ballvmax*ballvy/b;
}
}

}*/

    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // recording movie
    if (flagmovie) movie.addFrame();

    // print information (not shown in the movie)
    fill(255, 0, 0);
    // if (flagmovie) text("rec", 40, 10);
  }

 /* void keyPressed() {
if (key==' ') { // kick the ball
ballvy = -3.0;
}
else if (key=='b') { // show the ball on/off
flagball=!flagball;
if (flagball) { // put the ball at the center
ballpx=wscreen*0.5;
ballpy=hscreen*0.5;
ballvx=ballvy=0.0;
}
}
}*/
  
  //GETTER AND SETTERS
  float getXFlow(){
    float xsum = 0;
    for(int i=0; i<sflowx.length; i++){
     xsum += sflowx[i];
    }
    xsum /= sflowx.length;
    return xsum;
  }
}
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